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Encyclopedia > Joseph E. Johnston
Joseph E. Johnston

Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. His effectiveness was undercut by tensions with President Jefferson Davis, but he also suffered from a lack of aggressiveness and victory eluded him in every campaign he personally commanded. Download high resolution version (1076x1425, 224 KB)Mid 19th century photograph of General Joseph E. Johnston. ... Download high resolution version (1076x1425, 224 KB)Mid 19th century photograph of General Joseph E. Johnston. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Jefferson Finis Davis (June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889) was an American politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865 during the American Civil War. ...

Contents

Early years

Johnston was born at Longwood House in Farmville, Virginia, now the home of the President of Longwood University. Johnston was named for Major Joseph Eggleston under whom his father served in the American Revolutionary War. Johnston attended the U.S. Military Academy, graduating in 1829. He served eight years in the artillery before he was transferred to the topographical engineers in 1838, when he rejoined the army a year after his resignation. During the Mexican-American War, he won two brevets and was wounded at both Cerro Gordo and Chapultepec. He had also been brevetted for earlier service in the Seminole Wars. He served in California and was appointed Quartermaster General of the U.S. Army on June 28, 1860. Farmville is a town located in Virginia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... A sex worker in Germany. ... Joseph Eggleston (November 24, 1754–February 14, 1811) was an American planter, solder, and politician from Amelia County, Virginia. ... Combatants American Revolutionaries French Monarchy Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Oneida and Tuscarora tribes Polish volunteers Prussian volunteers Kingdom of Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Hessian mercenaries Loyalists Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz KoÅ›ciuszko Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben Sir... Alternate meanings: West Point (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia Strength 7,000 - 43,000 18,000 - 40,000 Casualties KIA: 1,733 Total dead: 13,283 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded (Mexican government... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Strength 8,500 12,000 Casualties 417 4,000 Gen Ciriaco Vasquez dead Gens. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Nicolás Bravo # Strength 13,000 876 cadets, 4000 regulars Casualties 130 killed 703 wounded 29 missing 862 total 1,800 killed and wounded 823 captured 2,623 Total Gen. ... Combatants United States Seminole Commanders Andrew Jackson Osceola The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between various groups of Indians collectively known as Seminoles and the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Quartermaster is a term usually referring to a military unit which specializes in supplying and provisioning troops, or to an individual who does the same. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ...


Johnston married Lydia McLane, the daughter of Louis McLane, a congressman from Delaware, and a member of President Andrew Jackson's cabinet. They had no children. She died in February 1887. His brother Charles Clement Johnston also served as a U.S. Representative, and his nephew John Warfield Johnston was a United States Senator; both represented Virginia. Louis McLane Louis McLane (May 28, 1786–October 7, 1857) represented the state of Delaware in both the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate and served as the Secretary of the Treasury and later the Secretary of State under President Andrew Jackson. ... Official language(s) None Capital Dover Largest city Wilmington Area  Ranked 49th  - Total 2,491 sq mi (6,452 km²)  - Width 30 miles (48 km)  - Length 100 miles (161 km)  - % water 21. ... The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Charles Clement Johnston (April 30, 1795–June 17, 1832) was a U.S. Representative from Virginia. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... John Warfield Johnston (September 9, 1818–February 27, 1889) was an American lawyer and politician from Tazewell, Virginia. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ...


Civil War

When his native state seceded from the Union in 1861, Johnston resigned his commission as a brigadier general in the Regular Army, the highest-ranking U.S. Army officer to do so. Initially commissioned as a major general in the Virginia militia, he relieved Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson in command at Harpers Ferry and organized the Army of the Shenandoah. For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... The Union was a name used by many to refer to the Northern states during the American Civil War. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... The Regular Army is the permanent force of the United States Army or any Countrys army that is maintained during peacetime, as opposed to those persons who may be part of a reserve or national guard outfit. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... Harpers Ferry, West Virginia 1865. ... ...


In the First Battle of Bull Run, July 1861, Johnston brought forces from the Shenandoah Valley to combine with those of Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, but he ceded direction of the battle to the more junior general since he lacked familiarity with the terrain. He did manage to claim a share of public credit for the Southern victory, however. After Bull Run, Johnston assisted Beauregard and William Porcher Miles in the design and production of the Confederate Battle Flag. It was Johnston's idea to make the flag square.[1] Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 effectives 32,500 effectives Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing) 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing) The First Battle... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Confederate States of America used several flags during its existence from 1861 to 1865. ...


