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Encyclopedia > Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels

Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels, leader of the NSDAP's propaganda machine, later the minister in charge of all Nazi Propaganda and Hitler's successor as the Chancellor of Germany. Image File history File links Goebbels. ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi Germany was noted for its psychologically powerful propaganda, much of which was centered around Jews, who were consistently alleged to be the source of Germanys economic problems. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ...

In office
April 30 – May 1, 1945
Preceded by Adolf Hitler
Succeeded by Lutz von Krosigk

Reich Minister for Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda
In office
January 30, 1933 – April 30, 1945
Preceded by None (Ministry formed in January 1933.)
Succeeded by Werner Naumann

Born October 29, 1897(1897-10-29)
Rheydt, Germany
Died May 1, 1945 (aged 47)
Political party NSDAP
Spouse Magda Goebbels
Occupation Politician
Religion Roman Catholic
Signature Joseph Goebbels's signature

Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: [ˈɡœbl̩s]; English generally IPA: /ˈɡɝbəlz/) (October 29, 1897May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. He was one of Adolf Hitler's closest associates and most devout followers. Goebbels was known for his zealous, energetic oratory and virulent anti-Semitism. The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Hitler redirects here. ... Count Johann Ludwig Lutz Schwerin von Krosigk (Johann Ludwig Graf Schwerin von Krosigk), EK, (August 22, 1887 – March 4, 1977) was a German politician. ... The Ministry for Propaganda Building. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Werner Naumann (June 16, 1909 Guhrau, Schlesien - October 25, 1982, Lüdenscheid) was an official in Joseph Goebbels Propagandaministerium in Nazi Germany. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Rheydt is a borough of the German city Mönchengladbach, located in the west of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Johanna Maria Magdalena Goebbels, (November 11, 1901 – May 1, 1945) was the wife of Nazi Germanys Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...

Goebbels earned a Ph.D. from Heidelberg University in 1921, on the basis of a doctoral thesis on 18th century romantic drama; he then went on to work as a journalist and later a bank clerk and caller on the stock exchange. He also wrote novels and plays, but they were refused by publishers. Goebbels came into contact with the Nazi Party in 1923 during the French occupation of the Ruhr and became a member in 1924. He was appointed Gauleiter (regional party leader) of Berlin. In this position, he put his propaganda skills to full use, combating the local socialist and communist parties with the help of Nazi papers and the paramilitary SA. By 1928 he had risen in the party ranks to become one of its most prominent members. Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (German Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; also known as simply University of Heidelberg) was established in the town of Heidelberg in the Rhineland in 1386. ... Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... The Occupation of the Varun Balan in 1923 and 1924, by troops from France and Belgium was a response to the failure of German Weimar Republic under Cuno to pay reparations in the aftermath of World War I. Initiated by French Prime Minister Raymond Poincaré, the invasion took place on... A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The seal of SA SA propaganda poster. ...

After the Nazis seized power in 1933, he was appointed propaganda minister. One of his first acts was to order the burning of books by Jewish or anti-Nazi authors at Bebelplatz and he proceeded to gain full control of every outlet of information in Germany. Following his appointment, his attacks on German Jews became ever fiercer and culminated in the Kristallnacht in 1938, the first open and unrestrained pogrom unleashed by the Nazis. Book burning is the practice of ceremoniously destroying by fire one or more copies of a book or other written material. ... The Bebelplatz looking north towards the Unter den Linden. ... Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ...

An early and avid supporter of war, Goebbels did everything in his power to prepare the German people for a large scale military conflict. During the Second World War, he increased his power and influence through shifting alliances with other Nazi leaders. By late 1943, the war had turned into a disaster for the Axis powers, but this only spurred Goebbels to intensify the propaganda by urging the Germans to accept the idea of total war and mobilization. Goebbels remained with Hitler in Berlin to the very end, and following the Führer's suicide he was the second person to serve as the Third Reich's Chancellor—albeit for one day. In his final hours Goebbels allowed his wife, Magda, to kill their six young children. Shortly after, Goebbels and his wife both committed suicide. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Johanna Maria Magdalena Goebbels, (November 11, 1901 – May 1, 1945) was the wife of Nazi Germanys Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels. ... The Goebbels family on October 29, 1942: (back row) Hilde, Harald Quandt and Helga; (front row) Helmut, Holde, Magda, Heide, Joseph and Hedda. ...


Early life

Goebbels was born in Rheydt, an industrial town south of Mönchengladbach (of which it is now part) on the edge of the Ruhr district.[1] His family were Catholics of modest means, his father a factory clerk, his mother originally a farmhand. He had four siblings: Konrad (1895–1949), Hans (1893–1947), Elisabeth (1901–1915) and Maria (born 1910, later Maria Kimmich). Goebbels was educated at a local grammar school, where he completed his Abitur (school leaving examination) in 1916. Beginning in childhood, he had a deformed right leg, the result either of club foot or osteomyelitis.[2] He wore a metal brace and special shoe to compensate for his shortened leg, but nevertheless walked with a limp all his life. The limp, along with his height (1.65 m; 5 ft 5 in), exposed him to ridicule and humiliation in a society that worshipped physical prowess. As a result of these conditions, he was rejected for military service in World War I, which he bitterly resented. He later frequently misrepresented himself as a war veteran and misrepresented his disability as a war wound.[3] The nearest he came to military service was as an "office soldier" from June 1917 to October 1917 in Rheydt's "Patriotic Help Unit".[4] Rheydt is a borough of the German city Mönchengladbach, located in the west of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Mönchengladbach is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ... Abitur (from Latin abire = go away, go off) is the word commonly used in Finland and Germany for the final exams young adults (aged 18, 19 or 20) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. ... Club foot. ... Osteomyelitis is an infection of bone, usually caused by pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Goebbels compensated for his physical frailty with intellectual accomplishments. He originally intended to train as a priest, but after growing distant from his Catholic faith[5] he studied literature and philosophy at universities in Bonn, Würzburg, Freiburg im Breisgau and Heidelberg, where he wrote his doctoral thesis on the 18th century romantic novelist Wilhelm von Schütz. His two most influential teachers, Friedrich Gundolf and his doctoral supervisor at Heidelberg Max Freiherr von Waldberg, were Jews. His intelligence and political astuteness were generally acknowledged even by his enemies.[6] Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... Würzburg Residenz. ... This article is about Freiburg in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... For other uses, see Heidelberg (disambiguation). ... Friedrich Gundolf , born Friedrich Leopold Gundelfinger (1880 – 1931) was a German-Jewish literary scholar and poet. ...

After completing his doctorate in 1921, Goebbels worked as a journalist and tried for several years to become a published author. He wrote a semi-autobiographical novel, Michael, two verse plays, and quantities of romantic poetry. In these works, he revealed the psychological damage his physical limitations had caused. "The very name of the hero, Michael, to whom he gave many autobiographical features, suggests the way his self-identification was pointing: a figure of light, radiant, tall, unconquerable," and above all 'To be a soldier! To stand sentinel! One ought always to be a soldier,' wrote Michael-Goebbels."[7] Goebbels found another form of compensation in the pursuit of women, a lifelong compulsion which he indulged "with extraordinary vigour and a surprising degree of success."[8] His diaries reveal a long succession of affairs, before and after his marriage in 1931 to Magda Quandt, with whom he had six children. Johanna Maria Magdalena Goebbels, (November 11, 1901 – May 1, 1945) was the wife of Nazi Germanys Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels. ... The Goebbels family on October 29, 1942: (back row) Hilde, Harald Quandt and Helga; (front row) Helmut, Holde, Magda, Heide, Joseph and Hedda. ...

Goebbels was embittered by the frustration of his literary career: his novel did not find a publisher until 1929 and his plays were never staged. He found an outlet for his desire to write in his diaries, which he began in 1923 and continued for the rest of his life.[9] He later worked as a bank clerk and a caller on the stock exchange.[10] During this period, he read avidly and formed his political views. Major influences were Friedrich Nietzsche, Oswald Spengler and most importantly Houston Stewart Chamberlain, the British-born German writer who was one of the founders of "scientific" anti-Semitism, and whose book The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899) was one of the standard works of the extreme right in Germany. Goebbels spent the winter of 1919–20 in Munich, where he witnessed and admired the violent nationalist reaction against the attempted communist revolution in Bavaria. His first political hero was Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley, the man who assassinated the Munich socialist leader Kurt Eisner.[11] (Hitler was in Munich at the same time and entered politics as a result of similar experiences.) Joseph Goebbels kept a diary for much of his life. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (Blankenburg am Harz May 29, 1880 – May 8, 1936, Munich) was a German historian and philosopher, although his studies ranged throughout mathematics, science, philosophy, history, and art. ... Houston Stewart Chamberlain Houston Stewart Chamberlain (September 9, 1855 - January 9, 1927) was a British author noted for his works concerning the Aryan race. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley Anton von Padua Alfred Emil Hubert Georg Graf von Arco auf Valley (5 February 1897 – 29 June 1945), commonly known as Anton Arco-Valley, Germany political activist, is best remembered as the assassin of the Bavarian socialist leader Kurt Eisner in February 1919. ... Monument to Kurt Eisner on the sidewalk where he fell when he was assassinated in Munich. ...

The culture of the German extreme right was violent and anti-intellectual, which posed a challenge to the physically frail, would-be intellectual Goebbels. Joachim Fest writes: Joachim C. Fest (December 8, 1926 – September 11, 2006) was a German journalist and author, best known in English-speaking countries for his work with Albert Speer while writing his memoirs and his biography of Adolf Hitler. ...

This was the source of his hatred of the intellect, which was a form of self-hatred, his longing to degrade himself, to submerge himself in the ranks of the masses, which ran curiously parallel with his ambition and his tormenting need to distinguish himself. He was incessantly tortured by the fear of being regarded as a ‘bourgeois intellectual’… It always seemed as if he were offering blind devotion (to Nazism) to make up for his lack of all those characteristics of the racial elite which nature had denied him.[12]

Nazi activist

Goebbels's 1938 identity document as a member of the Reichstag
Goebbels's 1938 identity document as a member of the Reichstag

Like others who were later prominent in the Third Reich, Goebbels came into contact with the Nazi Party in 1923, during the campaign of resistance to the French occupation of the Ruhr. But Hitler’s imprisonment following the failed November 1923 "Beer Hall Putsch" left the party temporarily leaderless, and when the 27-year-old Goebbels joined the party in late 1924 the most important influence on his political development was Gregor Strasser, who became Nazi organiser in northern Germany in March 1924. Strasser ("the most able of the leading Nazis" of this period[13]), took the "socialist" component of National Socialism far more seriously than did Hitler and other members of the Bavarian leadership of the party. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1005x694, 233 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1005x694, 233 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... The Occupation of the Varun Balan in 1923 and 1924, by troops from France and Belgium was a response to the failure of German Weimar Republic under Cuno to pay reparations in the aftermath of World War I. Initiated by French Prime Minister Raymond Poincaré, the invasion took place on... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys leader Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund... Gregor Strasser Gregor Strasser (variant German spelling Straßer) (May 31, 1892, Geisenfeld, Germany - June 30, 1934, Berlin) was a politician of the German Nazi Party (NSDAP). ...

