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Encyclopedia > Joseph Campbell
Joseph Campbell

Joseph Campbell circa 1984
Born: March 26, 1904(1904-03-26)
Flag of New York White Plains, New York
Died: October 31, 1987 (aged 83)
Flag of Hawaii Honolulu, Hawaii
Occupation: Scholar
Nationality: American
Influences: Friedrich Nietzsche, Oswald Spengler, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Heinrich Zimmer, James Joyce, Thomas Mann, Arthur Schopenhauer

Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904October 31, 1987) was an American mythology professor, writer, and orator best known for his work in the fields of comparative mythology and comparative religion. Joseph Campbell may refer to: Joseph Campbell - American 20th century mythologist. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_York. ... White Plains (New York) White Plains is a city in south-central Westchester County, New York, about 4 miles (6 km) east of the Hudson River and 2. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... For the album by the Kaiser Chiefs see Employment (album) Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a 19th-century German philosopher. ... Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (Blankenburg am Harz May 29, 1880 – May 8, 1936, Munich) was a German historian and philosopher, although his studies ranged throughout mathematics, science, philosophy, history, and art. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... “Jung” redirects here. ... Heinrich Zimmer Heinrich Zimmer (b. ... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish Séamus Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish expatriate writer, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... Paul Thomas Mann (June 6, 1875 – August 12, 1955) was a German novelist, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Look up orator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Comparative mythology, related to comparative religion, is a field of study which is technically part of anthropology but more usually regarded as part of the subject of ancient history. ... The Major religious groups of the world. ...

Contents

Life

Childhood and education

Joseph Campbell was born and raised in White Plains, New York[1] in an upper middle class Roman Catholic family. As a child, Campbell became fascinated with Native American culture after his father took him to see the American Museum of Natural History in New York where he saw on display featured collections of Native American artifacts. He soon became versed in numerous aspects of Native American society, primarily in Native American mythology. This led to Campbell's lifelong passion for myth and to his study of and mapping of the cohesive threads in mythology that appeared to exist among even disparate human cultures. He graduated from the Canterbury School (Connecticut) in 1921. While at Dartmouth College he studied biology and mathematics, but decided that he preferred the humanities. He transferred to Columbia University where he received his B.A. in English literature in 1925 and M.A. in Medieval literature in 1927. Campbell was also an accomplished athlete, receiving awards in track and field events. White Plains (New York) White Plains is a city in south-central Westchester County, New York, about 4 miles (6 km) east of the Hudson River and 2. ... “NY” redirects here. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “NY” redirects here. ... Native American spirituality includes a number of stories and legends that are mythological. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... Canterbury School is a college preparatory, coeducational boarding and day school for students in grades 9-12. ... Dartmouth College is a private, coeducational university located in Hanover, New Hampshire, in the United States. ... Columbia University is a private research university in the United States and a member of the prestigious Ivy League. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. ... A womens 400m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track. ...


Europe

In 1927, Campbell received a fellowship provided by Columbia to study in Europe. Campbell studied Old French and Sanskrit at the University of Paris in France and the University of Munich in Germany. He quickly learned to read and speak both French and German, mastering them after only a few months of rigorous study. He remained fluent in both languages for the remainder of his life. This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300 A.D. It was known at the time as the langue doïl to distinguish it from the langue... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ...


He was highly influenced while in Europe by the period of the Lost Generation, a time of enormous intellectual and artistic innovation. Campbell commented on this influence, particularly that of James Joyce, in The Hero's Journey: Joseph Campbell on His Life and Work (1990, first edition:28): For other uses, see Lost Generation (disambiguation). ... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish Séamus Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish expatriate writer, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... This article is about the book and documentary on Joseph Campbell. ...

CAMPBELL: And then the fact that James Joyce grabbed me. You know that wonderful living in a realm of significant fantasy, which is Irish, is there in the Arthurian romances; it's in Joyce; and it's in my life.
COUSINEAU: Did you find that you identified with Stephen Daedalus...in Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man?
CAMPBELL: His problem was my problem, exactly...Joyce helped release me into an understanding of the universal sense of these symbols...Joyce disengaged himself and left the labyrinth, you might say, of Irish politics and the church to go to London, where he became one of the very important members of this marvelous movement that Paris represented in the period when I was there, in the '20s.

