FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > Joseph Di Mambro

The Order of the Solar Temple also known as Ordre du Temple Solaire (OTS) in French, and the International Chivalric Organization of the Solar Tradition or simply as The Solar Temple was a secret society based upon the new age myth of the continuing existence of the Knights Templar (see Origins of the Solar Temple below). According to historians[citation needed], OTS was started by Joseph Di Mambro and Luc Jouret in 1984 in Geneva as l'Ordre International Chevaleresque de Tradition Solaire (OICTS) and renamed Ordre du Temple Solaire. It is believed that other members were also involved who have remained unknown to the public. A secret society is an organization that conceals its activities from outsiders. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... This article is about the medieval military order. ... Luc Jouret (1947 - 1994) was a Belgian (Belgian Congolese-born) cult leader in Switzerland. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hunters a cool hobo For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ...

NOTE: While a great deal of the material below is repeated in many articles and books written by journalists, much information about the Solar Temple remains unverified. There were few official documents and no official spokespersons that can document the beliefs and practices of this Neo-Templar splinter group. Ex-member accounts can be contradictory, as their statements are often based upon hearsay from other members, or are allegations that were never responded to by the members of the group. The group received little publicity until after the tragedy which killed most, if not all, of its leaders. The only information presented below is that which is generally undisputed.


Hearsay may refer to: Hearsay in English Law and Hearsay in United States law, a legal principle concerning the admission of evidence through repetition of out-of-court statements HearSay, a British pop group Category: ...

Neo-Templar groups

The Solar Temple is among a number of contemporary groups that perceive themselves as fulfilling the tradition of the Knights Templar. The Templars were a Christian Order of "warrior monks", authorized by the Pope following the First Crusade. They were originally formed to provide protection for the masses of Christian pilgrims visiting the Holy Land, but they soon developed many banking functions as a side effect of keeping the pilgrim's valuables under their protection. As a result of their financial dealings they became rich, and were soon a target of jealousy as a result. They eventually ran afoul of Philip IV of France, who attempted to blackmail them into funding his unsuccessful war with England, and when this failed he had all members in France arrested and burned. In the aftermath the Pope disbanded the order, and in doing so released a number of generally ridiculous claims of heresy to discredit them. This article is about the medieval military order. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians Turkish people Muslims/Arabs The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims, and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim rule. ... Philip IV the Fair (French: Philippe IV le Bel) (1268 – November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ...

Claims that the Templars had amassed various treasures or knowledge are now widespread, including the Holy Grail, the head of Baphomet, proof of the survival of the historical Jesus after the crucifixion and/or marriage to Mary Magdalene. Neo-Templar groups are those which claim to share some kind of connection to the original Templars, which may be either an actual or esoteric connection. Some may purport to have knowledge of the mysterious treasure. For historical artifacts associated with the cup of the Last Supper, see Holy Chalice. ... Baphomet, by Eliphas Lévi. ... Crucifixion of St. ... This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ...

Some historians allege that the Solar Temple originates with French author Jacques Breyer who established a Sovereign Order of the Solar Temple in 1952. In 1968, a schismatic order was renamed the Renewed Order of the Solar Temple (ROTS) under the leadership of French right-wing political activist Julien Origas. Some reports have claimed that Origas was a Nazi SS member during World War II. 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Formation of the Solar Temple

One of the founders of the Solar Temple was Luc Jouret (1947 - 1994). Born in the Belgian Congo, he was educated in medicine at the Université Libre in Brussels, graduating in 1974. He specialized in homeopathy. Jouret, who had interests in freemasonry, the Albigenses and Cathars, as well as many new age theories, and eventually became a member of ROTS. He was also said to have been a member of the far right Parti Communautaire Européen. After Origas died in 1983, Jouret became the presiding Grand Master of ROTS. The group splintered one year later. 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Capital Léopoldville Government Protectorate Created 1908 Dissolved 1960 Official language(s) French, Dutch The Belgian Congo was the formal title of present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) between King Léopold IIs formal relinquishment of personal control over the state to Belgium on 15 November 1908... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Nickname: The Capital Of Europe, Comic City City of a 100 Museums[] Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989  - Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area    - City 162 (Region) km²  (62. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... It has been suggested that Veterinary homeopathy be merged into this article or section. ... The Masonic Square and Compasses. ... Albigenses were a group named for Albi, a city in southern France. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Another of the founding members was Joseph Di Mambro (1926 - 1995). Di Mambro was part of a Rosicrucian organization called AMORC (Ancient and Mystical Order Rosae Crucis), from 1956 to 1970. Di Mambro, who had been trained as a clock maker and jeweler, became interested in esoteric religions at an early age. He was arrested on swindling charges which prompted his resettlement in Switzerland. Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Temple of the Rose Cross, Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, 1618. ... The Rosicrucian Order, Ancient Mystical Order Rosæ Crucis (AMORC) is a worldwide mystical, Rosicrucian, educational, humanitarian and fraternal organisation founded by Harvey Spencer Lewis in 1915. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...

