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Encyclopedia > Joseph Conrad
Joseph Conrad

Born 3 December 1857
Berdichev, Ukraine, Russian Empire
Died 3 August 1924 (aged 66)
Bishopsbourne, England
Occupation Novelist
Literary movement Modernism

Contents

Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 18573 August 1924) was a Polish-born English novelist. He is regarded as one of the greatest English novelists, which is even more notable because he did not learn to speak English well until he was in his 20s (albeit always with a Polish accent). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 405 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (547 × 809 pixel, file size: 65 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image from http://www. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Berdichev (Polish language: Berdyczów, Ukrainian language: Бердичів, Russian language: Бердичев) is a town in Zhytomyrska oblast, Ukraine, 44 km South of Zhytomyr. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Bishopsbourne is a small village in Kent, UK. It lies in the Nailbourne valley four miles from Canterbury and about fifteen miles from Dover. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about work. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... ... Modernist literature is the literary form of Modernism and especially High modernism; it should not be confused with modern literature, which is the history of the modern novel and modern poetry as one. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Conrad is recognized as a master prose stylist. Some of his works have a strain of romanticism, but more importantly he is recognized as an important forerunner of modernist literature. His narrative style and anti-heroic characters have influenced many writers, including Ernest Hemingway, D. H. Lawrence, Graham Greene, William S. Burroughs, Joseph Heller, John Maxwell Coetzee[1] as well as Jerzy Kosiński[citation needed] and inspired such films as Apocalypse Now (drawn from Conrad's Heart of Darkness). Writing during the apogee of the British Empire, Conrad drew upon his experiences in the British Merchant Navy to create novels and short stories that reflected aspects of a world-wide empire while also plumbing the depths of the human soul. Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Modernist literature is the literary form of Modernism and especially High modernism; it should not be confused with modern literature, which is the history of the modern novel and modern poetry as one. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930) was an English writer of the 20th century, whose prolific and diverse output included novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, paintings, translations, literary criticism, and personal letters. ... This article is about the writer. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: William S. Burroughs William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914) — August 2, 1997; pronounced ), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ... Joseph Heller (May 1, 1923 – December 12, 1999) was an American satirical novelist and playwright. ... John Maxwell Coetzee (IPA pronunciation: ; born 9 February 1940), often called J.M. Coetzee, is a South African author (now living in Australia) and academic. ... Jerzy KosiÅ„ski (June 18, 1933 – May 3, 1991) was a novelist of Jewish origin, born in Łódź, Poland. ... Apocalypse Now is a 1979 Academy Award and Golden Globe winning American film set during the Vietnam War. ... For other uses, see Heart of Darkness (disambiguation). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... For the steam locomotives, see SR Merchant Navy Class. ...


Early life

Nowy Świat 47 (47 New World Street), Warsaw, Poland, where 3-year-old Conrad lived with his parents in 1861.
Nowy Świat 47 (47 New World Street), Warsaw, Poland, where 3-year-old Conrad lived with his parents in 1861.

Conrad was born in Berdyczów (Berdichev) into a highly patriotic landowning Polish family bearing the Nałęcz coat-of-arms. His father Apollo was a writer best known for patriotic tragedies, and a translator of Shakespeare and Victor Hugo from English and French. He encouraged his son to read widely in Polish and French. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 71 KB) Summary Warsaw flat once occupied by Joseph Conrad in Warsaw. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 71 KB) Summary Warsaw flat once occupied by Joseph Conrad in Warsaw. ... Nowy Åšwiat Nowy Åšwiat Street (Polish New World) is one of the main historical streets of Warsaw. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Berdichev (Polish language: Berdyczów, Ukrainian language: Бердичів, Russian language: Бердичев) is a town in Zhytomyrska oblast, Ukraine, 44 km South of Zhytomyr. ... NaÅ‚Ä™cz is a Polish coat of arms. ... Look up Translator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ...


In 1861 the elder Korzeniowski was arrested by Tsarist Russian authorities in Warsaw for helping organize what would become the January Uprising of 1863-64, and was exiled to Vologda, a city with a very harsh climate, approximately 300 miles north of Moscow. His wife, Ewelina Korzeniowska (née Bobrowska), and four-year-old son followed him into exile. Due to Ewelina's weak health, Apollo Korzeniowski was allowed in 1865 to move to Chernigov, Ukraine, where wıthin a few weeks Conrad's mother died of tuberculosis. Conrad's father died four years later in Kraków, leaving Conrad orphaned at the age of eleven. Росси́йская Импе́рия, (also Imperial Russia) covers the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great into the Russian Empire stretching from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... St. ... The French word née (feminine) or né (masculine) (or the English word nee) is still commonly used in some newspapers when mentioning the maiden name of a woman in engagement or wedding announcements. ... Chernihiv (Чернігів in Ukrainian) is an ancient city in northern Ukraine, the central city of Chernihivska oblast. Some common historical spellings of the name are Polish: Czernichów, and Russian: Чернигов, Chernigov. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ...