It was in this climate that Campbell was also introduced to the work of Thomas Mann, who was to prove equally influential upon his life and ideas. Also while in Europe, Campbell was introduced to modern art, becoming particularly enthusiastic about the work of Paul Klee and Pablo Picasso. A new world of exciting ideas opened up to Campbell while studying in Europe. Here he also discovered the works and writings of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. It was also during this time, as well, that he met and became friends with the young Jiddu Krishnamurti, a friendship which began his lifelong interest in Hindu philosophy and mythology. In addition, after the death of Indologist Heinrich Zimmer, Campbell was given the task to edit and posthumously publish Zimmer's papers. A bronze Arthur in plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur. ... Stephen Daedalus was James Joyces early pen name, and the name of the main character in his early novel Stephen Hero. ... A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a semi-autobiographical novel by James Joyce, first serialized in The Egoist from 1914 to 1915 and published in book form in 1916. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Paul Thomas Mann (June 6, 1875 – August 12, 1955) was a German novelist, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual. ... For other persons named Klee, see Klee (disambiguation). ... “Picasso” redirects here. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... “Jung” redirects here. ... Jiddu Krishnamurti or J. Krishnamurti, (May 12, 1895–February 17, 1986) was a well-known writer and speaker on fundamental philosophical and spiritual subjects, such as the purpose of meditation, human relationships, and how to enact positive change in global society. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Heinrich Zimmer Heinrich Zimmer (b. ...


Return to the United States and the Great Depression

On his return from Europe in 1929, Campbell announced to his faculty at Columbia that his time in Europe had broadened his interests and that he wanted to study Sanskrit and Modern art in addition to Medieval literature. When his advisors did not support this, Campbell decided not to go forward with his plans to earn a doctorate and never returned to a conventional graduate program (The Hero's Journey: Joseph Campbell on His Life and Work, 1990, first edition: 54). The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. ... This article is about the book and documentary on Joseph Campbell. ...


A few weeks later, the Great Depression began. Campbell would spend the next five years (1929-1934) trying to figure out what to do with his life (Larsen and Larsen, 2002:160) and he engaged in a period of intensive and rigorous independent study. Campbell discussed this period in The Hero's Journey: Joseph Campbell on His Life and Work (1990, first edition:52-3). Campbell states that he "would divide the day into four four-hour periods, of which I would be reading in three of the four hour periods, and free one of them...I would get nine hours of sheer reading done a day. And this went on for five years straight." For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Stephen Larsen is a psychologist and author who, with Robin Larsen his wife, was on the founding board of advisors of the Joseph Campbell Foundation[1], and also founded the Center for Symbolic Studies[2], to carry on with the work of Joseph Campbell. ... This article is about the book and documentary on Joseph Campbell. ...


He also traveled to California for a year (1931-32), continuing his independent studies and becoming close friends with the budding writer John Steinbeck and his wife Carol (Larsen and Larsen, 2002, chapters 8 and 9). Campbell also maintained his independent reading while teaching for a year in 1933 at the Canterbury School during which time he also attempted to publish works of fiction (Larsen and Larsen, 2002:214) [2]. John Ernst Steinbeck (February 27, 1902 – December 20, 1968) was one of the best-known and most widely read American writers of the 20th century. ... Stephen Larsen is a psychologist and author who, with Robin Larsen his wife, was on the founding board of advisors of the Joseph Campbell Foundation[1], and also founded the Center for Symbolic Studies[2], to carry on with the work of Joseph Campbell. ... K-8 private Episcopal School in Greensboro, North Carolina. ... Stephen Larsen is a psychologist and author who, with Robin Larsen his wife, was on the founding board of advisors of the Joseph Campbell Foundation[1], and also founded the Center for Symbolic Studies[2], to carry on with the work of Joseph Campbell. ...


Campbell's independent studies led to his greater exploration of the ideas of the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, a contemporary and colleague of Sigmund Freud. Campbell edited the first Eranos conference papers and helped to found Princeton University Press' Bollingen Press. Another dissident member of Freud's circle to influence Campbell was Wilhelm Stekel (1868 - 1939). Stekel pioneered the application of Freud's conceptions of dreams, fantasies of the human mind, and the unconscious to such fields as anthropology and literature. Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ... “Jung” redirects here. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Eranos is an intellectual discussion group dedicated to study of spirituality. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Wilhelm Stekel (1868-1940) was a psychologist, one of Freuds earliest followers. ... The mind is the term most commonly used to describe the higher functions of the human brain, particularly those of which humans are subjectively conscious, such as personality, thought, reason, memory, intelligence and emotion. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ...