"National and socialist! What goes first, and what comes afterwards?" Goebbels asked rhetorically in a debate with Theodore Vahlen, Gauleiter (regional party head) of Pomerania, in the Rhineland party newspaper National-sozialistische Briefe (National-Socialist Letters), of which he was editor, in mid 1925. "With us in the west, there can be no doubt. First socialist redemption, then comes national liberation like a whirlwind… Hitler stands between both opinions, but he is on his way to coming over to us completely."[14] Goebbels, with his journalistic skills, thus soon became a key ally of Strasser in his struggle with the Bavarians over the party programme. The conflict was not, so they thought, with Hitler, but with his lieutenants, Rudolf Hess, Julius Streicher and Hermann Esser, who, they said, were mismanaging the party in Hitler’s absence. In 1925, Goebbels published an open letter to "my friends of the left," urging unity between socialists and Nazis against the capitalists. "You and I," he wrote, "we are fighting one another although we are not really enemies."[15] Karl Theodor Vahlen (30 June 1869 in Vienna – 16 November 1945 in Prague) was a German mathematician and a proponent of the anti-Semitic German Mathematics. Born to Johannes Vahlen, an expert in ancient philology, Vahlen studied in Berlin in 1890, graduated in 1893 with the thesis Contributions to an... A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau. ... Pommern redirects here. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... Julius Streicher (February 12, 1885 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi prior to and during World War II. He was the publisher of the Nazi Der Stürmer newspaper, which was to become a part of the Nazi propaganda machine. ... Hermann Esser (1900-1981) entered the Nazi party with Adolf Hitler in 1920, became the editor of the Nazi paper, Völkischer Beobachter, and a Nazi member of the Reichstag. ...

In February 1926, Hitler, having finished working on Mein Kampf, made a sudden return to party affairs and soon disabused the northerners of any illusions about where he stood. He summoned about 60 gauleiter and other activists, including Goebbels, to a meeting at Bamberg, in Streicher’s gau of Franconia, where he gave a two-hour speech repudiating the political programme of the "socialist" wing of the party. For Hitler, the real enemy of the German people was always the Jews, not the capitalists. Goebbels was bitterly disillusioned. "I feel devastated," he wrote. "What sort of Hitler? A reactionary?" He was horrified by Hitler’s characterisation of socialism as "a Jewish creation," his declaration that the Soviet Union must be destroyed, and his assertion that private property would not be expropriated by a Nazi government. "I no longer fully believe in Hitler. That’s the terrible thing: my inner support has been taken away."[16] Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ... For other uses, see Bamberg (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Franconia (disambiguation). ...

Hitler, however, recognised Goebbels’s talents, and he was a shrewd judge of character—he knew that Goebbels craved recognition above all else. In April, he brought Goebbels to Munich, sending his own car to meet him at the railway station, and gave him a long private audience. Hitler berated Goebbels over his support for the "socialist" line, but offered to "wipe the slate clean" if Goebbels would now accept his leadership. Goebbels capitulated completely, offering Hitler his total loyalty—a pledge which was clearly sincere, and which he adhered to until the end of his life. "I love him… He has thought through everything," Goebbels wrote. "Such a sparkling mind can be my leader. I bow to the greater one, the political genius. Later he wrote: "Adolf Hitler, I love you because you are both great and simple at the same time. What one calls a genius."[17] Fest writes:

From this point on he submitted himself, his whole existence, to his attachment to the person of the Führer, consciously eliminating all inhibitions springing from intellect, free will and self-respect. Since this submission was an act less of faith than of insight, it stood firm through all vicissitudes to the end. ‘He who forsakes the Führer withers away,’ he would later write.

Propaganda writer

Goebbels in a propaganda shot

In October 1926, Hitler rewarded Goebbels for his new loyalty by making him the party "Gauleiter" for the Berlin section of the National Socialists. Goebbels was then able to use the new position to indulge his literary aspirations in the German capital, which he perceived to be a stronghold of the socialists and communists. Here, Goebbels discovered his genius as a propagandist, writing such tracts as 1926's The Second Revolution and Lenin or Hitler. [18] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...

Here, he was also able to indulge his heretofore latent taste for violence, if only vicariously through the actions of the street fighters under his command. History, he said, "is made in the street," and he was determined to challenge the dominant parties of the left—the Social Democrats and Communists—in the streets of Berlin.[19] Working with the local S.A. (stormtrooper) leaders, he deliberately provoked beer-hall battles and street brawls, frequently involving firearms. "Beware, you dogs," he wrote to his former "friends of the left": "When the Devil is loose in me you will not curb him again." When the inevitable deaths occurred, he exploited them for the maximum effect, turning the street fighter Horst Wessel, who was killed at his home by enemy political activists, into a martyr and hero.[20] The Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD – Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands) is the second oldest political party of Germany still in existence and also one of the oldest and largest in the world, celebrating its 140th anniversary in 2003. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... The seal of SA SA propaganda poster. ... Horst Wessel Horst Ludwig Wessel (September 9, 1907 – February 23, 1930), German Nazi activist, was made a posthumous hero of the Nazi movement following his violent death in 1930. ...

In Berlin, Goebbels was able to give full expression to his genius for propaganda, as editor of the Berlin Nazi newspaper Der Angriff (The Attack) and as the author of a steady stream of Nazi posters and handbills. "He rose within a few months to be the city’s most feared agitator."[21] His propaganda techniques were totally cynical: "That propaganda is good which leads to success, and that is bad which fails to achieve the desired result," he wrote. "It is not propaganda’s task to be intelligent, its task is to lead to success."[22] Der Angriff (meaning The Attack in English) was a newspaper published by Berlin Gau of NSDAP since 1927. ...

Among his favourite targets were socialist leaders such as Hermann Müller and Carl Severing, and the Jewish Berlin Police President, Bernhard Weiss, whom he subjected to a relentless campaign of Jew-baiting in the hope of provoking a crackdown which he could then exploit. The Social Democrat city government obliged in 1927 with an eight-month ban on the party, which Goebbels exploited to the hilt. When a friend criticised him for denigrating Weiss, a man with an exemplary military record, "he explained cynically that he wasn’t in the least interested in Weiss, only in the propaganda effect."[23] Hermann Müller may refer to: Hermann Müller, (1829-1883), German botanist whose work provided important evidence for Darwins theory of evolution, and with whom Darwin corresponded. ...

Goebbels also discovered a talent for oratory, and was soon second in the Nazi movement only to Hitler as a public speaker. Where Hitler’s style was hoarse and passionate, Goebbels’s was cool, sarcastic and often humorous: he was a master of biting invective and insinuation, although he could whip himself into a rhetorical frenzy if the occasion demanded. Unlike Hitler, however, he retained a cynical detachment from his own rhetoric. He openly acknowledged that he was exploiting the lowest instincts of the German people, racism, xenophobia, class envy and insecurity. He could, he said, play the popular will like a piano, leading the masses wherever he wanted them to go. "He drove his listeners into ecstasy, making them stand up, sing songs, raise their arms, repeat oaths—and he did it, not through the passionate inspiration of the moment, but as the result of sober psychological calculation."[24]

Goebbels’s words and actions made little impact on the political loyalties of Berlin.[25] At the 1928 Reichstag elections, the Nazis polled less than 2% of the vote in Berlin compared with 33% for the Social Democrats and 25% for the Communists. (At this election Goebbels was one of the ten Nazis elected to the Reichstag, which brought him a welcome salary of 750 Reichsmarks a month and immunity from prosecution.[26]) Even when the impact of the Great Depression led to an enormous surge in support for the Nazis across Germany, Berlin resisted the party’s appeal more than any other part of Germany: at its peak in 1932, the Nazi Party polled 28% in Berlin to the combined left’s 55%.[27] But his outstanding talents, and the obvious fact that he stood high in Hitler’s regard, earned Goebbels the grudging respect of the anti-intellectual brawlers of the Nazi movement, who called him "our little doctor" with a mixture of affection and amusement. "The S.A. would have let itself be hacked to bits for him," wrote Horst Wessel in 1929.[28] By 1928, still aged only 31, he was acknowledged to be one of the inner circle of Nazi leaders. Reichstag may refer to: Reichstag (institution), the Diets or parliaments of the Holy Roman Empire, of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy and of Germany from 1871 to 1945 Reichstag building, Berlin location where the German legislature met from 1894 to 1933 and again since 1999 The Reichstag fire in 1933, which... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...

The Depression led to a new resurgence of "left" sentiment in some sections of the Nazi Party, led by Gregor Strasser’s brother Otto Strasser, who argued that the party ought to be competing with the Communists for the loyalties of the unemployed and the industrial workers by promising to expropriate the capitalists. Hitler, whose dislike of working-class militancy reflected his social origins in the small-town lower-middle class, was thoroughly opposed to this line. He recognised that the growth in Nazi support at the 1930 elections had mainly come from the middle class and from farmers, and he was now busy building bridges to the upper middle classes and to German business. In April 1930, he sacked Gregor Strasser as head of the Nazi Party national propaganda apparatus and appointed Goebbels to replace him, giving him control of the party’s national newspaper, the Völkischer Beobachter (People’s Observer), as well as other Nazi papers across the country. Goebbels, although he continued to show "leftish" tendencies in some of his actions (such as co-operating with the Communists in supporting the Berlin transport workers' strike in November 1932),[29] was totally loyal to Hitler in his struggle with the Strassers, which culminated in Otto’s expulsion from the party in July 1930.[30] One of the last editions of the Völkischer Beobachter (April 20, 1945) hails Adolf Hitler as man of the century on the occasion of his 56th birthday, ten days before his suicide. ...