In Kraków, young Conrad was placed in the care of his maternal uncle, Tadeusz Bobrowski – a more cautious figure than his parents. Bobrowski nevertheless allowed Conrad to travel to Marseille and begin a career as a seaman at the age of 16. This came after Conrad was rejected for Austro-Hungarian citizenship, leaving him liable for 25-year conscription into the Russian Army. Joseph Conrad. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines The Old Port of Marseille Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... In russian, word army means armed forces in general. ...


Voyages

Conrad lived an adventurous life, becoming involved in gunrunning and political conspiracy, which he later fictionalized in his novel The Arrow of Gold, and apparently had a disastrous love affair, which plunged him into despair. His voyage down the coast of Venezuela would provide material for Nostromo. The first mate of Conrad's vessel became the model for Nostromo's hero. A tower of confiscated smuggled weapons about to be set ablaze in Nairobi, Kenya Gunrunning, also known as arms trafficking, is trafficking in (smuggling) contraband weapons and ammunition. ... Nostromo is a 1904 novel by Polish-born British novelist Joseph Conrad, set in the fictitious South American republic of Costaguana. ... Disambiguation: The rank First Mate also refers to a executive officer The First Mate portrayed in Raiders of the Lost Ark The First Mate (????) is known as Simone Katangas closest companion in the Katanga Anthologies. ... Nostromo is a 1904 novel by Polish-born British novelist Joseph Conrad, set in the fictitious South American republic of Costaguana. ...


In 1878, after a failed suicide attempt, Conrad took service on his first British ship bound for Constantinople, before its return to Lowestoft, his first landing in Britain. He did not become fluent in English until the age of 21, and in 1886 gained both his Master Mariner's certificate and British citizenship, officially changing his name to "Joseph Conrad." Conrad and his wife Jessie moved into a small semi-detached villa in Victoria Road, Stanford le Hope in 1896 and later to a medieval lath and plaster farmhouse named 'Ivy Walls' in Billet Lane. He later lived in London and near Canterbury, Kent. 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... , Lowestoft (pronouned IPA: /loʊs tɔft, -tɒft, -təf/) is a town in Suffolk, East Anglia, England, lying between the eastern edge of The Broads National Park at Oulton Broad and the North Sea. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Master Mariner is the official title of someone qualified to command a ship; the qualification is colloquially called a Masters Ticket. The term was introduced in the mid 19th century, and is usually held by the chief officer/first mate as well as the captain). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ...


Conrad was to serve a total of sixteen years in the merchant navy, with passages to the Far East, where his ship caught fire off Sumatra and he spent more than twelve hours in a lifeboat. The experience provided material for his short story, Youth. In 1883 he joined the Narcissus in Bombay, a voyage that inspired his 1897 novel The Nigger of the Narcissus. Sailing the southeast Asian archipelago would also furnish memories recast in Lord Jim and An Outcast of the Islands. The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Lord Jim is a novel by Joseph Conrad, originally published in Blackwoods Magazine from October 1899 to November 1900. ... An Outcast of the Islands is the second novel by Joseph Conrad, published in 1896. ...


A childhood ambition to visit central Africa was realised in 1889, when Conrad contrived to reach the Congo Free State. He became captain of a Congo steamboat, and the atrocities he witnessed and his experiences there not only informed his most acclaimed and ambiguous work, Heart of Darkness, but served to crystalise his vision of human nature — and his beliefs about himself. These were in some measure affected by the emotional trauma and lifelong illness he contracted there. During his stay, he became acquainted with Roger Casement, whose 1904 Congo Report detailed the abuses suffered by the indigenous population. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization, the Association Internationale Africaine. ... For other uses, see Steamboat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heart of Darkness (disambiguation). ... Roger David Casement (Irish: ;[1] 1 September 1864 – 3 August 1916), known as Sir Roger Casement, CMG between 1905 and July 1916, was an Irish patriot, poet, revolutionary and nationalist by inclination. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Casement Report was a 1904 document by British diplomat Roger Casement (1864-1916) detailing abuses in the Congo Free State which was under the private ownership of King Leopold II of Belgium. ...


The description of Conrad's protagonist Marlow's journey upriver closely follows Conrad's own, and he appears to have experienced a disturbing insight into the nature of evil. Conrad's experience of loneliness at sea, of corruption and of the pitilessness of nature converged to form a coherent, if bleak, vision of the world. Isolation, self-deception, and the remorseless working out of the consequences of character flaws are threads to be found running through much of his work. Conrad's own sense of loneliness throughout his exile's life would find memorable expression in the 1901 short story, "Amy Foster." For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ... Loneliness is an emotional state in which a person experiences a powerful feeling of emptiness and isolation. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... Look up isolation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Self-deception is a process of denying or rationalizing away the relevance, significance, or importance of opposing evidence and argument. ... A character flaw is a limitation,imperfection, problem, phobia, or deficiency present in a character who may be otherwise very functional. ... Amy Foster is a short story composed in 1901 by Joseph Conrad. ...