Sarah Lawrence College

In 1934, Campbell was offered a position as professor at Sarah Lawrence College (through the efforts of his former Columbia advisor W.W. Laurence). Campbell married one of his former students, dancer and dance instructor Jean Erdman, in 1938. He retired from Sarah Lawrence College in 1972, after having taught there for 38 years. Sarah Lawrence College is a private liberal arts college located in metropolitan New York City, about a thirty-minute train ride north of Manhattan. ... See also Jean Erdman, Baron Dieskau. ...


Death

Joseph Campbell died at the age of 83 on October 31, 1987, at his home in Honolulu, Hawaii, from complications due to esophageal cancer [1] shortly after completing filming of The Power of Myth with Bill Moyers. Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... The Power of Myth is a book and six part television documentary first broadcast on PBS in 1988 as Joseph Campbell and the Power of Myth. ... Bill D. Moyers (born June 5, 1934 as Billy Don Moyers) is an American journalist and public commentator. ...


Select works

James Joyce and early works

As noted above, James Joyce was an important influence on Campbell. Campbell's first important book (with Henry Morton Robinson), A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake [3] (1944), is a critical analysis of Joyce's final text Finnegans Wake. In addition, Campbell's seminal work, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, discusses what Campbell termed the monomyth- The cycle of the journey of the hero, an idea which he directly attributes to Joyce's Finnegans Wake (Campbell, 1949:30). James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish Séamus Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish expatriate writer, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... Henry Morton Robinson (born September 7, 1898–died January 13, 1961) was an American novelist, best known for his 1950 novel The Cardinal, which was adapted to an Academy Award nominated film in 1963. ... A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake (1944) by mythologist Joseph Campbell and Henry Morton Robinson is an important work of literary criticism. ... For the street ballad which the novel is named after, see Finnegans Wake. ... The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949) is the seminal work of comparative mythologist Joseph Campbell. ... The monomyth (often referred to as the heros journey) is a description of a basic pattern found in many narratives from around the world. ... “Heroine” redirects here. ... For the street ballad which the novel is named after, see Finnegans Wake. ...


The Masks of God

His massive four-volume work The Masks of God covers mythology from around the world, from ancient to modern. Where The Hero with a Thousand Faces focused on the commonality of mythology (the “elementary ideas”), the Masks of God books focus upon historical and cultural variations the monomyth takes on (the “folk ideas”). In other words, where The Hero with a Thousand Faces draws perhaps more from psychology, the Masks of God books draw more from anthropology and history. The four volumes of Masks of God are as follows: Primitive Mythology, Oriental Mythology, Occidental Myth, and Creative Mythology. The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949) is the seminal work of comparative mythologist Joseph Campbell. ...


The Historical Atlas of World Mythology

At the time of his death, Campbell was in the midst of working upon a large-format, lavishly illustrated series entitled The Historical Atlas of World Mythology. This series was to build on Campbell’s idea, first presented in The Hero with a Thousand Faces, that myth evolves over time through four stages:


The Way of the Animal Powers -- the myths of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers which focus on shamanism and animal totems.


The Way of the Seeded Earth -- the myths of Neolithic, agrarian cultures which focus upon a mother goddess and associated fertility rites.


The Way of the Celestial Lights -- the myths of Bronze Age city-states with pantheons of gods up ruling from the heavens, led by a masculine god-king.


The Way of Man -- religion and philosophy as it developed after the Axial Age (c. 6th century BCE), in which the mythic imagery of previous eras was made consciously metaphorical, reinterpreted as referring to psycho-spiritual, not literal-historical, matters. This transition is evidenced in the East by Buddhism, Vedanta, and philosophical Taoism; and in the West by the Mystery Cults, Platonism and Gnosticism. A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Only the first two volumes were completed at the time of Campbell's death. Both are now out-of-print.


The Power of Myth

Campbell's widest popular recognition followed his collaboration with Bill Moyers on the PBS series The Power of Myth, which was first broadcast in 1988, the year following Campbell's death. The series exposed his ideas concerning mythological, religious, and psychological archetypes to a wide audience, and captured the imagination of millions of viewers. It remains a staple of PBS television membership drives to this day. A companion book, The Power of Myth, containing expanded transcripts of their conversations, was released shortly after the original broadcast, and became a best seller. Bill D. Moyers (born June 5, 1934 as Billy Don Moyers) is an American journalist and public commentator. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... The Power of Myth is a book and six part television documentary first broadcast on PBS in 1988 as Joseph Campbell and the Power of Myth. ...