Despite his revolutionary rhetoric, Goebbels’s most important contribution to the Nazi cause between 1930 and 1933 was as the organiser of successive election campaigns: the Reichstag elections of September 1930, July and November 1932 and March 1933, and Hitler’s presidential campaign of March–April 1932. He proved to be an organiser of genius, choreographing Hitler’s dramatic aeroplane tours of Germany and pioneering the use of radio and cinema for electoral campaigning. The Nazi Party’s use of torchlight parades, brass bands, massed choirs and similar techniques caught the imagination of many voters, particularly young people. "His propaganda headquarters in Munich sent out a constant stream of directives to local and regional party sections, often providing fresh slogans and fresh material for the campaign."[31] Although the spectacular rise in the Nazi vote in 1930 and July 1932 was caused mainly by the effects of the Depression, Goebbels as party campaign manager was naturally given much of the credit.

Propaganda Minister

When Hitler was appointed Reich Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933, Goebbels was initially given no office: the coalition cabinet which Hitler headed contained only a minority of Nazis as part of the deal he had negotiated with President Paul von Hindenburg and the conservative parties. But as the propaganda head of the ruling party, a party which had no great respect for the law, he immediately began to behave as though he were in power. He commandeered the state radio to produce a live broadcast of the torchlight parade which celebrated Hitler’s assumption of office. On 13 March, Goebbels had his reward for his part in bringing the Nazis to power by being appointed Reich Minister for Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda (Volksaufklärung und Propaganda), with a seat in the Cabinet. is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ministry for Propaganda Building. ...

The role of the new ministry, which took over palatial accommodation in the 18th century Leopold Palace on Wilhelmstrasse, just across from Hitler’s offices in the Reich Chancellery, was to centralise Nazi control of all aspects of German cultural and intellectual life, particularly the press, the radio and the visual and performing arts.[32] On 1 May, Goebbels organised the massive demonstrations and parades to mark the "Day of National Labour" which preceded the Nazi takeover and destruction of the German trade union movement. By 3 May, he was able to boast in his diary: "We are the masters of Germany."[33] On 10 May, he supervised an even more symbolic event in the establishment of Nazi cultural power: the burning of up to 20,000 books by Jewish or anti-Nazi authors in the Opernplatz next to the university.[34] Wilhelmstraße (William street) in Berlin became during the 19th century the governmental neighbourhood of Prussia. ... Exterior view of the entrance of the New Reich Chancellery. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bebelplatz looking north towards the Unter den Linden. ...

The hegemonic ambitions of the Propaganda Ministry were shown by the divisions which Goebbels soon established: press, radio, film, theatre, music, literature and publishing. In each of these, a Reich Chamber (Reichskammer) was established, co-opting leading figures from the field (usually not known Nazis) to head each Chamber, and requiring them to supervise the purge of Jews, socialists and liberals, as well as practitioners of "degenerate" art forms such as abstract art and atonal music.[35] The respected composer Richard Strauss, for example, became head of the Reich Music Chamber. Goebbels’s orders were backed by the threat of force. The many prominent Jews in the arts and the mass media emigrated in large numbers rather than risk the fists of the S.A. and the gates of the concentration camp, as did many socialists and liberals. Some non-Jewish anti-Nazis with good connections or international reputations survived until the mid 1930s, but most were forced out sooner or later. Kazimir Malevich, Black square 1915 Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses color and form in a non-representational way. ... Atonality describes music not conforming to the system of tonal hierarchies, which characterizes the sound of classical European music between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ...

Control of the arts and media was not just a matter of personnel. Soon the content of every newspaper, book, novel, play, film, broadcast and concert, from the level of nationally-known publishers and orchestras to local newspapers and village choirs, was subject to supervision by the Propaganda Ministry, although a process of self-censorship was soon effectively operating in all these fields, leaving the Ministry in Berlin free to concentrate on the most politically sensitive areas such as major newspapers and the state radio. No author could publish, no painter could exhibit, no singer could broadcast, no critic could criticise, unless they were a member of the appropriate Reich Chamber, and membership was conditional on good behaviour. Goebbels could bribe as well as threaten: he secured a large budget for his Ministry, with which he was able to offer generous salaries and subsidies to those in the arts who co-operated with him. These were inducements which most artists, theatres and orchestras, after their struggles to survive during the Depression, found hard to refuse.[36]

As the most highly educated member of the Nazi leadership, and the one with the most authentic pretensions to high culture, Goebbels was sensitive to charges that he was dragging German culture down to the level of mere propaganda. He responded by saying that the purpose of both art and propaganda was to bring about a spiritual mobilisation of the German people. He was, in fact, far from the most militant member of the Nazi leadership on cultural questions. The more philistine Nazis wanted nothing in German books but Nazi slogans, nothing on German stages and cinema screens but Nazi heroics, and nothing in German concert halls but German folk songs.

Goebbels was too sophisticated to allow this—he insisted that German high culture must be allowed to carry on, both for reasons of international prestige and to win the loyalty of the upper middle classes, who valued art forms such as opera and the symphony. He thus became to some extent the protector of the arts as well as their regulator. In this, he had the support of Hitler, a passionate devotee of Wagner. But Goebbels always had to bow to Hitler’s views. Hitler loathed modernism of all kinds, and Goebbels (whose own tastes were sympathetic to modernism) was forced to acquiesce in imposing very traditionalist forms on the artistic and musical worlds. The music of Paul Hindemith, for example, was banned simply because Hitler did not like it. Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ...

Goebbels also resisted the complete Nazification of the arts because he knew that the masses must be allowed some respite from slogans and propaganda. He ensured that film studios such as UFA at Babelsberg near Berlin continued to produce a stream of comedies and light romances, which drew mass audiences to the cinema where they would also watch propaganda newsreels and Nazi epics. His abuse of his position as Propaganda Minister and the reputation that built up around his use of the "casting couch" was well known. Many actresses wrote later of how Goebbels had tried to lure them to his home. He acquired the nickname "Bock von Babelsberg" lit: "Babelsberg Stud". He resisted considerable pressure from Nazi xenophobes to ban all foreign films—helped by the fact that Hitler was a big fan of Mickey Mouse. For the same reason, Goebbels worked to bring culture to the masses—promoting the sale of cheap radios, organising free concerts in factories, staging art exhibitions in small towns and establishing mobile cinemas to bring the movies to every village. All of this served short-term propaganda ends, but also served to reconcile the German people, particularly the working class, to the regime.[37] UFA logo Universum Film AG, better known as Ufa or UFA, was the principal film studio in Germany, home of the German film industry during the Weimar Republic and through World War II, and a major force in world cinema during its brief existence from 1917 to 1945. ... Castle of Babelsberg with the river Havel as one part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Observatory on the Babelsberg UEFA Womens Cup final Potsdam-Babelsberg or short Babelsberg is the largest district of the city of Potsdam, Germany today. ... Mickey Mouse is an Academy Award-winning comic animal cartoon character who has become an icon for The Walt Disney Company. ...

Goebbels and the Jews

Despite the enormous power of the Propaganda Ministry over German cultural life, Goebbels’s status began to decline once the Nazi regime was firmly established in power.[38] This was because the real business of the Nazi regime was preparation for war, and although propaganda was a part of this, it was not the main game. By the mid 1930s, Hitler’s most powerful subordinates were Hermann Göring, as head of the Four Year Plan for crash rearmament, and Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS and police apparatus. Once the internal enemies of the Nazi Party were destroyed, as they effectively were by 1935, Goebbels’s propaganda efforts began to lose their point, and without an enemy to fight, his rhetoric began to sound hollow and unconvincing. Hermann Wilhelm Göring ( ) (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ... The Four Year Plan was a series of alabama hot pokets ( the art of shitting in a womans vigina an then possibly having sex!!!! hard coreeconomic reforms created by the Nazi Party. ... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and the Nazi hierarchy. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop...

As a man of education and culture, Goebbels had once mocked the "primitive" anti-Semitism of Nazis such as Julius Streicher. But as Joachim Fest observes: "Goebbels [found] in the increasingly unrestrained practice of anti-Semitism by the state new possibilities into which he threw himself with all the zeal of an ambitious man worried by a constant diminution of his power." Fest also suggests a psychological motive: "A man who conformed so little to the National Socialist image of the elite… may have had his reason, in the struggles for power at Hitler’s court, for offering keen anti-Semitism as a counterweight to his failure to conform to a type."[39] Whatever his motives, Goebbels took every opportunity to attack the Jews. From 1933 onwards, he was bracketed with Streicher and as among the regime’s most virulent anti-Semites.[40] "Some people think," he told a Berlin rally in June 1935, "that we haven’t noticed how the Jews are trying once again to spread themselves over all our streets. The Jews ought please to observe the laws of hospitality and not behave as if they were the same as us." Julius Streicher (February 12, 1885 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi prior to and during World War II. He was the publisher of the Nazi Der Stürmer newspaper, which was to become a part of the Nazi propaganda machine. ...

The sarcastic "humour" of Goebbels’s speeches did not conceal the reality of his threat to the Jews. In his capacity as Gauleiter of Berlin, and thus as de facto ruler of the capital (although there was still officially an Oberbürgermeister and city council), Goebbels maintained constant pressure on the city’s large Jewish community, forcing them out of business and professional life and placing obstacles in the way of their being able to live normal lives, such as banning them from public transport and city facilities. There was some respite during 1936, while Berlin hosted the Olympic Games,[41] but from 1937 the intensity of his anti-Semitic words and actions began to increase again. "The Jews must get out of Germany, indeed out of Europe altogether," he wrote in his diary in November 1937. "That will take some time, but it must and will happen."[42] By mid 1938 Goebbels was investigating the possibility of requiring all Jews to wear an identifying mark and of confining them to a ghetto, but these were ideas whose time had not yet come. "Aim—drive the Jews out of Berlin," he wrote in his diary in June 1938, "and without any sentimentality."[43] The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ... For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ...

In November 1938, Goebbels got the chance to take decisive action against the Jews for which he had been waiting when a Jewish youth, Herschel Grynszpan, shot a German diplomat in Paris, Ernst vom Rath, in revenge for the deportation of his family to Poland and the persecution of German Jews generally.[44] On 9 November, the evening vom Rath died of his wounds, Goebbels was at the Bürgerbräu Keller in Munich with Hitler, celebrating the anniversary of the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch with a large crowd of veteran Nazis. Goebbels told Hitler that "spontaneous" anti-Jewish violence had already broken out in German cities, although in fact this was not true: this was a clear case of Goebbels manipulating Hitler for his own ends. When Hitler said he approved of what was happening, Goebbels took this as authorisation to organise a massive, nationwide pogrom against the Jews. He wrote in his diary: Police Photo of Herschel Grynszpan, 1938 Herschel Feibel Grynszpan (sometimes spelled in the German form Grünspan) (born March 28, 1921, died between 1943 and 1945), political assassin and victim of the Holocaust, was born in Hanover, Germany, of Polish-Jewish parents. ... Ernst Eduard vom Rath (June 3, 1909–November 9, 1938) was a German diplomat. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ...