Notwithstanding the undoubted sufferings that Conrad endured on many of his voyages, he contrived to put up at the best lodgings at many of his destinations. Hotels across the Far East still lay claim to him as an honoured guest, often naming the rooms he stayed in after him: in the case of Singapore's Raffles Hotel, the wrong suite has been named in his honour, apparently for marketing reasons. His visits to Bangkok are also lodged in that city's collective memory, and are recorded in the official history of the Oriental Hotel, along with that of a less well-behaved guest, Somerset Maugham, who pilloried the hotel in a short story in revenge for attempts to eject him. For other uses, see Hotel (disambiguation). ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... The grand entrance of the Raffles Hotel. ... Location within in Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... W. Somerset Maugham as photographed in 1934 by Carl Van Vechten. ...


Conrad is also reported to have stayed at Hong Kong's Peninsula Hotel. Later literary admirers, notably Graham Greene, followed closely in his footsteps, sometimes requesting the same room. No Caribbean resort is yet known to have claimed Conrad's patronage, although he is believed to have stayed at a Fort-de-France pension upon arrival in Martinique on his first voyage, in 1875, when he travelled as a passenger on the Mont Blanc. The Peninsula Hong Kong is one on the most famous hotels in the world. ... This article is about the writer. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Fort-de-France is the capital of Frances Caribbean département doutre-mer of Martinique. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


As the quality of his work declined, he grew increasingly comfortable in his wealth and status. Conrad had a true genius for companionship, and his circle of friends included talented authors such as Stephen Crane and Henry James.


Emotional development

The Roi des Belges, the ship that Conrad sailed up the Congo.
The Roi des Belges, the ship that Conrad sailed up the Congo.

A further insight into Conrad's emotional life is provided by an episode which inspired one of his strangest and least known stories, "A Smile of Fortune." In September 1888 he put into Mauritius, as captain of the sailing barque Otago. His story likewise recounts the arrival of an unnamed English sea captain in a sailing vessel, come for sugar. He encounters “the old French families, descendants of the old colonists; all noble, all impoverished, and living a narrow domestic life in dull, dignified decay. . . . The girls are almost always pretty, ignorant of the world, kind and agreeable and generally bilingual. The emptiness of their existence passes belief.” Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The tale describes Jacobus, an affable gentleman chandler beset by hidden shame. Extramarital passion for the bareback rider of a visiting circus had resulted in a child and scandal. For eighteen years this daughter, Alice, has been confined to Jacobus’s house, seeing no one but a governess. When Conrad’s captain is invited to the house of Jacobus, he is irresistibly drawn to the wild, beautiful Alice. "For quite a time she did not stir, staring straight before her as if watching the vision of some pageant passing through the garden in the deep, rich glow of light and the splendour of flowers."


The suffering of Alice Jacobus was true enough. A copy of the Dictionary of Mauritian Biography unearthed by the scholar Zdzisław Najder reveals that her character was a fictionalised version of seventeen-year-old Alice Shaw, whose father was a shipping agent and owned the only rose garden in the town. While it is evident that Conrad too fell in love while in Mauritius, it was not with Alice. His proposal to young Eugénie Renouf was declined, the lady being already engaged. Conrad left broken-hearted, vowing never to return. ZdzisÅ‚aw Najder (born in Warsaw, Poland, October 31, 1930) is a Polish historian of literature, a former opponent of the government of the Polish Peoples Republic, and former director of the Polish section of Radio Free Europe. ...


Something of his feelings is considered to permeate the recollections of the captain. "I was seduced by the moody expression of her face, by her obstinate silences, her rare, scornful words; by the perpetual pout of her closed lips, the black depths of her fixed gaze turned slowly upon me as if in contemptuous provocation."


Novelist

Nałęcz coat-of-arms. Conrad, who possessed this Polish coat-of-arms, declined a British knighthood.
Nałęcz coat-of-arms. Conrad, who possessed this Polish coat-of-arms, declined a British knighthood.

Conrad had risen quickly from a common seaman to first mate. By 1886 he was master of his own ship, and that same year he also became a British subject and changed his name to Joseph Conrad. He sailed to many parts of the world, including Australia, ports on the Indian Ocean, Borneo, the Malay states, South America, and the South Pacific islands. During this period, he began to write. ImageMetadata File history File links Herb_Nalecz. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Herb_Nalecz. ... Nałęcz is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Disambiguation: The rank First Mate also refers to a executive officer The First Mate portrayed in Raiders of the Lost Ark The First Mate (????) is known as Simone Katangas closest companion in the Katanga Anthologies. ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... The Malay states are a group of nine states of Malaysia (all located in West Malaysia) which have hereditary Rulers. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The South Pacific is an area in the southern Pacific Ocean. ...


In 1890 he went to Africa in the Belgian colonial service and sailed up the Congo River, where fever and dysentery undermined his health. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ...