Thou Art That: Transforming Religious Metaphor

A recent compilation of many of his ideas is titled Thou Art That: Transforming Religious Metaphor. In it Campbell writes:"...Mythology is often thought of as other people's religions, and religion can be defined as mis-interpreted mythology." In other words, Campbell did not read religious symbols literally as historical facts, but instead he saw them as symbols or as metaphors for greater philosophical ideas.


Campbell had previously discussed this idea with Bill Moyers in The Power of Myth: Bill D. Moyers (born June 5, 1934 as Billy Don Moyers) is an American journalist and public commentator. ...

CAMPBELL: That would be a mistake in the reading of the symbol. That is reading the words in terms of prose instead of in terms of poetry, reading the metaphor in terms of the denotation instead of the connotation.
MOYERS: And poetry gets to the unseen reality.
CAMPBELL: That which is beyond even the concept of reality, that which transcends all thought. The myth puts you there all the time, gives you a line to connect with that mystery which you are (Campbell, 1988:57).

Campbell's original voice

Campbell relied often upon the writings of Carl Jung as an explanation of psychological phenomena, as experienced through archetypes. But Campbell did not necessarily agree with Jung upon every issue, and had very definite ideas of his own. “Jung” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ...


A fundamental belief of Campbell's was that all spirituality is a search for the same basic, unknown force from which everything came, within which everything currently exists, and into which everything will eventually return. This elemental force is ultimately “unknowable” because it exists before words and knowledge. Although this basic driving force cannot be expressed in words, spiritual rituals and stories refer to the force through the use of "metaphors" - these metaphors being the various stories, deities, and objects of spirituality we see in the world. For example, the Genesis myth in the Bible ought not be taken as a literal description of actual events, but rather its poetic, metaphorical meaning should be examined for clues concerning the fundamental truths of the world and our existence. Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


Accordingly, Campbell believed the religions of the world to be the various, culturally influenced “masks” of the same fundamental, transcendent truths. All religions, including Christianity and Buddhism, can bring one to an elevated awareness above and beyond a dualistic conception of reality, or idea of “pairs of opposites,” such as being and non-being, or right and wrong. Indeed, he quotes in the preface of The Hero with a Thousand Faces: "Truth is one, the sages speak of it by many names." which is a translation of the Rig Vedic saying "Ekam Sat Vipra Bahuda Vadanthi." In all religions, a person may have an experience that is beyond all reference to the physical world. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949) is the seminal work of comparative mythologist Joseph Campbell. ...


Campbell was fascinated with what he viewed as basic, universal truths, expressed in different manifestations across different cultures. For example, in the preface of The Hero with a Thousand Faces, he indicated that a goal of his was to demonstrate similarities between Eastern and Western religions. In his four-volume series of books "The Masks of God", Campbell tried to summarize the main spiritual threads common throughout the world. Tied in with this, was his idea that many of the belief systems of the world which expressed these universal truths had a common geographic ancestry, starting off on the fertile grasslands of Europe in the Bronze Age and moving to the Levant and the "Fertile Crescent" of Mesopotamia and back to Europe (and the Far East), where it was mixed with the newly emerging Indo-European (Aryan) culture. A common dictionary definition of truth is agreement with fact or reality.[1] There is no single definition of truth about which the majority of philosophers agree. ... Religions, sects and denominations Note that the classification hereunder is only one of several possible. ... Religions, sects and denominations Note that the classification hereunder is only one of several possible. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /ləvænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... For other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation). ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ... Aryan (/eərjən/ or /ɑːrjən/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ...


Heroes and the monomyth

The role of the hero figured largely in Campbell's comparative studies. In 1949 The Hero with a Thousand Faces introduced his idea of the monomyth (borrowed from Joyce as stated above), which outlined some of the archetypal patterns Campbell recognized. Heroes were important to Campbell because, to him, they conveyed universal truths about one's personal self-discovery and self-transcendence, one's role in society, and the relationship between the two. “Heroine” redirects here. ... The monomyth (often referred to as the heros journey) is a description of a basic pattern found in many narratives from around the world. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ...