In August, Johnston was promoted to full general—what is called a four-star general in the modern army—but was not pleased that three other men now outranked him. He felt that since he was the senior officer to leave the U.S. Army and join the Confederacy he should not be ranked behind Samuel Cooper, Albert Sidney Johnston, and Robert E. Lee. Only Beauregard was placed behind Johnston on the list of five new generals. This led to much bad blood between Johnston and Jefferson Davis, which would last throughout the war. General Samuel Cooper Samuel Cooper (June 12, 1798 – December 3, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and, although little-known today, the highest ranking Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... // This article is about the Confederate general. ... Jefferson Finis Davis (June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889) was an American politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865 during the American Civil War. ...


Peninsula Campaign

Johnston was placed in command of the Army of Northern Virginia and led it in the start of the 1862 Peninsula Campaign. Defending the capital of Richmond against Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, Johnston employed a strategy of gradual withdrawals before any general engagement, until his army was only five miles in front of the city, where McClellan intended to besiege it. Finally cornered, Johnston attacked on May 31, 1862, south of the Chickahominy River, in the Battle of Seven Pines. The battle was tactically inconclusive, but it stopped McClellan's advance on the city and would turn out to be the high-water mark of his invasion. More significant, however, was that Johnston was wounded on the second day of the battle, and Davis turned over command to the more aggressive General Robert E. Lee, who would lead the Army of Northern Virginia for the rest of the war. The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Chickahominy also known as the Chick is a river in the southeastern portion of the U.S. state of Virginia, near which several battles of the United States Civil War were fought in 1862 and 1864. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Joseph E. Johnston G. W. Smith Strength 41,797 41,816 Casualties 5,031 (790 killed, 3,594 wounded, 647 captured/missing) 6,134 (980 killed, 4,749 wounded, 405 captured/missing) The Battle of Seven Pines...


Western Theater

After recovering from his wound, Johnston was given command of the Department of the West, the principal command of the Western Theater, which gave him titular control of Gen. Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee and Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton's Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana. Pemberton faced Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant from inside the besieged city of Vicksburg, Mississippi, and Johnston urged him to abandon the city temporarily, join forces with Johnston's troops, and outnumber Grant, but Davis ordered Pemberton to stay in Vicksburg, causing great consternation in the South when its last stronghold on the Mississippi River fell on July 4, 1863. Later that year, Bragg was defeated in the Battle of Chattanooga and Davis reluctantly relieved his old friend and replaced him with Johnston. Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... The Army of Tennessee can refer to either of two American Civil War armies: Army of Tennessee, the Confederate army named after the state of Tennessee. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... John C. Pemberton John Clifford Pemberton (August 10, 1814 – July 13, 1881), was a career U.S. Army officer and Confederate general in the American Civil War, noted for his defeat and surrender in the critical Battle of Vicksburg. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... Ulysses S. Grant[2] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Vicksburg is a city in Warren County, Mississippi. ... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the second-longest named river in North America, with a length of 2320 miles (3733 km) from Lake Itasca to the Gulf of Mexico. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The third Battle of Chattanooga (popularly known as The Battle of Chattanooga) was fought November 23–25, 1863, in the American Civil War. ...


Atlanta Campaign

Faced with Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's advance from Chattanooga to Atlanta in the spring of 1864, Johnston reverted to his strategy of withdrawal. He conducted a series of actions in which he prepared strong defensive positions, only to see Sherman maneuver around them, causing him to fall back in the general direction of Atlanta. Johnston saw the preservation of his army as the most important consideration, and hence conducted a very cautious campaign. He handled his army well, slowing the Union advance and inflicting heavier losses than he sustained. On June 27, Johnston defeated Sherman at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, but the purely defensive victory did not prevent Sherman from continuing his offensive. Critics have claimed that Johnston's strategy was entirely defensive and that his unwillingness to risk an offensive made the chance of a Confederate victory impossible. Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, and author. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Hotlanta redirects here. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... Battle of Kennesaw Mountain Conflict American Civil War Date June 27, 1864 Place Kennesaw, Georgia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Kennesaw Mountain was fought on June 27, 1864 during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. ...


Jefferson Davis became increasingly irritated by this strategy and removed Johnston from command on July 17, 1864, shortly before the Battle of Peachtree Creek, just outside of Atlanta. (His replacement, Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood, was overly aggressive, but ineffective, losing Atlanta in September and a large portion of his army in the Franklin-Nashville Campaign that winter.) Davis's decision to remove Johnston was one of the most controversial of the war. July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Battle of Peachtree Creek Conflict American Civil War Date July 20, 1864 Place Fulton County, Georgia Result Union victory The Battle of Peachtree Creek was a battle of the American Civil War, fought in Georgia on July 20, 1864. ... John Bell Hood John Bell Hood (June 1, 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Western Theater campaigns of 1864–65 The Franklin-Nashville Campaign, also known as Hoods Tennessee Campaign, was a series of battles in the Western Theater, fought in the fall of 1864 in Alabama, Tennessee, and northwestern Georgia during the American Civil War. ...