In 1894, aged 36, Conrad reluctantly gave up the sea, partly because of poor health and partly because he had become so fascinated with writing that he decided on a literary career. His first novel, Almayer's Folly, set on the east coast of Borneo, was published in 1895. Together with its successor, An Outcast of the Islands (1896), it laid the foundation for its author's reputation as a romantic teller of exotic tales, a misunderstanding of his purpose that was to frustrate Conrad for the rest of his career. Almayers Folly is Joseph Conrads first novel and was published in 1895. ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... An Outcast of the Islands is the second novel by Joseph Conrad, published in 1896. ...


In 1896 he married a 22-year-old Englishwoman, Jessie George, by whom he had two sons, Borys and John. Though he was clearly a master of the English language, all his life he spoke it with a heavy Polish accent.


Except for several vacations in France and Italy, a 1914 journey to Poland, and a 1923 visit to the United States, he lived in England.


Financial success evaded Conrad, though a Civil List pension of £100 per annum stabilised his affairs, and collectors began to purchase his manuscripts. Though his talent was recognized by the English intellectual elite, popular success eluded him until the 1913 publication of Chance — paradoxically so, as it is not now regarded as one of his better novels. Thereafter, for the remaining years of his life, Conrad was the subject of more discussion and praise than any other English writer of the time. A civil list is a list of individuals to whom money is paid by the government. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... Chance is a novel by Joseph Conrad, published in 1913 following serial publication the previous year. ...


In 1923, the year before his death, Conrad, who possessed a hereditary Polish coat-of-arms, declined the offer of a (non-hereditary) British knighthood. A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ...


Death

Joseph Conrad died 3 August 1924, of a heart attack, and was interred at Canterbury Cemetery, Canterbury, England, under the name of Korzeniowski. [2] is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Heart attack redirects here. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Legacy

Of his novels, Lord Jim and Nostromo continue to be widely read, as set texts and for pleasure. The Secret Agent and Under Western Eyes are also considered to be among his finest books. He also, over a period of a few years, composed a short series of novels in collaboration with Ford Madox Ford, writing on these at the same time that he was working independently on other publications.[3] Lord Jim is a novel by Joseph Conrad, originally published in Blackwoods Magazine from October 1899 to November 1900. ... Nostromo is a 1904 novel by Polish-born British novelist Joseph Conrad, set in the fictitious South American republic of Costaguana. ... The Secret Agent is a 1907 novel by Joseph Conrad. ... Under Western Eyes (1911) is a novel by Joseph Conrad. ... Ford Madox Ford (December 17, 1873 - June 26, 1939) was an English novelist and publisher. ...


Arguably Conrad's most influential work remains Heart of Darkness, to which many have been introduced by Francis Ford Coppola's film, Apocalypse Now, inspired by Conrad's novella and set during the Vietnam War. The themes of Heart of Darkness, and the depiction of a journey into the darkness of the human psyche, still resonate with modern readers. For other uses, see Heart of Darkness (disambiguation). ... Francis Ford Coppola (born April 7, 1939) is a five-time Academy Award winning American film director, producer, and screenwriter. ... Apocalypse Now is a 1979 Academy Award and Golden Globe winning American film set during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Style

Conrad, an emotional man subject to fits of depression, self-doubt and pessimism, disciplined his romantic temperament with an unsparing moral judgment. Romantics redirects here. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ...


As an artist, he famously aspired, in his preface to The Nigger of the 'Narcissus' (1897), "by the power of the written word to make you hear, to make you feel... before all, to make you see. That — and no more, and it is everything. If I succeed, you shall find there according to your deserts: encouragement, consolation, fear, charm — all you demand — and, perhaps, also that glimpse of truth for which you have forgotten to ask." In Joseph Conrads The Nigger of the Narcissus (1897), the Narcissus is a merchant ship sailing from Bombay to London. ...


Writing in what to the visual arts was the age of Impressionism, Conrad showed himself in many of his works a prose poet of the highest order: thus, for instance, in the evocative Patna and courtroom scenes of Lord Jim; in the "melancholy-mad elephant" and gunboat scenes of Heart of Darkness; in the doubled protagonists of The Secret Sharer; and in the verbal and conceptual resonances of Nostromo and The Nigger of the 'Narcissus'. The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... This article is about the art movement. ... // Prose poetry is usually considered a form of poetry written in prose that breaks some of the normal rules associated with prose discourse, for heightened imagery or emotional effect, among other purposes. ... Lord Jim is a novel by Joseph Conrad, originally published in Blackwoods Magazine from October 1899 to November 1900. ... For other uses, see Heart of Darkness (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Doppelgänger (disambiguation). ... The Secret Sharer is a novel written by Joseph Conrad in 1909, and first published in book form in 1912, though it had appeared in Harper’s before then. ... This article is about resonance in physics. ... Nostromo is a 1904 novel by Polish-born British novelist Joseph Conrad, set in the fictitious South American republic of Costaguana. ... In Joseph Conrads The Nigger of the Narcissus (1897), the Narcissus is a merchant ship sailing from Bombay to London. ...