Influence

Scholars who influenced Campbell

Campbell often referred to the work of modern writers James Joyce and Thomas Mann in his lectures and writings. Anthropologist Leo Frobenius was important to Campbell’s view of cultural history. He often indicated that the single most important book in his intellectual development was Oswald Spengler's The Decline of the West. James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish Séamus Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish expatriate writer, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... Paul Thomas Mann (June 6, 1875 – August 12, 1955) was a German novelist, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual. ... Leo Frobenius (29 June 1873 - 9 August 1938) was an ethnologist and archaeologist and a major figure in German ethnography. ... Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (Blankenburg am Harz May 29, 1880 – May 8, 1936, Munich) was a German historian and philosopher, although his studies ranged throughout mathematics, science, philosophy, history, and art. ... Cover of Volume II, first edition, 1922 The Decline of the West (German: Der Untergang des Abendlandes) is a two-volume work by Oswald Spengler, the first volume of which was published in the summer of 1918. ...


Campbell's ideas regarding myth and its relationship to the human psyche are dependent on the work of Carl Jung, whose studies of human psychology, as previously mentioned, greatly influenced Campbell. Campbell's conception of myth is closely related to the Jungian method of dream interpretation, which is heavily reliant on symbolic interpretation. Jung's insights into archetypes were in turn heavily influenced by the Bardo Thodol (also known as the The Tibetan Book of the Dead). In his 1981 text The Mythic Image, Campbell quotes Jung on the Bardo Thodol, who states that it "belongs to that class of writings which not only are of interest to specialists in Mahayana Buddhism, but also, because of their deep humanity and still deeper insight into the secrets of the human psyche, make an especial appeal to the layman seeking to broaden his knowledge of life"... "For years, ever since it was first published, the Bardo Thodol has been my constant companion, and to it I owe not only many stimulating ideas and discoveries, but also many fundamental insights" (Campbell 1981:392). “Jung” redirects here. ... The Bardo Thodol, Liberation through Hearing in the Intermediate State, sometimes incorrectly called the Tibetan Book of the Dead, is a funerary text that describes the experiences of the consciousness after death during the interval known as bardo between death and rebirth. ...


The "follow your bliss" philosophy attributed to Campbell following the original broadcast of The Power of Myth was possibly influenced by the 1922 Sinclair Lewis novel Babbitt. In The Power of Myth Campbell quotes from the novel: Sinclair Lewis Sinclair Lewis (February 7, 1885 — January 10, 1951) was an American novelist and playwright. ... Babbitt is a classic novel by the American novelist and playwright Sinclair Lewis, first published in 1922. ... The Power of Myth is a book and six part television documentary first broadcast on PBS in 1988 as Joseph Campbell and the Power of Myth. ...

Campbell: "Have you ever read Sinclair Lewis' Babbit?
Moyers: "Not in a long time."
Campbell: "Remember the last line? 'I have never done the thing that I wanted to do in all my life.' That is a man who never followed his bliss" (Campbell, 1988:117).

Campbell studied mythology under Professor Heinrich Zimmer while a young student at Columbia. Zimmer taught Campbell that myth (rather than a guru or spiritual guide) could serve in the role of a personal mentor, in that its stories provide a psychological roadmap for the finding of oneself in the labyrinth of the complex modern world. Zimmer relied more on the meanings of mythological tales (their symbols, metaphors, imagery, etc.) as a source for psychological realization than upon psychoanalysis itself. Campbell later borrowed from the interpretative techniques of Jung and then reshaped them in a fashion that followed Zimmer's beliefs- interpreting directly from world mythology. This is an important distinction because as it serves to explain why Campbell did not directly follow Jung's footsteps in applied psychology. Heinrich Zimmer Heinrich Zimmer (b. ...