[Hitler] decides: demonstrations should be allowed to continue. The police should be withdrawn. For once the Jews should get the feel of popular anger… I immediately gave the necessary instructions to the police and the Party. Then I briefly speak in that vein to the Party leadership. Stormy applause. All are instantly at the phones. Now people will act.[45]

To say that Goebbels manipulated Hitler into approving the pogrom of Kristallnacht is not to suggest that Hitler’s anti-Semitism was any less virulent than Goebbels’s. But it is clear that the idea of a state-sponsored pogrom originated with Goebbels, and that he gained Hitler’s approval for it by falsely telling Hitler that it had already begun.

The result of Goebbels’s incitement was Kristallnacht, the "Night of Broken Glass," during which the S.A. and Nazi Party went on a rampage of anti-Jewish violence and destruction, killing at least 90 and maybe as many as 200 people (not counting several hundred suicides), destroying over a thousand synagogues and hundreds of Jewish businesses and homes, and dragging some 30,000 Jews off to concentration camps, where at least another thousand died before the remainder were released after several months of brutal treatment. The longer-term effect was to drive 80,000 Jews to emigrate, most leaving behind all their property in their desperation to escape. Foreign opinion reacted with horror, bringing to a sudden end the climate of appeasement of Nazi Germany in the western democracies. Goebbels’s pogrom thus moved Germany significantly closer to war, at a time when rearmament was still far from complete. Göring and some other Nazi leaders were furious at Goebbels’s actions, about which they had not been consulted.[46] Goebbels, however, was delighted. "As was to be expected, the entire nation is in uproar," he wrote. "This is one dead man who is costing the Jews dear. Our darling Jews will think twice in future before gunning down German diplomats."[47] Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ...

Man of power

These events were well-timed from the point of view of Goebbels’s relations with Hitler. In 1937, he had begun an intense affair with the Czech actress Lída Baarová, causing the break-up of her marriage. When Magda Goebbels learned of this affair in October 1938, she complained to Hitler. Hitler was a conservative in sexual matters and was fond of Magda and the young Goebbels' children. He ordered Goebbels to break off his affair, whereupon Goebbels offered his resignation, which Hitler refused. On 15 October, Goebbels attempted suicide. A furious Hitler then ordered Himmler to remove Baarová from Germany, and she was deported to Czechoslovakia, from where she later left for Italy. These events damaged Goebbels’ standing with Hitler, and his zeal in furthering Hitler’s anti-Semitic agenda was in part an effort to restore his reputation.[48] The Baarová affair, however, did nothing to dampen Goebbels' enthusiasm for womanising. As late as 1943, the Hitler Youth leader Artur Axmann was ingratiating himself with Goebbels by procuring young women for him.[49] Lída Baarová (1914-2000). ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see; 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth (German:   , abbreviated HJ) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party. ... 16. ...

Goebbels, like all the Nazi leaders, could not afford to defy Hitler’s will in matters of this kind. By 1938, they had all become wealthy men, but their wealth was dependent on Hitler’s continuing goodwill and willingness to turn a blind eye to their corruption. Until the Nazis came to power, Goebbels had been a relatively poor man, and his main income was the salary of 750 Reichsmarks a month he had gained by election to the Reichstag in 1928. By 1936, although he was not nearly as corrupt as some other senior Nazis, such as Göring and Robert Ley, Goebbels was earning 300,000 Reichsmarks a year in "fees" for writing in his own newspaper, Der Angriff, as well as his ministerial salary and many other sources of income. These payments were in effect bribes from the papers’ publisher Max Amann. He owned a villa by the lake at Wannsee and another on Lake Constance in the south, which he spent 2.2 million Reichsmarks refurbishing. The tax office, as it did for all the Nazi leaders, gave him generous exemptions.[50] Hitler apparently connived at the corruption of his lieutenants because of the power it gave him over them. Dr Robert Ley Dr. Robert Ley (15 February 1890 – 25 October 1945), Nazi German politician, was head of the German Labour Front from 1933 to 1945. ... Max Amann Max Amann (November 24, 1891 - March 30, 1957) was a Nazi official with the honorary rank of SS-Obergruppenführer, politician and journalist. ... Map of Berlin-Wannsee The Wannsee is both a locality in the southwestern Berlin borough of Steglitz-Zehlendorf, in Germany, and a linked pair of lakes adjoining the locality. ... For other uses, see Lake Constance, New Zealand. ...

Whatever the loss of real power suffered by Goebbels during the middle years of the Nazi regime, he remained one of Hitler’s intimates. Since his offices were close to the Chancellery, he was a frequent guest for lunch, during which he became adept at listening to Hitler’s monologues and agreeing with his opinions. In the months leading up to the war, his influence began to increase again. He ranked along with Joachim von Ribbentrop, Göring, Himmler and Martin Bormann as the senior Nazi with the most access to Hitler, which in an autocratic regime meant access to power. The fact that Hitler was fond of Magda Goebbels and the children also gave Goebbels entrée to Hitler’s inner circle. The Goebbelses were regular visitors to Hitler’s Bavarian mountain retreat the Berghof. But he was not kept directly informed of military and diplomatic developments, relying on second-hand accounts to hear what Hitler was doing.[51] Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (born Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim Ribbentrop) (April 30, 1893 – October 16, 1946) was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1938 until 1945. ... Martin Bormann Martin Bormann (June 17, 1900 - c. ... Haus Wachenfeld during its conversion into the Berghof The Berghof was Adolf Hitlers home in the Obersalzberg of the Bavarian Alps near Berchtesgaden, Germany. ...

Goebbels at war

While protesting his desire for peace, between 1936 and 1939, Hitler led Germany firmly and deliberately towards a confrontation.[52] Goebbels was one of the most enthusiastic proponents of aggressively pursuing Germany's territorial claims sooner rather than later, along with Himmler and Foreign Minister von Ribbentrop.[53] He saw it as his job to make the German people accept this and if possible welcome it. At the time of the Sudetenland crisis in 1938, Goebbels was well aware that the great majority of Germans did not want a war, and used every propaganda resource at his disposal to overcome what he called this "war psychosis," by whipping up sympathy for the Sudeten Germans and hatred of the Czechs.[54] After the western powers conceded to Hitler's demands concerning Czechoslovakia in 1938, Goebbels soon redirected his propaganda machine against Poland. From May onwards, he orchestrated a "hate campaign" against Poland, fabricating stories about atrocities against ethnic Germans in Danzig and other cities. Even so, he was unable to persuade the majority of Germans to welcome the prospect of war.[55] For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy The Munich Agreement (Czech: ; Slovak: ; German: ) was an agreement regarding the Sudetenland Crisis among the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich, Germany in 1938 and signed in the early hours of... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...

Once war began in September 1939, Goebbels began a steady process of extending his influence over domestic policy. After 1940, Hitler made few public appearances, and even his broadcasts became less frequent, so Goebbels increasingly became the face and the voice of the Nazi regime for the German people.[56] With Hitler preoccupied with the war, Himmler focussing on the "final solution to the Jewish question" in eastern Europe, and with Göring’s position declining with the failure of the Luftwaffe, Goebbels sensed a power vacuum in domestic policy and moved to fill it. Since civilian morale was his responsibility, he increasingly concerned himself with matters such as wages, rationing and housing, which affected morale and therefore productivity. He came to see the lethargic and demoralised Göring, still Germany’s economic supremo as head of the Four Year Plan Ministry, as his main enemy. To undermine Göring, he forged an alliance with Himmler, although the SS chief remained wary of him. A more useful ally was Albert Speer, a Hitler favourite who was appointed Armaments Minister in February 1942. Goebbels and Speer worked through 1942 to persuade Hitler to dismiss Göring and allow the domestic economy to be run by a revived Cabinet headed by themselves. The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... For the son of Albert Speer, also an architect, see Albert Speer (the younger). ...

The crushing German defeat at the Battle of Stalingrad in January 1943, however, produced a crisis in the regime. Goebbels was forced to ally himself with Göring to thwart a bid for power by Bormann, head of the Nazi Party Chancellery and Secretary to the Führer, who exploited the disaster at Stalingrad and his daily access to Hitler to persuade him to create a three-man junta representing the State, the Army and Party, represented respectively by the head of the Reich Chancellery Hans Lammers, Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, who was Chief of the German High Command Oberkommando der Wehrmacht and Bormann, who controlled the Party and access to the Führer. This Committee of Three would exercise dictatorial powers over the home front. Goebbels, Speer, Göring and Himmler all saw this proposal as a power grab by Bormann and a threat to their power, and combined to block it. Combatants Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B: German Sixth Army # German Fourth Panzer Army... Hans Heinrich Lammers (May 27, 1879 - January 4, 1962) was a prominent Nazi and head of the Reich Chancellery. ... Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (September 22, 1882–October 16, 1946) was a German field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) and a senior military leader during World War II. // Keitel was born in Helmscherode, Brunswick, German Empire, the son of Carl Keitel, a middle-class landowner, and his wife Apollonia Vissering. ... The command flag for the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1938 - 1941) The command flag for a Generalfeldmarschall as the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1941 - 1945) The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW (Wehrmacht High Command, Armed Forces High Command...

However, their alliance was shaky at best. This was mainly due to the fact that during this period Himmler was still cooperating with Bormann in order to gain more power at the expense of Göring and most of the traditional Reich administration; Göring's loss of power had resulted in an overindulgence in the trappings of power and his strained relations with Goebbels made it difficult for a unified coalition to be formed, despite the attempts of Albert Speer and Generalfeldmarschall Erhard Milch, the State Secretary in the Ministry of Aviation and thus the deputy of Göring in that sphere of policy, to reconcile the two Party comrades. Replica of the marshals baton of Generalfeldmarschall von Richthofen (Third Reich) Generalfeldmarschall ( ) (general field marshal, usually translated simply as field marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Austrian Empire. ... Erhard Milch (left) with his brother Dr. Werner Milch, who worked as his associate defense counsel at the Nuremberg Trials. ...