The singularity of the universe depicted in Conrad's novels, especially compared to those of near-contemporaries like John Galsworthy, is such as to open him to criticism similar to that later applied to Graham Greene.[4] But where "Greeneland" has been characterised as a recurring and recognisable atmosphere independent of setting, Conrad is at pains to create a sense of place, be it aboard ship or in a remote village. Often he chose to have his characters play out their destinies in isolated or confined circumstances. John Galsworthy OM (14 August 1867 – 31 January 1933) was an English novelist and playwright. ... This article is about the writer. ... Sense of Place is a characteristic that some geographic places have and some do not. ...


In the view of Evelyn Waugh and Kingsley Amis, it was not until the first volumes of Anthony Powell's sequence, A Dance to the Music of Time, were published in the 1950s, that an English novelist achieved the same command of atmosphere and precision of language with consistency, a view supported by present-day critics like A. N. Wilson. This is the more remarkable, given that English was Conrad's third language. Powell acknowledged his debt to Conrad. Evelyn Waugh, as photographed in 1940 by Carl Van Vechten Arthur Evelyn St. ... Sir Kingsley William Amis (April 16, 1922 – October 22, 1995) was an English novelist, poet, critic, and teacher. ... Anthony Dymoke Powell, CH (December 21, 1905 - March 28, 2000) was a British novelist best known for his A Dance to the Music of Time duodecalogy published between 1951 and 1975. ... A Dance to the Music of Time is a twelve volume roman à clef by Anthony Powell, published between 1951 and 1975. ... In Wikipedia, precision has the following meanings: In engineering, science, industry and statistics, precision characterises the degree of mutual agreement among a series of individual measurements, values, or results - see accuracy and precision. ... Andrew Norman Wilson (born 1950) is an English writer, known for his biographies, novels and works of popular and cultural history. ...


Conrad's third language remained inescapably under the influence of his first two — Polish and French. This makes his English seem unusual. It was perhaps from Polish and French prose styles that he adopted a fondness for triple parallelism, especially in his early works ("all that mysterious life of the wilderness that stirs in the forest, in the jungles, in the hearts of wild men"), as well as for rhetorical abstraction ("It was the stillness of an implacable force brooding over an inscrutable intention"). Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... Look up style in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Parallel may refer to: Parallel (geometry) Parallel (latitude), an imaginary east-west line circling a globe Parallelism (grammar), a balance of two or more similar words, phrases, or clauses Parallel (manga), a shōnen manga by Toshihiko Kobayashi Parallel (video), a video album by R.E.M. The Parallel, an... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... This article is about the concept of abstraction in general. ...


T.E. Lawrence, one of many writers whom Conrad befriended, offered some perceptive observations about Conrad's writing: Thomas Edward Lawrence (August 16, 1888 – May 19, 1935), also known as Lawrence of Arabia, and (apparently, among his Arab allies) Aurens or El Aurens, became famous for his role as a British liaison officer during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. ...

He's absolutely the most haunting thing in prose that ever was: I wish I knew how every paragraph he writes (... they are all paragraphs: he seldom writes a single sentence...) goes on sounding in waves, like the note of a tenor bell, after it stops. It's not built in the rhythm of ordinary prose, but on something existing only in his head, and as he can never say what it is he wants to say, all his things end in a kind of hunger, a suggestion of something he can't say or do or think. So his books always look bigger than they are. He's as much a giant of the subjective as Kipling is of the objective. Do they hate one another?[5]

In Conrad's time, literary critics, while usually commenting favourably on his works, often remarked that his exotic style, complex narration, profound themes and pessimistic ideas put many readers off. Yet as Conrad's ideas were borne out by 20th-century events, in due course he came to be admired for beliefs that seemed to accord with subsequent times more closely than with his own. This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about the British author. ... Taking an objective approach to an issue means having due regard for the known valid evidence (relevant facts and viewpoints) pertaining to that issue. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Exotic can mean: Exotic dance - a form of dancing or stripping Exotic pets - non common pets e. ... Look up style in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... —a complex is different from complicated or composed, the complex is more than the sum of its parts Look up complex in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In fiction, a narrator is a voice or character who tells the story. ... Penetrating or entering deeply into subjects of thought or knowledge; having deep insight or understanding. ... In literature, a theme is a broad idea in a story, or a message or lesson conveyed by a work. ... Pessimism, generally, describes a belief that things are bad, and tend to become worse; or that looks to the eventual triumph of evil over good; it contrasts with optimism, the contrary belief in the goodness and betterment of things generally. ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Conrad's was, indeed, a starkly lucid view of the human condition — a vision similar to that which had been offered in two micro-stories by his ten-years-older Polish compatriot, Bolesław Prus (whose work Conrad admired): "Mold of the Earth" (1884) and "Shades" (1885). Conrad wrote: For other uses, see Human condition (disambiguation). ... Microfiction is very short fiction, usually around 300 words long. ... BolesÅ‚aw Prus BolesÅ‚aw Prus (pronounced: [bÉ”lεswaf prus]; August 20, 1847 – May 19, 1912), born Aleksander GÅ‚owacki, was a Polish journalist, short-story writer, and novelist. ... Mold of the Earth (Polish: Pleśń świata) is one of Bolesław Prus shortest micro-stories. ... Shades (Polish: Cienie) is one of BolesÅ‚aw Prus shortest micro-stories. ...