Campbell's influence upon cinema

George Lucas was the first Hollywood filmmaker to openly credit Campbell's influence. He stated during the release of the first Star Wars films during the late 1970s that they were based upon ideas found in The Hero With a Thousand Faces and other works of Campbell's. Indeed, reprints of the text issued after the release of Star Wars (now referred to as Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope) in 1977 used the image of Mark Hamill as Luke Skywalker on the cover.[4] Lucas discusses this at great length in the official biography of Joseph Campbell, Joseph Campbell: A Fire in the Mind by Stephen and Robin Larsen: George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... ... Star Wars is an epic space opera saga and a fictional universe initially developed by George Lucas during the 1970s and expanded since that time. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949) is the seminal work of comparative mythologist Joseph Campbell. ... This movie poster for Star Wars depicts many of the films important elements, such as Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, X-Wing and Y-Wing fighters Star Wars, retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981 (see note at Title,) is the original (and in chronological... This movie poster for Star Wars depicts many of the films important elements, such as Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, X-Wing and Y-Wing fighters Star Wars, retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981 (see note at Title,) is the original (and in chronological... Mark Richard Hamill (born September 25, 1951) is an American actor and voice actor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Stephen Larsen is a psychologist and author who, with Robin Larsen his wife, was on the founding board of advisors of the Joseph Campbell Foundation[1], and also founded the Center for Symbolic Studies[2], to carry on with the work of Joseph Campbell. ...

I [Lucas] came to the conclusion after American Graffiti that what's valuable for me is to set standards, not to show people the world the way it is...around the period of this realization...it came to me that there really was no modern use of mythology...The Western was possibly the last generically American fairy tale, telling us about our values. And once the Western disappeared, nothing has ever taken its place. In literature we were going off into science fiction...so that's when I started doing more strenuous research on fairy tales, folklore, and mythology, and I started reading Joe's books. Before that I hadn't read any of Joe's books...It was very eerie because in reading The Hero with a Thousand Faces I began to realize that my first draft of Star Wars was following classic motifs...so I modified my next draft [of Star Wars] according to what I'd been learning about classical motifs and made it a little bit more consistent...I went on to read 'The Masks of God' and many other books (Larsen and Larsen, 2002: 541).

The 1988 documentary The Power of Myth was filmed at Lucas' Skywalker Ranch. During his interviews with Bill Moyers, Campbell discusses the way in which Lucas used The Hero's Journey in the Star Wars films (IV, V, and VI) to re-invent the mythology for the contemporary viewer. Moyers and Lucas filmed an interview 12 years later in 1999 called the Mythology of Star Wars with George Lucas & Bill Moyers to further discuss the impact of Campbell's work on Lucas' films.[5] In addition, the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution sponsored an exhibit during the late 1990s called Star Wars: The Magic of Myth, which discussed the ways in which Campbell's work shaped the Star Wars films.[6] A companion guide of the same name was published in 1997. American Graffiti is a 1973 film directed by George Lucas. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949) is the seminal work of comparative mythologist Joseph Campbell. ... This movie poster for Star Wars depicts many of the films important elements, such as Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, X-Wing and Y-Wing fighters Star Wars, retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981 (see note at Title,) is the original (and in chronological... The Power of Myth is a book and six part television documentary first broadcast on PBS in 1988 as Joseph Campbell and the Power of Myth. ... Skywalker Ranch is the name of the well-disguised workplace of film director and producer George Lucas in secluded but open country near Nicasio, California. ... Bill D. Moyers (born June 5, 1934 as Billy Don Moyers) is an American journalist and public commentator. ... Star Wars is an epic space opera saga and a fictional universe initially developed by George Lucas during the 1970s and expanded since that time. ... National Air and Space Museum exterior The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) of the Smithsonian Institution is a museum in Washington, D.C., United States, and is the most popular of the Smithsonian museums. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


Christopher Vogler, a Hollywood screenwriter, was also highly influenced by Campbell. He created a 7-page company memo based on Campbell's work, A Practical Guide to The Hero With a Thousand Faces,[7], which led to the development of Disney's 1994 film The Lion King. Vogler's memo was later developed into the late 1990s book The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure For Writers. Christopher Vogler is a Hollywood screenwriter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Disneys 1994 film. ...


John David Ebert, a former editor who worked with the Campbell Foundation, was also highly influenced by Campbell, and this is especially evident in Ebert's book Celluloid Heroes & Mechanical Dragons: Film as the Mythology of Electronic Society (Cybereditions, 2005). This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Controversy