Goebbels instead tried to persuade Hitler to appoint Göring as head of the government. His proposal had a certain logic, as Göring—despite the failures of the Luftwaffe and his own corruption—was still very popular among the German people, whose morale was waning since Hitler barely appeared in public since the defeat at Stalingrad. However, this proposal was absurd given Göring’s increasing incapacity and, more importantly, Hitler’s increasing contempt for him due to the need of having a scapegoat in order to shift the blame for Germany's defeats from the Führer, that it was doomed to failure. The result was that nothing was done—the Committee of Three declined into irrelevance due to the loss of power by Keitel and Lammers and the ascension of Bormann and the situation continued to drift, with administrative chaos increasingly undermining the war effort. The ultimate responsibility for this lay with Hitler, as Goebbels well knew, referring in his diary to a "crisis of leadership," but Goebbels was too much under Hitler’s spell ever to challenge his power.[57] The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ...

In February, Goebbels launched a new offensive to place himself at the centre of policy-making. In a passionate speech at the Berlin Sportpalast, Goebbels demanded from his audience a commitment to "total war," the complete mobilisation of the German economy and German society for the war effort. He hoped in this way to persuade Hitler to give him and his ally Speer control of domestic policy for a program of total commitment to arms production and full labour conscription, including of women. But Hitler, supported by Göring, resisted these demands, which he feared would weaken civilian morale and lead to a repeat of the debacle of 1918, when the German army had been undermined by a collapse of the home front. Nor was Hitler willing to allow Goebbels or anyone else to usurp his own power as the ultimate source of all decisions. Goebbels privately lamented "a complete lack of direction in German domestic policy," but of course he could not directly criticise Hitler or go against his wishes.[58] Joseph Goebbels The Sportpalast or total war speech (German: Sportpalastrede) was a speech delivered by Propagandaminister (Propaganda Minister) Joseph Goebbels at the Berlin Sportpalast to a large but carefully-selected audience on 18 February 1943, as the tide of World War II was turning against Nazi Germany. ... The Berliner Sportpalast (built 1910, demolished 1973) was a multi-purpose winter sport venue and meeting hall near Potdamer Platz in the Schöneberg section of Berlin. ...

Goebbels and the Holocaust

The architect of the genocide of European Jews, Heinrich Himmler, preferred that the matter not be discussed in public. But despite this, in an editorial in his newspaper Das Reich in November 1941 he quoted Hitler’s 1939 "prophecy" that the Jews would be the loser in the coming world war.[59] Now, he said, Hitler’s prophecy was coming true: "Jewry," he said, "is now suffering the gradual process of annihilation which it intended for us… It now perishes according to its own precept of ‘an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth’!"[60] Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and the Nazi hierarchy. ...

In 1939, in a speech to the Reichstag, Hitler had said:

If international finance Jewry in and outside Europe should succeed in thrusting the nations once again into a world war, then the result will not be the Bolshevisation of the earth and with it the victory of Jewry, but the destruction of the Jewish race in Europe.[61]

The view of most historians is that the decision to proceed with the extermination of the Jews was taken at some point in late 1941, and Goebbels’s comments make it clear that he knew in general terms, if not in detail, what was planned.[62]

The decision in principle to deport the German and Austrian Jews to unspecified destinations "in the east" was made in September. Goebbels immediately pressed for the Berlin Jews to be deported first. He travelled to Hitler’s headquarters on the eastern front, meeting both Hitler and Reinhard Heydrich to lobby for his demands. He got the assurances he wanted: "The Führer is of the opinion," he wrote, "that the Jews eventually have to be removed from the whole of Germany. The first cities to be made Jew-free are Berlin, Vienna and Prague. Berlin is first in the queue, and I have the hope that we’ll succeed in the course of this year."[63] Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Security Main Office (including the Gestapo, SD and Kripo Nazi police agencies) and Reichsprotektor (Reich Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia. ...

Deportations of Berlin Jews to the Łódź ghetto began in October, but transport and other difficulties made the process much slower than Goebbels desired. His November article in Das Reich was part of his campaign to have the pace of deportation accelerated. The Łódź Ghetto (historically the Litzmannstadt Ghetto) was the second-largest ghetto (after the Warsaw Ghetto) established for Jews and Roma in German-occupied Poland. ...

In December, he was present when Hitler addressed a meeting of Gauleiters and other senior Nazis, discussing among other things the "Jewish question." He wrote in his diary afterwards:

With regard to the Jewish Question, the Führer is determined to make a clean sweep of it. He prophesied that, if they brought about another world war, they would experience their annihilation. That was no empty talk. The world war is here [this was the week Germany declared war on the United States]. The annihilation of Jewry must be the necessary consequence. The question is to be viewed without any sentimentality. We’re not there to have sympathy with the Jews, but only sympathy with our own German people. If the German people has again now sacrificed around 160,000 dead in the eastern campaign, the originators of this bloody conflict will have to pay for it with their lives.[64]

During 1942, Goebbels continued to press for the "final solution to the Jewish question" to be carried forward as quickly as possible now that Germany had occupied a huge swathe of Soviet territory into which all the Jews of German-controlled Europe could be deported. There they could be worked into extinction in accordance with the plan agreed on at the Wannsee Conference convened by Heydrich in January. It was a constant annoyance to Goebbels that, at a time when Germany was fighting for its life on the eastern front, there were still 40,000 Jews in Berlin.[65] They should be "carted off to Russia," he wrote in his diary. "It would be best to kill them altogether."[66] Once again, there is no doubt that Goebbels knew what would happen to the Jews who were to be "carted off." Although the Propaganda Ministry was not invited to the Wannsee Conference, Goebbels knew by March what had been decided there.[67] He wrote: The Wannsee Conference was a meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942. ...

The Jews are now being deported to the east. A fairly barbaric procedure, not to be described in any greater detail, is being used here, and not much more remains of the Jews themselves. In general, it can probably be established that 60 percent of them must be liquidated, while only 40 percent can be put to work […] A judgement is being carried out on the Jews which is barbaric, but fully deserved.[68]

Plenipotentiary for Total War

For Goebbels, 1943 and 1944 were years of struggle to rally the German people behind a regime which was increasingly obviously facing military defeat. The German people’s faith in Hitler was shaken by the disaster at Stalingrad, and never fully recovered.[69] During 1943, as the Soviet armies advanced towards the borders of the Reich, the western Allies developed the ability to launch devastating air raids on most German cities, including Berlin. At the same time, there were increasingly critical shortages of food, raw materials, fuel and housing. Goebbels and Speer were among the few Nazi leaders who were under no illusions about Germany’s dire situation. Their solution was to seize control of the home front from the indecisive Hitler and the incompetent Göring. This was the agenda of Goebbels’s "total war" speech of February 1943. But they were thwarted by their inability to challenge Hitler, who could neither make decisions himself nor trust anyone else to do so. Joseph Goebbels The Sportpalast or total war speech (German: Sportpalastrede) was a speech delivered by Propagandaminister (Propaganda Minister) Joseph Goebbels at the Berlin Sportpalast to a large but carefully-selected audience on 18 February 1943, as the tide of World War II was turning against Nazi Germany. ...

After Stalingrad, Hitler increasingly withdrew from public view, almost never appearing in public and rarely even broadcasting. By July, Goebbels was lamenting that Hitler had cut himself off from the people—it was noted, for example, that he never visited the bomb-ravaged cities of the Ruhr. "One can’t neglect the people too long," he wrote. "They are the heart of our war effort."[70] Goebbels himself became the public voice of the Nazi regime, both in his regular broadcasts and his weekly editorials in Das Reich. As Joachim Fest notes, Goebbels seemed to take a grim pleasure in the destruction of Germany’s cities by the Allied bombing offensive: "It was, as one of his colleagues confirmed, almost a happy day for him when famous buildings were destroyed, because at such time he put into his speeches that ecstatic hatred which aroused the fanaticism of the tiring workers and spurred them to fresh efforts."[71]

In public, Goebbels remained confident of German victory: "We live at the most critical period in the history of the Occident," he wrote in Das Reich in February 1943. "Any weakening of the spiritual and military defensive strength of our continent in its struggle with eastern Bolshevism brings with it the danger of a rapidly nearing decline in its will to resist… Our soldiers in the East will do their part. They will stop the storm from the steppes, and ultimately break it. They fight under unimaginable conditions. But they are fighting a good fight. They are fighting not only for our own security, but also for Europe's future."[72]

In private, he was discouraged by the failure of his and Speer’s campaign to gain control of the home front.

Goebbels remained preoccupied with the annihilation of the Jews, which was now reaching its climax in the extermination camps of eastern Poland. As in 1942, he was more outspoken about what was happening than Himmler would have liked: "Our state’s security requires that we take whatever measures seem necessary to protect the German community from [the Jewish] threat," he wrote in May. "That leads to some difficult decisions, but they are unavoidable if we are to deal with the threat… None of the Führer’s prophetic words has come so inevitably true as his prediction that if Jewry succeeded in provoking a second world war, the result would be not the destruction of the Aryan race, but rather the wiping out of the Jewish race. This process is of vast importance."[73]

Following the Allied invasion of Italy and the fall of Benito Mussolini in September, he and Ribbentrop raised with Hitler the possibility of secretly approaching Stalin and negotiating a separate peace behind the backs of the western Allies. Hitler, surprisingly, did not reject the idea of a separate peace with either side, but he told Goebbels that he should not negotiate from a position of weakness. A great German victory must occur before any negotiations should be undertaken, he reasoned.[74] The German defeat at Kursk in July had, however, ended any possibility of this. Goebbels as a realist knew by this stage that the war was lost, but was unable to break the spell that Hitler had held over him since 1926. Mussolini redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Günther von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry 2,000 aircraft 3,600 tanks 1,300,000 infantry and supporting troops 2,400 aircraft Casualties German...

As Germany’s military and economic situation grew steadily worse during 1944, Goebbels renewed his push, in alliance with Speer, to wrest control of the home front away from Göring. In July, following the Allied landings in France and the huge Soviet advances in Byelorussia, Hitler finally agreed to grant both of them increased powers. Speer took control of all economic and production matters away from Göring, and Goebbels took the title Reich Plenipotentiary for Total War (Reichsbevollmächtigter für den totalen Kriegseinsatz an der Heimatfront). At the same time, Himmler took over the Interior Ministry. Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия)) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ... The term plenipotentiary (from the Latin, plenus + potens, full + power) refers to, as a noun, a person who has, or as an adjective that confers, full powers. ...

This trio—Goebbels, Himmler and Speer—became the real centre of German government in the last year of the war, although Bormann used his privileged access to Hitler to thwart them when he could. In this Bormann was very successful, as the Party Gauleits gained more and more powers, becoming Reich Defence Commissars (Reichsverteidigungskommissare) in their respective districts and overseeing all civilian administration. The fact that Himmler was Interior Minister only increased the power of Bormann, as the Gauleiters feared that Himmler, who was General Plenipontentiary for the Administration of the Reich, would curb their power and set up his higher SS and police leaders as their replacement.