Faith is a myth and beliefs shift like mists on the shore; thoughts vanish; words, once pronounced, die; and the memory of yesterday is as shadowy as the hope of to-morrow....
In this world — as I have known it — we are made to suffer without the shadow of a reason, of a cause or of guilt....
There is no morality, no knowledge and no hope; there is only the consciousness of ourselves which drives us about a world that... is always but a vain and floating appearance....
A moment, a twinkling of an eye and nothing remains — but a clot of mud, of cold mud, of dead mud cast into black space, rolling around an extinguished sun. Nothing. Neither thought, nor sound, nor soul. Nothing.[6]

Shadows on pavement A shadow is a region of darkness where light is blocked. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... Sol redirects here. ...

Criticism

In 1975, Chinua Achebe published an essay, 'An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's "Heart of Darkness",' wherein he labeled Joseph Conrad a "thoroughgoing racist." This essay has since sparked a storm of controversy regarding Conrad's legacy. Achebe's point of view, now the single most famous piece of criticism on Joseph Conrad, is that Heart of Darkness cannot be considered "a great work of art" because it is "a novel which celebrates... dehumanization, which depersonalizes a portion of the human race."[1] Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chinua Achebe (pronounced [2]), born Albert Chinualumogu Achebe on November 16, 1930, is a Nigerian novelist, poet and critic. ...


Referring to Conrad as a "talented, tormented man", Achebe drew on several instances of racism in the writings of Conrad, in which the author derided "niggers" as variously "unreasoning", "savage", and "inscrutable".[2] Conrad, for his part, has had many passionate defenders since the publication of Achebe's criticism; often, Achebe has been criticized for disregarding the "historical context" of Conrad's work, in defense of Conrad's reputation, or in defending the extant value of his work.[3][4]


Memorials

Poland's Baltic Sea coast at Gdynia features an anchor-shaped monument to Conrad. For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Gdynia (IPA: , German: (until 1939 and after 1945) / Gotenhafen (1939-1945); Kashubian: ) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport at Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. ... For other uses, see Anchor (disambiguation). ...


In San Francisco, California, near Fisherman's Wharf, there is a small triangular Joseph Conrad Square, named after Conrad in the late 20th century. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Fishermans Wharf sign Aerial view of Fishermans Wharf Fishermans Wharf is a neighborhood and popular tourist attraction in San Francisco, California, U.S. It roughly encompasses the northern waterfront area of San Francisco from Ghirardelli Square or Van Ness Street east to Pier 35 or Kearny Street. ...


Novels and novellas

Anchor-shaped Conrad monument, Gdynia, on Poland's Baltic Sea coast.
Anchor-shaped Conrad monument, Gdynia, on Poland's Baltic Sea coast.
1895   Almayer's Folly
1896 An Outcast of the Islands
1897 The Nigger of the 'Narcissus'
1899 Heart of Darkness
1900 Lord Jim
1901 The Inheritors (with Ford Madox Ford)
1902 Typhoon (begun 1899)
1903 Romance (with Ford Madox Ford)
1904 Nostromo
1907 The Secret Agent
1909 The Secret Sharer (written December 1909; published in Harper's in 1910 and collected in Twixt Land and Sea 1912)
1911 Under Western Eyes
1912 Freya of the Seven Isles
1913 Chance
1915 Victory
1917 The Shadow Line
1919 The Arrow of Gold
1920 The Rescue
1923 The Nature of a Crime (with Ford Madox Ford)
The Rover
1925 Suspense: a Napoleonic Novel (unfinished, published posthumously)