A few years after his death, some of Campbell's critics accused him of anti-Semitism. The charges began with Brendan Gill's article, "The Faces of Joseph Campbell," published in the New York Review of Books, Vol. 36, Issue 14, September 28, 1989, pages 16-19. Gill, who identified himself as a friend of Campbell from the Century Association in New York City, notes in the article that he wrote it in reaction to the enormous popularity of The Power of Myth series in 1988. Professor of religion Robert Segal followed Gill's contention of anti-semitism with the article, "Joseph Campbell on Jews and Judaism" ( Religion Volume 22, Issue 2, April 1992: 151-170). Later in the article Segal also suggests that this view of Campbell stems, at least in part, from his tendency to be perhaps blunt at times in his critique of certain aspects of various organized religions, which Campbell, in his valedictory series of lectures, Transformations of Myth Through Time had stated was his job.[8] Gill wrote for The New Yorker for more than 60 years. ... The New York Review of Books (or NYRB) is a biweekly magazine on literature, culture, and current affairs published in New York which takes as its point of departure that the discussion of important books is itself an indispensable literary activity. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The Power of Myth is a book and six part television documentary first broadcast on PBS in 1988 as Joseph Campbell and the Power of Myth. ...


Other scholars disagreed both with Gill's general critiques as well as the accusation of anti-semitism. A few months after Gill's article appeared, the New York Review of Books, Volume 36, Issue 17, November 9, 1989, pages 57-61, published the series of letters "Brendan Gill vs. Defenders of Joseph Campbell" (cover of New York Review), "Joseph Campbell: An Exchange" (title of letter collection). A number of the letters, from former students and colleagues, argue against the accusations. In particular, Professors Roberta and Peter Markman argue that "we were dismayed because this piece of character assassination was unsupported by any evidence." Gill, in a response to these letters, continued to uphold his claims. The New York Review of Books (or NYRB) is a biweekly magazine on literature, culture, and current affairs published in New York which takes as its point of departure that the discussion of important books is itself an indispensable literary activity. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Stephen Larsen and Robin Larsen, the authors of the biography "Joseph Campbell: A Fire in the Mind," (2002) also argued against what they referred to as "the so called anti-Semitic charge" (x). They state that: "For the record, Campbell did not belong to any organization that condoned racial or social bias, nor do we know of any other way in which he endorsed such viewpoints. During his lifetime there was no record of such accusations in which he might have publicly betrayed his bigotry or visibly been forced to defend such a position" (2002:x). Stephen Larsen is a psychologist and author who, with Robin Larsen his wife, was on the founding board of advisors of the Joseph Campbell Foundation[1], and also founded the Center for Symbolic Studies[2], to carry on with the work of Joseph Campbell. ...


Bibliography of works by Campbell

Books by Joseph Campbell

  • Where the Two Came to Their Father: A Navaho War Ceremonial (1943). with Jeff King and Maud Oakes, Old Dominion Foundation
  • A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake (1944). with Henry Morton Robinson, Harcourt, Brace & Co.
  • The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949). Pantheon Books. Princeton University Press 1972 paperback: ISBN 0-691-01784-0, Bollingen 2004 commemorative hardcover: ISBN 0-691-11924-4
  • The Flight of the Wild Gander:Explorations in the Mythological Dimension (1951). Viking Press
  • The Masks of God (1959–1968). Viking Press:
    • Volume 1, Primitive Mythology (1959)
    • Volume 2, Oriental Mythology (1962)
    • Volume 3, Occidental Mythology (1964)
    • Volume 4, Creative Mythology (1968)
  • Myths to Live By (1972). Viking Press
  • Erotic irony and mythic forms in the art of Thomas Mann (1973)
  • The Mythic Image (1974). Princeton University Press
  • The Inner Reaches of Outer Space: Metaphor As Myth and As Religion (1986). Alfred van der Marck Editions
  • Historical Atlas of World Mythology
    • Volume I: The Way of Animal Powers (1983). Alfred van der Marck Editions
      • reprint in two parts: Part 1: Mythologies of the Primitive Hunters and Gatherers (1988)
      • Part 2: Mythologies of the Great Hunt (1988)
    • Volume II: The Way of the Seeded Earth
      • Part 1: The Sacrifice (1988). Alfred van der Marck Editions
      • Part 2: Mythologies of the Primitive Planters: The North Americas (1989). Harper & Row
      • Part 3: Mythologies of the Primitive Planters: The Middle and Southern Americas (1989). Harper & Row
  • Transformations of Myth Through Time (1990). Harper and Row
  • A Joseph Campbell Companion: Reflections on the Art of Living (1991). editor Diane K. Osbon
  • Mythic Worlds, Modern Words: On the Art of James Joyce (1993). editor Edmund L. Epstein
  • The Mythic Dimension: Selected Essays (1959-1987) (1993). editor Anthony Van Couvering
  • Baksheesh & Brahman: Indian Journals (1954-1955) (1995). editors Robin/Stephen Larsen & Anthony Van Couvering
  • Thou Art That: Transforming Religious Metaphor (2001). editor Eugene Kennedy, New World Library ISBN 1-57731-202-3. first volume in the Collected Works of Joseph Campbell
  • Sake & Satori: Asian Journals - Japan (2002). editor David Kudler
  • Myths of Light: Eastern Metaphors of the Eternal (2003). editor David Kudler
  • Pathways to Bliss: Mythology and Personal Transformation (2004). editor David Kudler