Goebbels saw Himmler as a potential ally against Bormann and in 1944 is supposed to have voiced the opinion that if the Reichsführer SS was granted control over the Wehrmacht and he, Goebbels, granted control over the domestic politics, the war would soon be ended in a victorious manner. However, the inability of Himmler to persuade Hitler to cease his support of Bormann, the defection of SS generals such as Obergruppenführer Ernst Kaltenbrunner, the Chief of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt and his powerful subordinate Gruppenführer Heinrich Müller, the head of the Gestapo, to Bormann, soon persuaded Goebbels to align himself with the Secretary to the Führer at the end of 1944, thus accepting his subordinate position. Heinrich Himmler as the Reichsführer-SS Reichsführer-SS was a special SS rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... SS-Obergruppenführer Erich von dem Bach-Zalewski SS-Obergruppenführer patch SA-Obergruppenführer insignia Obergruppenführer was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was first created in 1932 as a rank of the SA. Translated as Senior Group Leader, the rank of SA-Obergruppenführer was held by... Ernst Kaltenbrunner (October 4, 1903 – October 16, 1946) was a senior Nazi official during World War II. He was the highest ranking SS leader to face trial. ... RSHA, or the Reichssicherheitshauptamt, was a subsidiary organization of the S.S. created by Heinrich Himmler on September 22, 1939, through the merger of the Sicherheitsdienst, the Gestapo and the Kriminalpolizei. ... SS-Gruppenführer collar patch SA-Gruppenführer rank insignia Volkssturm Gruppenführer insignia Gruppenführer was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party, first created in 1925 as a senior rank of the SA. Translated as “Group Leader”, a Gruppenführer was typically in charge of large numbers... Heinrich Müller Heinrich Müller (born 28 April 1900; date of death unknown), German police official, was head of the Gestapo, the political police of Nazi Germany, and played a leading role in the planning and execution of the Holocaust. ...

When elements of the army leadership tried to assassinate Hitler in the July 20 plot shortly thereafter, it was this trio that rallied the resistance to the plotters. It was Goebbels, besieged in his Berlin apartment with Speer and secretary Wilfred von Oven beside him but with his phone lines intact, who brought Otto Ernst Remer, the wavering commander of the Berlin garrison, to the phone to speak to Hitler in East Prussia, thus demonstrating that the Führer was alive and that the garrison should oppose the attempted coup.[75] Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ... Wilfred von Oven (born 1912), the former adjutant of Joseph Goebbels, living in Buenos Aires (as of 2001)[1] As reported, von Oven fought with the Legion Condor, later in Poland and Russia. ... Otto Ernst Remer (August 18, 1912 - October 4, 1997) was a German Wehrmacht officer who played a decisive role in stopping the 1944 July 20 Plot against Hitler. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ...

Goebbels promised Hitler that he could raise a million new soldiers by means of a reorganisation of the Army, transferring personnel from the Navy and Luftwaffe, and purging the bloated Reich Ministries which satraps like Göring had hitherto protected. As it turned out, the inertia of the state bureaucracy was too great even for the energetic Goebbels to overcome. Bormann and his puppet Lammers, keen to retain their control over the Party and State administrations respectively, placed endless obstacles in Goebbels’s way.[76] Another problem was that although Speer and Goebbels were allies, their agendas in fact conflicted: Speer wanted absolute priority in the allocation of labour to be given to arms production, while Goebbels sought to press every able-bodied male into the army. Speer, allied with Fritz Sauckel, the General Plenipotentiary for the Employment of Labour from 1942, generally won these battles.[77] Fritz Sauckel (Ernst Friedrich Christoph Sauckel) (October 27, 1894 – October 16, 1946) was a Nazi war criminal, who organized the systematic enslavement of millions of men and boys from lands occupied by Nazi Germany. ...

By July 1944, it was in any case too late for Goebbels and Speer’s internal coup to make any real difference to the outcome of the war. The combined economic and military power of the western Allies and the Soviet Union, now fully mobilised, was simply too great for Germany to overcome, no matter how many soldiers were sacrificed or how many slave labourers were worked to death. The crucial economic indicator, the ratio of steel output, was running at 4.5 to one against Germany. The final blow was the loss of the Romanian oil fields as the Soviet Army advanced through the Balkans in September. This, combined with the U.S. air campaign against Germany’s synthetic oil production, finally broke the back of the German economy and thus its capacity for further resistance.[78] By this time, the best Goebbels could do to reassure the German people that victory was still possible was to make vague promises that "miracle weapons" such as the Messerschmitt Me 262 jet airplane, the Type XXI U-boat and the V-2 rocket could somehow retrieve the military situation. The Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe (German: Swallow) was the worlds first operational turbojet fighter aircraft. ... Type XXI U-boat U 3008, postwar photo Type XXI U-boats, also known as the Elektroboote, were the first submarines designed to operate entirely submerged, rather than as surface ships that could submerge as a temporary means to escape detection or launch an attack. ... For other uses, see V2. ...

Defeat and death

The partly burned corpse of Joseph Goebbels, photographed by the Soviet secret service in May 1945

In the last months of the war, Goebbels’s speeches and articles took on an increasingly apocalyptic tone: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (942x513, 328 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (942x513, 328 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ...

Rarely in history has a brave people struggling for its life faced such terrible tests as the German people have in this war," he wrote towards the end. "The misery that results for us all, the never ending chain of sorrows, fears, and spiritual torture does not need to be described in detail… We are bearing a heavy fate because we are fighting for a good cause, and are called to bravely endure the battle to achieve greatness.[79]

By the beginning of 1945, with the Soviets on the Oder and the western Allies crossing the Rhine, Goebbels could no longer disguise the fact that defeat was inevitable. He knew what that would mean for himself: "For us," he had written in 1943, "we have burnt our bridges. We cannot go back, but neither do we want to go back. We are forced to extremes and therefore resolved to proceed to extremes."[80] The Oder (known in Czech, Slovak and Polish as Odra) is a river in Central Europe. ... The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1. ...

When other Nazi leaders urged Hitler to leave Berlin and establish a new centre of resistance in the National Redoubt in Bavaria, Goebbels opposed this, arguing for a last stand in the ruins of the Reich capital. A 1945 U.S. Army map showing the possible extent of the National Redoubt The National Redoubt was the English term used to describe the possibility that Adolf Hitler and armed forces of Nazi Germany would make a last stand in the alpine areas of Austria, Bavaria and northern Italy...

By this time, Goebbels had gained the position he had wanted so long—at the side of Hitler, albeit only because of his subservience to Bormann, who was de facto the Führer's deputy. Göring was utterly discredited, though Hitler refused to dismiss him until 25 April. Himmler, whose appointment as commander of Army Group Vistula had predictably led to disaster on the Oder, was also in disgrace, and Hitler rightly suspected that he was secretly trying to negotiate with the western Allies. Only Goebbels and Bormann remained totally loyal to Hitler.[81] He knew how to play on Hitler's fantasies, encouraging him to see in the death of President Roosevelt on 12 April the hand of providence.[82] On 22 April, largely the result of Goebbels's influence, Hitler announced that he would not leave Berlin, but would stay and fight, and if necessary die, in defence of the capital.[83] is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Army Group Vistula (also known as Army Group Weischel) was formed in 1945 to protect Berlin from the advancing Soviet armies marching from the Vistula river. ... FDR redirects here. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

On 23 April, Goebbels made the following proclamation to the people of Berlin: is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

I call on you to fight for your city. Fight with everything you have got, for the sake of your wives and your children, your mothers and your parents. Your arms are defending everything we have ever held dear, and all the generations that will come after us. Be proud and courageous! Be inventive and cunning! Your Gauleiter is amongst you. He and his colleagues will remain in your midst. His wife and children are here as well. He, who once captured the city with 200 men, will now use every means to galvanize the defense of the capital. The battle for Berlin must become the signal for the whole nation to rise up in battle . . . " [84] A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau. ... This article is about the capture of Berlin in 1945. ...

Unlike many other leading Nazis at this juncture, Goebbels at least proved to have the courage of his convictions, moving himself and his family into the Führerbunker under the Reich Chancellery building in central Berlin. He told Vice-Admiral Hans-Erich Voss that he would not entertain the idea of either surrender or escape: "I was the Reich Minister of Propaganda and led the fiercest activity against the Soviet Union, for which they would never pardon me," Voss quoted him as saying. "He couldn't escape also because he was Berlin's Defence Commissioner and he considered it would be disgraceful for him to abandon his post," Voss added.[85] This is a reconstruction of the layout of the Führerbunker. ... Hans-Erich Voss in Soviet captivity Vice-Admiral Hans-Erich Voss (or Voß, see ß) (1897-1969) German naval officer, was among the last people to see Adolf Hitler and Joseph Goebbels alive. ...

On 30 April, with the Russians advancing to within a few hundred metres of the bunker, Hitler dictated his last will and testament. Goebbels was one of four witnesses to Hitler's last will and testament. Not long after completing it, Hitler shot himself. Of Hitler's death, Goebbels commented: "The heart of Germany has ceased to beat. The Führer is dead." is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The last will and testament of Adolf Hitler was dictated by Hitler to his secretary Traudl Junge in his Berlin Führerbunker on April 29, 1945, the day he and Eva Braun married. ...

In his last will and testament, Hitler named no successor as Führer or leader of the Nazi Party. Instead, Hitler appointed Goebbels Reich Chancellor, Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz, who was at Flensburg near the Danish border, Reich President and Martin Bormann, Hitler's long-time chief of staff, Party Minister. Goebbels knew that this was an empty title. Even if he was willing and able to escape Berlin and reach the north, it was unlikely that Dönitz, whose only concern was to negotiate a settlement with the western Allies that would save Germany from Soviet occupation, would want such a notorious figure as Goebbels heading his government. Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ) (born 16 September 1891; died 24 December 1980) was a German naval leader, who commanded the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) during the second half of World War II. Dönitz was also President of Germany for 23 days after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... Flensburg (Danish: Flensborg, Low Saxon: Flensborg, North Frisian: Flansborj) is an independent town in the North of the German state Schleswig-Holstein. ...