Download high resolution version (800x607, 78 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (800x607, 78 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Anchor (disambiguation). ... Gdynia (IPA: , German: (until 1939 and after 1945) / Gotenhafen (1939-1945); Kashubian: ) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport at Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Almayers Folly is Joseph Conrads first novel and was published in 1895. ... An Outcast of the Islands is the second novel by Joseph Conrad, published in 1896. ... In Joseph Conrads The Nigger of the Narcissus (1897), the Narcissus is a merchant ship sailing from Bombay to London. ... For other uses, see Heart of Darkness (disambiguation). ... Lord Jim is a novel by Joseph Conrad, originally published in Blackwoods Magazine from October 1899 to November 1900. ... Published in 1901 The Inheritors is the first novel Ford Madox Ford and Joseph Conrad collaborated on. ... Ford Madox Ford (December 17, 1873 - June 26, 1939) was an English novelist and publisher. ... The classic sea yarn that describes how Captain Macwhirr sails the Siamese steamer Nan-Shan into a typhoon. ... Ref: http://www. ... Ford Madox Ford (December 17, 1873 - June 26, 1939) was an English novelist and publisher. ... Nostromo is a 1904 novel by Polish-born British novelist Joseph Conrad, set in the fictitious South American republic of Costaguana. ... The Secret Agent is a 1907 novel by Joseph Conrad. ... The Secret Sharer is a novel written by Joseph Conrad in 1909, and first published in book form in 1912, though it had appeared in Harper’s before then. ... Harpers redirects here. ... Under Western Eyes (1911) is a novel by Joseph Conrad. ... Chance is a novel by Joseph Conrad, published in 1913 following serial publication the previous year. ... Victory is a novel by Joseph Conrad first published in 1915. ... The Shadow Line is a short novel based at sea by Joseph Conrad, one of his later works, being published in 1917. ... The Rescue is a novel by Joseph Conrad, published in 1920 but begun in the 1890s and set aside by Conrad to write The Nigger of the Narcissus. ... Ford Madox Ford (December 17, 1873 - June 26, 1939) was an English novelist and publisher. ... The Rover is the last complete novel by Joseph Conrad written between 1921 & 1922, first published in 1923. ...

Short stories

  • "The Idiots" (Conrad's first short story; written during his honeymoon, published in Savo 1896 and collected in Tales of Unrest, 1898).
  • "The Black Mate" (written, according to Conrad, in 1886; published 1908; posthumously collected in Tales of Hearsay, 1925).
  • "The Lagoon" (composed 1896; published in Cornhill Magazine 1897; collected in Tales of Unrest, 1898).
  • "An Outpost of Progress" (written 1896 and named in 1906 by Conrad himself, long after the publication of Lord Jim and Heart of Darkness, as his 'best story'; published in Cosmopolis 1897 and collected in Tales of Unrest 1898; often compared to Heart of Darkness, with which it has numerous thematic affinities).
  • "The Return" (written circa early 1897; never published in magazine form; collected in Tales of Unrest, 1898; Conrad, presaging the sentiments of most readers, once remarked, "I hate it").
  • "Karain: A Memory" (written February–April 1897; published Nov. 1897 in Blackwood's and collected in Tales of Unrest, 1898).
  • "Youth" (written in 1898; collected in Youth, a Narrative and Two Other Stories, 1902)
  • "Falk" (novella/story, written in early 1901; collected only in Typhoon and Other Stories, 1903).
  • "Amy Foster" (composed in 1901; published the Illustrated London News, Dec. 1901 and collected in Typhoon and Other Stories, 1903).
  • "To-morrow" (written early 1902; serialized in Pall Mall Magazine, 1902 and collected in Typhoon and Other Stories, 1903).
  • "The End of the Tether" (written in 1902; collected in Youth, a Narrative and Two Other Stories, 1902)
  • "Gaspar Ruiz" (written after "Nostromo" in 1904–05; published in Strand Magazine in 1906 and collected in A Set of Six, 1908 UK/1915 US. This story was the only piece of Conrad's fiction ever adapted by the author for cinema, as Gaspar the Strong Man, 1920).
  • "An Anarchist" (written in late 1905; serialized in Harper's in 1906; collected in A Set of Six, 1908 UK/1915 US.)
  • "The Informer" (written before January 1906; published in December 1906 in Harper's and collected in A Set of Six, 1908 UK/1915 US.)
  • "The Brute" (written in early 1906; published in The Daily Chronicle in December 1906; collected in A Set of Six, 1908 UK/1915 US.)
  • "The Duel" (aka "The Point of Honor": serialized in the UK in Pall Mall Magazine in early 1908 and in the US periodical Forum later that year; collected in A Set of Six in 1908 and published by Garden City Publishing in 1924. Joseph Fouché makes a cameo appearance)
  • "Il Conde" (i.e., 'Conte' [count]: appeared in Cassell's [UK] 1908 and Hampton's [US] in 1909; collected in A Set of Six, 1908 UK/1915 US.)
  • "Prince Roman" (written 1910, published in 1911 in the Oxford and Cambridge Review; based upon the story of Prince Roman Sanguszko of Poland 1800–1881)
  • "A Smile of Fortune" (a long story, almost a novella, written in mid-1910; published in London Magazine in Feb. 1911; collected in Twixt Land and Sea 1912)
  • "Freya of the Seven Isles" (another near-novella, written late 1910–early 1911; published in Metropolitan Magazine and London Magazine in early 1912 and July 1912, respectively; collected in Twixt Land and Sea 1912)
  • "The Partner" (written in 1911; published in Within the Tides, 1915)
  • "The Inn of the Two Witches" (written in 1913; published in Within the Tides, 1915)
  • "Because of the Dollars" (written in 1914; published in Within the Tides, 1915)
  • "The Planter of Malata" (written in 1914; published in Within the Tides, 1915)
  • "The Warrior's Soul" (written late 1915–early 1916; published in Land and Water, in March 1917; collected in Tales of Hearsay, 1925)
  • "The Tale" (Conrad's only story about World War I; written 1916 and first published 1917 in Strand Magazine)