The precise relationship between the two founders is unclear. Most accounts suggest that Jouret had already formed the Solar Temple and later "absorbed" Di Mambro's Foundation Golden Way, a similar group. Others suggest that the two formed the Solar Temple together when ROTS was splitting up.

In any event, the two convinced their followers that Jouret and Di Mambro were members of the 14th Century Christian Order of the Knights Templar during a previous life, and that Di Mambro's daughter Emanuelle was "the cosmic child", and that she was the result of a virgin birth. She would lead them after death to a planet which was said to orbit around the star Sirius, but in order to do so they would have to die in a fire, as was prophesied for the end of the world. Reincarnation, literally to be made flesh again, is a doctrine or mystical belief that some essential part of a living being (in some variations only human beings) survives death to be reborn in a new body. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... For information on Sirius satellite radio, see Sirius Satellite Radio. ...

Dogma and Beliefs of the Solar Temple

According to "Peronnik" (a pseudonym of temple member Robert Chabrier) in his book, "Pourquoi la Résurgence de l'Ordre du Temple? Tome Premier: Le Corps (Why a Templar Revival? Vol. One: The Body) 1975, pp. 147-149, the aims of the OTS included: establishing "correct notions of authority and power in the world"; an affirmation of the primacy of the spiritual over the temporal; assisting humanity through a great "transition"; and preparing for the Second Coming of Jesus as a solar god-king and furthering a unification of all Christian churches and Islam. 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... The Second Coming or Last Coming refers to the Christian belief in the coming or earthly return of Jesus Christ to fulfill Messianic prophecy, such as the resurrection of the dead, last judgment and full establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth (also called the Reign of God), including... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...

There were Solar Temple Lodges in Morin Heights and St-Anne-de-la-Pérade in Quebec, Canada, as well as in Australia, Switzerland, Martinique and other countries. The Temple's activities were a mix of early Protestant christianity, mixed with a new age philosophy and homeopathic medicine, using variously adapted freemasonic rituals. Jouret was interested in attractive, wealthy and influential members, and it was reputed that several affluent Europeans were secret members of the group. There were press reports that executives of Quebec's Hydro-Québec were building dams at the behest of Jouret, in order to provide electricity for a Quebecois colony that would exist after the group's prophesied doomsday event.[citation needed] Morin Heights is a town in the Laurentian Mountains region of Quebec, Canada. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... Homeopathy (also spelled homœopathy or homoeopathy), from the Greek words homoios (similar) and pathos (suffering), is a controversial system of alternative medicine involving the use of remedies without chemically active ingredients. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hydro-Québec is a crown corporation that provides hydroelectric power for Quebec, Canada and the north-eastern parts of the United States. ... Look up doomsday in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Structure of the OTS

According to the literature of the OTS, the central authority was the Synarchy of the Temple, whose membership was secret. Its top 33 members were known as the Elder Brothers of the Rosy Cross (an alternative name for the Rosicrucians), and were headquartered in Zürich, Switzerland. The Council of the Order formed Lodges which were run by a Regional Commander and three Elders. Progression in the Order was by levels and grades, with three grades per level - the levels being The Brothers of Parvis, The Knights of the Alliance and the Brothers of the Ancient Times in ascending order. There were many organizations associated with the OTS including the International Archedia Sciences and Tradition, Archedia Clubs, Menta Clubs, Agata Clubs and Atlanta Clubs, all of which offered the teachings of Luc Jouret both to the general public and privately to OTS members. The Lodges had altars, rituals and costumes. Members were initiated at each stage of advancement in ceremonies which included expensive purchases, jewellery, costumes, regalia, and the payment of initiation fees. During ceremonies, members wore Crusader-type robes and were to hold in awe a sword which Di Mambro said was an authentic Templar artifact, given to him a thousand years ago in a previous life. The Temple of the Rosy Cross, Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, 1618 The Rosicrucians are a legendary and secretive order dating from the 15th or 17th century, generally associated with the symbol of the Rose Cross, which is also used in certain rituals of the Freemasons. ... View of the inner city with the four main churches visible, and the Albis in the backdrop Zürich (German: , Zürich German: Züri , French: , in English generally Zurich, Italian: ) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and... Look up lodge in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Picture of an altar from the Meyer Encyclopaedia An altar, (Hebrew mizbeah, from a word meaning to slay) is any structure on which sacrifices known as the korbanot or incense offerings are offered for religious purposes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Initiation (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... It has been suggested that War-sword be merged into this article or section. ...