As it was, Goebbels had no intention of trying to escape. Voss later recounted: "When Goebbels learned that Hitler had committed suicide, he was very depressed and said: 'It is a great pity that such a man is not with us any longer. But there is nothing to be done. For us, everything is lost now and the only way left for us is the one which Hitler chose. I shall follow his example'."[86]

On 1 May, within hours of Hitler's suicide on April 30, Goebbels completed his sole official act as Chancellor of Germany (Reichskanzler). He dictated a letter and ordered German General Hans Krebs, under a white flag, to meet with General Vasily Chuikov and to deliver his letter. Chuikov, as commander of the Soviet 8th Guards Army, commanded the Soviet forces in central Berlin. Goebbels' letter informed Chuikov of Hitler's death and requested a ceasefire, hinting that the establishment of a National Socialist government hostile to Western plutocracy would be beneficial to the Soviet Union, as the betrayal of Himmler and Göring indicated that otherwise anti-Soviet National Socialist elements might align themselves with the West. When this was rejected, Goebbels decided that further efforts were futile.[87] Shortly afterwards he dictated a postscript to Hitler's testament: is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... General of Infantry Hans Krebs (4 March 1898, Helmstedt - d. ... German troops after surrendering to the U.S. Third Army carry the white flag (WW2 photo). ... Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov (Васи́лий Ива́нович Чуйко́в) (February 12, 1900 - March 18, 1982) was a lieutenant general in the Soviet Red Army during World War II, two times Hero of the Soviet Union (1944, 1945), who after the war became a Marshal of the Soviet Union. ... The Soviet 8th Guards Army was an army of the Soviet Army, disbanded finally in the early 1990s. ... A plutocracy is a form of government where the states power is centralized in an affluent social class. ...

The Führer has given orders for me, in case of a breakdown of defense of the Capital of the Reich, to leave Berlin and to participate as a leading member in a government appointed by him. For the first time in my life, I must categorically refuse to obey a command of the Führer. My wife and my children agree with this refusal. In any other case, I would feel myself... a dishonorable renegade and vile scoundrel for my entire further life, who would lose the esteem of himself along with the esteem of his people, both of which would have to form the requirement for further duty of my person in designing the future of the German Nation and the German Reich.[88]

Later on 1 May, Vice-Admiral Hans-Erich Voss saw Goebbels for the last time: "Before the breakout [from the bunker] began, about ten generals and officers, including myself, went down individually to Goebbels's shelter to say goodbye. While saying goodbye I asked Goebbels to join us. But he replied: 'The captain must not leave his sinking ship. I have thought about it all and decided to stay here. I have nowhere to go because with little children I will not be able to make it'."[89] is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hans-Erich Voss in Soviet captivity Vice-Admiral Hans-Erich Voss (or Voß, see ß) (1897-1969) German naval officer, was among the last people to see Adolf Hitler and Joseph Goebbels alive. ...

At 8 p.m. on the evening of 1 May, Goebbels arranged for an SS doctor, Helmut Kunz, to kill his six children by injecting them with morphine and then, when they were unconscious, crushing an ampoule of cyanide in each of their mouths.[90] According to Kunz's testimony, he gave the children morphine injections but it was Magda Goebbels and Stumpfegger, Hitler's personal doctor, who then administered the cyanide.[91] Shortly afterwards, Goebbels and his wife went up to the garden of the Chancellery, where they killed themselves. After the war, Rear-Admiral Michael Musmanno, a U.S. naval officer and judge, published an account apparently based on eye-witness testimony: "At about 8.15 p.m., Goebbels arose from the table, put on his hat, coat and gloves and, taking his wife's arm, went upstairs to the garden." They were followed by Goebbels's adjutant, SS-Hauptsturmführer Günther Schwägermann. "While Schwägermann was preparing the petrol, he heard a shot. Goebbels had shot himself and his wife took poison. Schwägermann ordered one of the soldiers to shoot Goebbels again because he was unable to do it himself."[92] is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Helmut Kunz was an SS doctor who, after the suicide of Adolf Hitler, was ordered to kill the six children of Joseph Goebbels. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Michael Angelo Musmanno (April 7, 1897-October 12, 1968) was an United States jurist, politician, and military officer. ... Günther Schwägermann was born on 24 July 1915 in Uelzen and served in the Nazi government of German dictator Adolf Hitler. ...

The bodies of Goebbels and his wife were then burned in a shell crater, but owing to the lack of petrol the burning was only partly effective, and their bodies were easily identifiable. A few days later, Voss was brought back to the bunker by the Soviets to identify the partly burned bodies of Joseph and Magda Goebbels and the bodies of their children. "Vice-Admiral Voss, being asked how he identified the people as Goebbels, his wife and children, explained that he recognised the burnt body of the man as former Reichsminister Goebbels by the following signs: the shape of the head, the line of the mouth, the metal brace that Goebbels had on his right leg, his gold NSDAP badge and the burnt remains of his party uniform."[93] The remains of the Goebbels family were secretly buried, along with those of Hitler, near Rathenow in Brandenburg. In 1970, they were disinterred and cremated, and the ashes thrown in the Elbe. Rathenow is a town in the province of Brandenburg, Germany, with a population of 27,085. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... The Elbe River (Czech Labe, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. ...

Joachim Fest writes: "What he seemed to fear more than anything else was a death devoid of dramatic effects. To the end he was what he had always been: the propagandist for himself. Whatever he thought or did was always based on this one agonising wish for self-exaltation, and this same object was served by the murder of his children... They were the last victims of an egomania extending beyond the grave. However, this deed, too, failed to make him the figure of tragic destiny he had hoped to become; it merely gave his end a touch of repulsive irony."[94]

A popular image created by Boris Efimov mocking Joseph Goebbels.
A popular image created by Boris Efimov mocking Joseph Goebbels.

Propaganda poster by Boris Efimov intended for distribution in English speaking countries. ... Propaganda poster by Boris Efimov intended for distribution in English speaking countries. ... Boris Efimov Boris Efimovich Efimov (Russian: Борис Ефимович Ефимов) (born 28 September 1900 in Kiev) is a Soviet political cartoonist and propaganda artist best known for his political caricatures of Adolf Hitler and other Nazis produced before and during World War II. He was born as Boris Fridland, the second son of a...


  • Browning, Christopher (2004) The Origins of the Final Solution: The evolution of Nazi Jewish policy ISBN 0-434-01227-0
  • Evans, Richard J. (2005) The Third Reich in Power 1933-1939 ISBN 0-7139-9649-8
  • Evans, Richard J. (2004) The Coming of the Third Reich ISBN 0-141-00975-6
  • Fest, Joachim (1970) The Face of the Third Reich ISBN 0-297-17949-7
  • Fest, Joachim (1996) Plotting Hitler’s Death: The German Resistance to Hitler 1933-1945 ISBN 0-297-81774-4
  • Gilbert, Martin (2006) Kristallnacht: the Prelude to Destruction ISBN 978-0-06-057083-5
  • Hamilton, Richard F. (1982) Who Voted for Hitler? ISBN 0-691-09395-4
  • Kater, Michael H. (2004) Hitler Youth ISBN 0-674-01496-0
  • Kershaw, Ian (1999) Hitler ISBN 0-393-04671-0
  • Read, Anthony and Fisher, David (1994) Berlin: The Biography of a City ISBN 0-09-178021-7
  • Tooze, Adam (2006) The wages of Destruction: the making and breaking of the Nazi Economy ISBN 0-713-99566-1
  • Vinogradov, V.K. and others Hitler's Death: Russia's Last Great Secret from the Files of the KGB ISBN 1-904-44913-1