By Roberto Ortega Z. The white man, leaning with both arms over the roof of the little house in the stern of the boat, said to the steersman-- We will pass the night in Arsats clearing. ... An Outpost of Progress is a short story written in July 1896 by Joseph Conrad, drawing on his own experience at Congo. ... Youth is an autobiographical short story by Joseph Conrad. ... Amy Foster is a short story composed in 1901 by Joseph Conrad. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Joseph Fouché Joseph Fouché, duc dOtrante (Duke of Otranto) (May 21, 1763 – December 25, 1820) was a French statesman and Minister of Police under Napoleon Bonaparte. ... Noble Family Sanguszko Coat of Arms Pogon Litewska Parents Eustachy Erazm Sanguszko Klementyna Czartoryska Consorts Natalia Potocka Children with Natalia Potocka Maria Klementyna Sanguszko Date of Birth May 6, 1800 Place of Birth Sławuta Date of Death March 26, 1881 Place of Death Sławuta Prince Roman... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Memoirs and essays

  • The Mirror of the Sea (collection of autobiographical essays first published in various magazines 1904-6 ), 1906
  • A Personal Record (also published as Some Reminiscences), 1912
  • Notes on Life and Letters, 1921
  • Last Essays, 1926

A Personal Record is the 1912 autobiography of Joseph Conrad. ... A volume of essays by Joseph Conrad, edited with an introduction by Richard Curle, and published posthumously in 1926 (London & Toronto: J. M. Dent & Sons). ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://noblisci.bnet.pl/2001-10/2003/2003.html
  2. ^ "Joseph Conrad Dies, Writer of the Sea. Author of 'Victory,' 'The Rover' and 'Youth' Succumbs in England at 67 Years.", New York Times, August 4, 1924, Monday. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. "London, August 4, 1924 Joseph Conrad, the novelist, died suddenly this morning at his house at Bishopsbourne near Canterbury. He was 67 years old." 
  3. ^ Collaborative Literature
  4. ^ Regions of the Mind: the Exoticism of Greeneland; Andrew Purssell, University of London. http://www.dur.ac.uk/postgraduate.english/AndrewPurssellArticle.htm
  5. ^ Jeffrey Meyers, Joseph Conrad: a Biography, p. 343.
  6. ^ Jeffrey Meyers, Joseph Conrad: a Biography, p. 166.

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ...

References

  • Jeffrey Meyers, Joseph Conrad: a Biography, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991.
  • Zdzisław Najder, Conrad under Familial Eyes, Cambridge University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-521-25082-X.
  • Zdzisław Najder, Joseph Conrad: a Chronicle, new edition, Camden House, 2007.
  • J.H. Stape, editor, The Cambridge Companion to Joseph Conrad, Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  • Tim Butcher: Blood River - A Journey To Africa's Broken Heart, 2007. ISBN 0-701-17981-3.
  • T. Scovel, A Time to Speak: a Psycholinguistic Inquiry into the Critical Period for Human Speech, Cambridge, MA, Newbury House, 1988.

Zdzisław Najder (born in Warsaw, Poland, October 31, 1930) is a Polish historian of literature, a former opponent of the government of the Polish Peoples Republic, and former director of the Polish section of Radio Free Europe. ... Zdzisław Najder (born in Warsaw, Poland, October 31, 1930) is a Polish historian of literature, a former opponent of the government of the Polish Peoples Republic, and former director of the Polish section of Radio Free Europe. ... Tim Butcher, (born 1967 in Warwickshire, UK) is an English journalist and author. ...

See also

A chronological list of Joseph Conrads works. ... HMS Danae, during World War II known as ORP Conrad, was the lead ship of the Danae class cruisers (also known as the D class), serving with the Royal Navy between the world wars and with the Polish Navy during World War II. She was laid 1 December 1916 in... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Flag of the Polish Navy Polish Navy Ensign The Polish Navy (Marynarka Wojenna RP, MW RP) is the branch of Polands armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Joseph Conrad - Books and Biography (603 words)
Joseph Conrad (1857-1924) was born in Berdichev, in the Ukraine, in a region that had once been a part of Poland but was then under Russian rule.
By 1869 Conrad's both parents had died of tuberculosis, and he was sent to Switzerland to his maternal uncle Tadeusz Bobrowski, who was to be a continuing influence on his life.
Witnessing the forces of the sea, Conrad developed a deterministic view of the world, which he expressed in a letter in 1897: "What makes mankind tragic is not that they are the victims of nature, it is that they are conscious of it.
Joseph Conrad (2551 words)
Conrad discouraged interpretation of his sea novels through evidence from his life, but several of his stories drew the material, events, and personalities from his own experiences in different parts of the world.
Joseph Conrad was born in Berdichev, in the Ukraine, in a region that had once been a part of Poland, but was then under Russian rule.
Conrad died of a heart attack on August 3, 1924 and was buried in Canterbury.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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