The Solar Temple in Quebec

In 1986 Jouret and Di Mambro moved to the Canadian province of Quebec, establishing a chapter of the Order of the Solar Temple near Montreal and Quebec City. They bought a chalet complex in Morin Heights, complete with indoor pool, along with a center in Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pérade, Quebec. Jouret also brought some other of his loyal followers from Switzerland. The group believed that there was going to be a coming global catastrophe. Jouret declared that "the world would soon be engulfed in warfare and famine. Only Quebec would be spared…" A "giant concrete nuclear air-raid shelter" was built in the centre to protect them during the predicted calamity. 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: City of Mary (Ville-Marie) Motto: Concordia Salus (salvation through harmony) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1] [2] [3]  - City 365. ... Motto : « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Quebec Official logo Country  Canada Province Québec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Constitution date 1833 Geographical code 24 23027 Founder Foundation... Morin Heights is a town in the Laurentian Mountains region of Quebec, Canada. ... A disaster is a natural or man-made event that negatively affects life, property, livelihood or industry often resulting in permanent changes to human societies, ecosystems and environment. ...

Di Mambro also owned several luxury properties in Australia, France, Switzerland, Martinique and elsewhere in Canada which were used for Solar Temple activities. He also married a lady named Dominique Bellaton. The couple produced Emmanuelle, their alleged "virgin birth" daughter, whom the members of the group believed would lead them to Sirius. For information on Sirius satellite radio, see Sirius Satellite Radio. ...

By the early 1990s, several members of the group had left, with various complaints. Jouret had been arrested for stockpiling firearms illegally in Quebec, and his doomsday predictions did not seem to be panning out. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... A firearm is a kinetic energy weapon that fires either a single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced by action of the rapid confined burning of a propellant. ...

Mass murders and suicides: leaving the planet, destination: Sirius

In October 1994 Tony Dutoit's infant son (Emmanuel Dutoit), aged three months, was killed at the group's centre in Morin Heights, Quebec. The baby had been stabbed repeatedly with a wooden stake. It is believed that Di Mambro ordered the murder, because he identified the baby as the Anti-Christ described in the Bible. He believed that the Anti-Christ was born into the order to prevent Di Mambro from succeeding in his spiritual aim. 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Morin Heights is a town in the Laurentian Mountains region of Quebec, Canada. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antichrist. ...

A few days later, Di Mambro and twelve followers performed a ritual Last Supper. A few days after that, apparent mass suicides and murders were conducted at two villages in Switzerland, and at Morin Heights — 15 inner circle members committed suicide with poison, 30 were killed by bullets or smothering, and 8 others were killed by other causes. Many of the bodies when found were drugged, possibly to prevent the members from objecting. The buildings were then set on fire by timer devices, purportedly as one last symbol of the group's purification. The Last Supper fresco in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci According to the Gospels, the Last Supper (also called Lords Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ... It has been suggested that The Pros of suicide be merged into this article or section. ...

In western Switzerland, 48 members of a sect died in another apparent mass murder-suicide. Many of the victims were found in a secret underground chapel lined with mirrors and other items of Templar symbolism. The bodies were dressed in the order's ceremonial robes and were in a circle, feet together, heads outward, most with plastic bags tied over their heads; they had each been shot in the head. It is believed that the plastic bags were a symbol of the ecological disaster that would befall the human race after the OTS members moved on to Sirius. It is also believed that these bags were used as part of the OTS rituals, and that members would have voluntarily worn them without being placed under duress. There was also evidence that many of the victims in Switzerland were drugged before they were shot. Other victims were found in three ski chalets; several dead children were lying together. The tragedy was discovered when officers rushed to the sites to fight the fires which had been ignited by remote-control devices. Farewell letters left by the believers stated that they believed they were leaving to escape the "hypocrisies and oppression of this world." A murder suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before, or while killing himself. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ...