The Carolinas and surrender

As the Confederacy became increasingly concerned about Sherman's March to the Sea across Georgia and then north through the Carolinas, the public clamored for Johnston's return. Davis appointed him to a command called collectively the Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, and also the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia. These commands theoretically included three Confederate armies, but they were paper tigers and Johnston could do little to blunt Sherman's advance. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Sherman in South Carolina: The burning of McPhersonville. ... Paper tiger is a literal English translation of the Chinese phrase zhǐ lǎohǔ (Chinese: ), meaning something which seems as threatening as a tiger, but is really harmless. ...


On March 19, 1865, Johnston was able to catch a portion of Sherman's army by surprise at the Battle of Bentonville and briefly gained some tactical successes before superior numbers forced him to retreat. After learning of Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House, Johnston surrendered his army to Sherman at the Bennett Place near Durham, North Carolina, two weeks later on April 26, 1865, despite orders to the contrary from Jefferson Davis. March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Media:Example. ... McLean house, April 1865. ... Popularly known as Bennett Place, the farmhouse owned by James and Nancy Bennett (alternately and probably correctly, Bennitt) was the site of the largest surrender of troops during the American Civil War on April 26, 1865. ... Nickname: Location in North Carolina Country United States State North Carolina County Durham County Government  - Mayor Bill Bell Area  - City  94. ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (117th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Postbellum life

After the war Johnston settled in Savannah, Georgia, was president of a railroad company in Arkansas, and became engaged in the general insurance business in 1868 and 1869. Coordinates: County Chatham  - Mayor Otis S. Johnson Area    - City 202. ...


He returned to Virginia and settled in Richmond in 1877 and became president of an express company. Johnston served in the 46th Congress from 1879 to 1881 as Democratic Congressman; he was not a candidate for renomination in 1880. Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... The Forty-sixth United States Congress was a meeting of the United States national legislature, including the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ...


He was a commissioner of railroads in the administration of United States President Grover Cleveland. The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ...


His analysis of his activities in the Civil War, Narrative of Military Operations, published in 1874, was highly critical of Davis and many of his fellow generals.


Johnston, like Lee, never forgot the magnanimity of the man he surrendered to, and would not allow an unkind word to be said about Sherman in his presence. When Sherman had died, Johnston was a pallbearer at his funeral; during the procession in New York City on February 19, 1891, he kept his hat off as a sign of respect in the cold, rainy weather. Someone had some concern for the old general's health and asked him to put on his hat, to which Johnston replied "If I were in his place and he standing here in mine he would not put on his hat." He caught pneumonia and died several weeks later. He is buried in Greenmount Cemetery, Baltimore, Maryland. February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... Section T of the Green Mount Cemetery. ... Nickname: Motto: The Greatest City in America,[3] Get in on it. ...


The only known public monument to Johnston was erected in Dalton, Georgia, in 1912. During World War II, the United States Navy named a Liberty Ship in honor of Johnston. Dalton is a city located in Whitfield County, Georgia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... The Liberty ships were cargo ships built in the United States during World War II. They were cheap and quick to build, and came to symbolize U.S. wartime industrial output. ...


His brother Charles Clement Johnston also served as a U.S. Representative, and his nephew John Warfield Johnston was a United States Senator; both represented Virginia. Charles Clement Johnston (April 30, 1795–June 17, 1832) was a U.S. Representative from Virginia. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... John Warfield Johnston (September 9, 1818–February 27, 1889) was an American lawyer and politician from Tazewell, Virginia. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ...


References

  • Coski, John M. The Confederate Battle Flag: America's Most Embattled Emblem, Belknap Press, 2005, ISBN 0-674-01983-0.
  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Marszalek, John F. Sherman: A Soldier's Passion for Order, The Free Press (Macmillan, Inc.), 1993, ISBN 0-02-920135-7.
  • This article incorporates facts obtained from the public domain Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a biographical dictionary of all members of both houses of the United States Congress, past and present. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Coski, p. 9.

Further reading

  • Govan, Gilbert E., and Livingood, James W., A Different Valor: The Story of General Joseph E. Johnston C.S.A., Indianapolis, 1956.
  • Johnson, Bradley T., A Memoir of the Life and Public Service of Joseph E. Johnson, Baltimore, 1891.
  • Johnston, Joseph E., Narrative of Military Operations, New York, 1874.

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