  1. ^ There are currently no really reliable biographical sources for Goebbels in English. Older biographies have been rendered obsolete by the discovery of the complete Goebbels Diaries in the Moscow archives in 1992. Since then the only full biography in English has been David Irving’s Goebbels: Mastermind of the Third Reich (1996). There are biographical sketches in Joachim Fest, The Face of the Third Reich (Weidenfeld and Nicholson 1970), 83–97, and Richard J. Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich (Penguin 2003), 203–205.
  2. ^ Goebbels is commonly said to have had club foot (talipes equinovarus), a congenital condition. But William L. Shirer, who spent the 1930s in Berlin as a journalist and was acquainted with Goebbels, wrote in The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (Simon and Schuster 1960) that the deformity arose from a childhood attack of osteomyelitis and a botched operation to correct it. Osteomyelitis, an infection within the bone marrow, can cause the destruction of one or more of the growing points in the long bones of the leg, a condition known as septic osteoblastic dysgenesis. This will result in a shortened leg.
  3. ^ Fest, The Face of the Third Reich, 88
  4. ^ Axis History link
  5. ^ Richard J. Evans, The Third Reich in Power (Allen Lane 2005), 249, says that "Goebbels’s religious beliefs retained a residual element of Christianity," as opposed to the outright paganism of Alfred Rosenberg and Richard Walther Darré. In one of his last articles, on the occasion of Hitler’s birthday in April 1945, he described Hitler as God’s implement. ("Our Hitler," Völkischer Beobachter, 20 April 1945, online here)
  6. ^ Michael H. Kater, Hitler Youth (Harvard University Press 2004), says that his "intelligent insights into policy matters were second to none in Hitler's entourage." (12) Kater credits Goebbels with persuading Hitler in 1930 to take the recruitment of young supporters into the Hitler Youth seriously. (11)
  7. ^ Fest, The Face of the Third Reich, 88
  8. ^ Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, 204
  9. ^ In 1992, the missing sections of the diaries were found in the Moscow archives by Dr Elke Fröhlich. A multi-volume edition of the diaries is in preparation.
  10. ^ Fest, The Face of the Third Reich, 89
  11. ^ Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, 204
  12. ^ Fest, The Face of the Third Reich, 87
  13. ^ Ian Kershaw, Hitler, Volume I (W.W. Norton 1999), 270
  14. ^ Ian Kershaw, Hitler, I, 272
  15. ^ Fest, The Face of the Third Reich, 89. These sentiments were reciprocated by some on the left. Richard F. Hamilton, Who Voted for Hitler? (Princeton University Press 1982), 570, quotes strikingly anti-Semitic statements made by some German Communist leaders in their efforts to create a common front between Communist and National Socialist workers.
  16. ^ Ian Kershaw, Hitler, I, 275
  17. ^ Ian Kershaw, Hitler, I, 277
  18. ^ Current Biography 1941, pp.323-26
  19. ^ Anthony Read and David Fisher, Berlin: The Biography of a City (Pimlico 1994), 187–189
  20. ^ Fest, The Face of the Third Reich, 90
  21. ^ Fest, The Face of the Third Reich, 90
  22. ^ Fest, The Face of the Third Reich, 90
  23. ^ Fest, The Face of the Third Reich, 90
  24. ^ Fest, The Face of the Third Reich, 92
  25. ^ Hamilton, Who Voted for Hitler?, discusses Goebbels's record as an election campaigner. Hamilton notes: "In National Socialist literature, as well as in the writings of the party's opponents, much attention has been given to the masterly demagogic efforts of the Berlin Gauleiter, Joseph Goebbels, showing an extraordinary appreciation of crowd psychology, so it is said, he manipulated audiences with unequalled skill. Goebbels's accomplishment, however, as measured by... voting results, was at all times inferior to that of his less well known colleagues in Hamburg." (109)
  26. ^ Read and Fisher, Berlin, 189
  27. ^ Wahlen in der Weimarer Republik website
  28. ^ Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, 208
  29. ^ Hamilton, Who Voted for Hitler, 389. Hamilton notes that Der Angriff struck a noticeably "anti-bourgeois" tone in the last years of the Weimar Republic (416).
  30. ^ Gregor lost all his power but remained nominal head of the party organisation until 1932: he was murdered in 1934 in the Night of the Long Knives. Otto went into exile.
  31. ^ Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, 259. Evans notes that many Nazi voters in the party’s breakthrough election in 1930 were young or other first-time voters, brought to the polls by the excitement generated by Goebbels’s campaign techniques.
  32. ^ Part of the building had long housed the German government press office, other parts of it were occupied by the Prussian Finance Ministry. Goebbels soon occupied the whole building. The Palace was destroyed by Allied bombs, but some of Goebbels's extensions at the rear of the Palace survived and are still in use, although now obscured from view from Wilhelmstrasse by a postwar building.
  33. ^ Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, 358
  34. ^ Read and Fisher, Berlin, 205
  35. ^ The chambers were the Reich Chamber of Film, the Reich Chamber of the Visual Arts, the Reich Chamber of Theatre, the Reich Chamber of Radio, the Reich Chamber of the Press, the Reich Chamber of Music, and the Reich Chamber of Literature. They were grouped into the Reich Chamber of Culture. (Hans Fritzsche, "Dr. Goebbels and his Ministry," originally published as "Dr. Goebbels und sein Ministerium," in Hans Heinz Mantau-Sadlia, Deutsche Führer Deutsches Schicksal (Verlag Max Steinebach, 1934), available online here
  36. ^ The process by which Goebbels established control over the German arts and mass media by a combination of co-option, bribery and coercion is described in detail in Evans, The Third Reich in Power, chapter 2 "The Mobilisation of the Spirit." In The Coming of the Third Reich, 399–402, Evans describes how Goebbels used the parlous financial state of the Berlin Philharmonic to break down the resistance of its renowned conductor, Wilhelm Furtwängler, to the removal of Jewish musicians from the orchestra.
  37. ^ Evans, The Third Reich in Power, 210
  38. ^ Fest, The Face of the Third Reich, 93
  39. ^ Fest, The Face of the Third Reich, 93–94
  40. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, I, 560
  41. ^ For Goebbels’s role in organising the Olympics, and for the temporary easing of anti-Semitic agitation during the Games, see Guy Walters, Berlin Games: How Hitler Stole the Olympic Dream (John Murray 2006)
  42. ^ Evans, The Third Reich in Power, 575
  43. ^ Evans, The Third Reich in Power, 576
  44. ^ For Grynszpan, his actions and the motives for them, see Gerald Schwab, The Day the Holocaust Began: The Odyssey of Herschel Grynszpan (Praeger 1990).
  45. ^ Martin Gilbert, Kristallnacht (HarperPress 2006), 29.
  46. ^ Adam Tooze, Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy (Allen Lane 2006), 278. Göring estimated that Kristallnacht caused 220 million Reichsmarks of material damage. Himmler, Albert Speer and Rosenberg, for different reasons, were also highly critical of Goebbels (Kershaw, Hitler, II, 149
  47. ^ Gilbert, Kristallnacht, 29
  48. ^ This account is taken from the Wikipedia article on Lída Baarová, which is sourced to her memoirs and other Czech-language sources. The connection between the Baarová affair and Goebbels’ role in inciting Kristallnacht is made by Ian Kershaw, Hitler, Volume II (W.W. Norton 2000), 145)
  49. ^ Kater, Hitler Youth, 58
  50. ^ Evans, The Third Reich in Power, 405
  51. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, II, 227
  52. ^ For the most recent demonstration that Hitler fully intended leading Germany into war and that the whole policy of the regime was directed to this end, see Tooze, Wages of Destruction, particularly 206–29 and 247–60
  53. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, II, 226. At the time of the Reoccupation of the Rhineland in 1936, Goebbels summed up his general attitude in his diary: "Now is the time for action. Fortune favours the brave! He who dares nothing wins nothing." (Kershaw, Hitler, I, 586)
  54. ^ Evans, The Third Reich in Power, 674
  55. ^ Evans, The Third Reich in Power, 696
  56. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, II, 565
  57. ^ The story of the Committee of Three is given by Kershaw, Hitler, II, 569–577.
  58. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, II, 561–563
  59. ^ Goebbels founded Das Reich in 1940 as a "quality" newspaper in which he could set out his own views for an elite readership. By 1941, it had over a million readers.
  60. ^ Christopher R. Browing, The Origins of the Final Solution (University of Nebraska Press, 2004), 391.
  61. ^ quoted in Richard Breitman, The Architect of Genocide: Himmler and the Final Solution (Pimlico 2004), 63)
  62. ^ Browning, The Origins of the Final Solution, 371, says the decision was made in September. Others have argued for a date as late as mid December. (Christian Gerlach, "The Wannsee Conference, the Fate of German Jews, and Hitler's Decision in Principle to Exterminate All European Jews," Journal of Modern History, December 1998, 759–812).
  63. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, II, 482
  64. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, II, 490
  65. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, II, 519
  66. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, II, 473
  67. ^ Browning, The Origins of the Final Solution, 415
  68. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, II, 494
  69. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, II, 551, 598
  70. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, II, 566
  71. ^ Fest, The Face of the Third Reich, 95
  72. ^ "The European Crisis", Das Reich, 28 February 1943, online here
  73. ^ "The War and the Jews," Das Reich, 9 May 1943, online here
  74. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, II, 601
  75. ^ Joachim Fest, Plotting Hitler’s Death: The German Resistance to Hitler 1933–1945 (Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1996), 271
  76. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, II, 709. Kershaw comments, "Nothing was ever quite what it seemed in the Third Reich."
  77. ^ Kater, Hitler Youth, 218, discusses the conflicting demands of production and the army on young Germans.
  78. ^ Tooze, Wages of Destruction, 639
  79. ^ "Fighters for the Eternal Reich," Das Reich, 8 April 1945, online here
  80. ^ Fest, "The Face of the Third Reich, 96
  81. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, II, 787
  82. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, 791
  83. ^ Kershaw, Hitler, 810
  84. ^ Dollinger, Hans. The Decline and Fall of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 67-27047, Page 231
  85. ^ V.K. Vinogradov and others, Hitler's Death: Russia's Last Great Secret from the Files of the KGB (Chaucer Press 205), 154. Goebbels had assumed the title Reichs Defence Commissioner for the Greater Berlin Gau in November 1942. He also made himself City President of Berlin in April 1943.
  86. ^ Vinogradov, Hitler's Death, 156
  87. ^ Vinogradov, Hitler's Death, 324
  88. ^ Death of Joseph Goebbels
  89. ^ Vinogradov, Hitler's Death, 156
  90. ^ Transcript of the testimony of SS-Stürmbannführer Helmut Kunz in Soviet captivity, Vinogradov, Hitler's Death, 56.
  91. ^ Beevor, Antony [2002, Viking] (2003). "Chapter 25: Reich Chancellery and Reichstag", Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Penguin History. London: Penguin Books, pp 380f. ISBN 0-140-28696-9. “Kunz said that he could not face giving poison to the sleeping children. . . . Together with Stumpfegger, she [Magda Goebbels] opened the mouths of the sleeping children, put an ampoule of poison btween their teeth and forced their jaws together.” 
  92. ^ Michael Musmanno, "Is Hitler Alive?", published in the Swiss newspaper Die Nation, 1948 (presumably in translation from an English original), and reprinted in Vinogradov, Hitler's Death, 314.
  93. ^ Vinogradov, Hitler's Death, 34
  94. ^ Fest, The Face of the Third Reich, 97

For other persons of the same name, see David Irving (footballer) and David Irving (politician). ... Club foot. ... Osteomyelitis is an infection of bone, usually caused by pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ...   (January 12, 1893 Reval (nowadays Tallinn) – October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ... R. Walther Darré in a 1939 calendar Richard Oscar Walther Darré (14 July 1895 - 5 September 1953), SS-Obergruppenführer, was one of the Nazi leading ‘blood and soil’ ideologists. ... For other uses, see Night of the Long Knives (disambiguation). ... The Berlin Philharmonic rehearsing in the Berliner Philharmonie. ... Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886 – November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer. ... For the son of Albert Speer, also an architect, see Albert Speer (the younger). ... The Remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March 1936 when German forces entered the Rhineland. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ...

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Joseph Goebbels
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Joseph Goebbels
Political offices
Preceded by
Adolf Hitler
Chancellor of Germany
30 April-1 May 1945
Succeeded by
Count Lutz Schwerin von Krosigk

  Results from FactBites:
Biographie: Joseph Goebbels, 1897-1945 (1128 words)
Goebbels attackiert in den von ihm verfaßten Artikeln vor allem prominente jüdische Verleger.
November: Goebbels signalisiert in einer Rede vor der Parteiführung in München, daß antisemitische Demonstrationen weder vorzubereiten noch durchzuführen seien, daß aber auch nichts gegen "spontan erfolgende Ausschreitungen" unternommen werden solle.
Goebbels führte seit 1923 regelmäßig Tagebuch, das in mehreren Bänden postum veröffentlicht wird.
Joseph Goebbels (1640 words)
Master propagandist of the Nazi regime and dictator of its cultural life for twelve years, Joseph Goebbels was born into a strict Catholic, working-class family from Rheydt, in the Rhineland, on 29 October 1897.
Bitterly conscious of his deformity and fearful of being regarded as a "bourgeois intellectual," Goebbels overcompensated for his lack of the physical virtues of the strong, healthy, blond, Nordic type by his ideological rectitude and radicalism once he joined the NSDAP in 1922.
Goebbels's hatred of the Jews, like his hatred of the privileged and clever, stemmed from a deep-rooted sense of inferiority and internalization of mob values; at the same time it was also opportunist and tactical, based on the need to create a common enemy, to feed popular resentment and to mobilize the masses.
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