A mayor, a journalist, a civil servant and a sales manager were found among the dead in Switzerland. Records seized by the Quebec police showed that some members had personally donated over $1 million to the cult's leader Joseph Di Mambro. There was also another attempted mass suicide of the remaining members which was thwarted in the late 1990s[citation needed]. All the suicide/murders and attempts occurred around the dates of the equinoxes and solstices in some relation to the beliefs of the group. Mass suicide occurs when a number of people kill themselves together with one another or for the same reason and is usually connected to a real or perceived persecution. ... Illumination of the Earth by the Sun on the day of equinox, (ignoring twilight). ... A solstice is either of the two events of the year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the equatorial plane. ...

Michael Tabachnik, an internationally renowned Swiss musician and conductor, was arrested as a leader of the Solar Temple in the late 1990s. He was indicted for "participation in a criminal organization," and murder. He came to trial in Grenoble, France during the spring of 2001 and was acquitted. French prosecutors appealed the verdict and an appellate court ordered a second trial beginning 2006-10-24. He was once again cleared on 20 December.[1] Michael Tabachnik was an internationally renowned Swiss musician and conductor. ... Grenoble (Arpitan: Grasanòbol) is a city and commune in south-east France, situated at the foot of the Alps, at the confluence of the Drac into the Isère River. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ...

It is believed that The Solar Temple group continues to exist, with thirty surviving members in Quebec at the St-Anne-de-la-Pérade center (where some of the remaining members run an organic bread bakery), with from 140 to 500 members remaining worldwide. An organically-grown apple. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


  • Darkaul, Arkon. A History of Secret Societies. (NY: Citadel, 1995)
  • Galanter, Marc. Cults: Faith, Healing, and Coercion. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989)
  • Moran, Sarah. The Secret World of Cults. (Surrey, England: CLB International, 1999)


  • Cult Members say Solar Temple Leaders Ordered Mass Suicides, AFP, April 19, 2001, www.rickross.com
  • Davis, Eric. Solar Temple Pilots, The Village Voice (October 25, 1994)
  • "French Magistrate rejects idea that outsiders killed cultists," AFP, (April 24, 2001)
  • Haight, James A. And Now, the Solar Temple. Free Inquiry, Winter 1994-95.
  • Hassan-Gordon, Tariq. Solar Temple Cult Influenced by Ancient Egypt, (Middle East Times, Issue 18, 2001)
  • Mayer, Jean Francois. Apocalyptic Millennialism in the West: The Case of the Solar Temple, Critical Incident Analysis Group, hsc.virginia.edu, retrieved, January 4, 2003.
  • Musician Denies Solar Temple Murders, The Scotsman, Edinburgh (April 18, 2001)
  • Palmer, Susan. Purity and Danger in the Solar Temple, Journal of Contemporary Religion 3 (October 1996) pages 303-318
  • Probert, Robert. Solar Temple: Tabachnik Acquitted, Center for New Religious Studies, (June 25, 2001)
  • Ross, Rick. Solar Temple Suicides, Cult Education and Recovery, www.culteducation.com, (Sept. 1999)
  • Serrill, Michael S. Remains of the day, Time, (October 24, 1994)
  • "Solar Temple," www.religioustolerance.org, (Jan 4, 2003)
  • Spanish cops arrest cult leader, Associated Press, (January 8, 1998)
  • Gordon, Sean. "Trial highlights Canadian cult link", Toronto Star, 2006-10-25, p. A3. Retrieved on October 25, 2006.

The Toronto Star is Canadas highest-circulation newspaper, though its print edition is distributed almost entirely within Ontario. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

See also

  • Category:Cults

External links

  • Religious Movements: Order of the Solar Temple (University of Virginia)
  • Religious Tolerance: Solar Temple NOTE: The original text of this Wikipedia article borrowed heavily from this copyrighted site, or is it the other way around?
  • CBC Digital Archives - Solar Temple: A cult gone wrong



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m