A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake (1944) by mythologist Joseph Campbell and Henry Morton Robinson is an important work of literary criticism. ... The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949) is the seminal work of comparative mythologist Joseph Campbell. ... Myths to Live By Author: Joseph Campbell Publisher: Penguin Books; Reprint edition (February 1, 1993) ISBN: 0140194614 Paperback: 288 pages This book is a collection of mythologist Joseph Campbells lectures delivered between 1958 and 1971. ...

Books based upon interviews with Joseph Campbell

  • The Power of Myth (1988). with Bill Moyers and editor Betty Sue Flowers, Doubleday, hardcover: ISBN 0-385-24773-7
  • An Open Life: Joseph Campbell in Conversation with Michael Toms (1989). editors John Maher and Dennie Briggs, forward by Jean Erdman Campbell. Larson Publications, Harper Perennial 1990 paperback: ISBN 0-06-097295-5
  • This business of the gods: Interview with Fraser Boa (1989)
  • The Hero's Journey: Joseph Campbell on His Life and Work (1990). editor Phil Cousineau. Harper & Row 1991 paperback: ISBN 0-06-250171-2. Element Books 1999 hardcover: ISBN 1862045984. New World Library centennial edition with introduction by Phil Cousineau, forward by executive editor Stuart L. Brown: ISBN 1-57731-404-2

The Power of Myth is a book and six part television documentary first broadcast on PBS in 1988 as Joseph Campbell and the Power of Myth. ... Bill D. Moyers (born June 5, 1934 as Billy Don Moyers) is an American journalist and public commentator. ... Betty Sue Flowers is the director of the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum and a Professor of English at the University of Texas at Austin. ... This article is about the book and documentary on Joseph Campbell. ... Phil Cousineau (1952- ) is an author, screenwriter, and documentary filmmaker. ...

Audio Tapes of Joseph Campbell

  • The Power of Myth (With Bill Moyers) (1987)
  • Transformation of Myth through Time Volume 1-3 (1989)
  • The Hero with a Thousand Faces: The Cosmogonic Cycle (Read by Ralph Blum) (1990)
  • The Way of Art (1990—unlicensed)
  • The Lost Teachings of Joseph Campbell Volume 1-9 (With Michael Toms) (1993)
  • On the Wings of Art: Joseph Campbell; Joseph Campbell on the Art of James Joyce (1995)
  • The Wisdom of Joseph Campbell (With Michael Toms) (1997)
  • Joseph Campbell Audio Collection; Volume 1:Mythology and the Individual (1997)
  • Joseph Campbell Audio Collection; Volume 2:The Inward Journey (1997)
  • Joseph Campbell Audio Collection; Volume 3:The Eastern Way (1997)
  • Joseph Campbell Audio Collection; Volume 4:Man and Myth (1997)
  • Joseph Campbell Audio Collection; Volume 5:The Myths and Masks of God (1997)
  • Joseph Campbell Audio Collection; Volume 6:The Western Quest (1997)
  • Myth and Metaphor in Society (With Jamake Highwater) (abridged)(2002)

Video/DVDs of Joseph Campbell

Mythos is a multi-part documentary which consists of a series of lectures given by Joseph Campbell. ... The Power of Myth is a book and six part television documentary first broadcast on PBS in 1988 as Joseph Campbell and the Power of Myth. ... This article is about the book and documentary on Joseph Campbell. ... Phil Cousineau (1952- ) is an author, screenwriter, and documentary filmmaker. ...

Books edited by Joseph Campbell

  • Gupta, Mahendranath. The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna (1942) (translation from Bengali by Swami Nikhilananda; Joseph Campbell and Margaret Woodrow Wilson, translation assistants - see preface; foreword by Aldous Huxley)
  • Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. Heinrich Zimmer (1946)
  • The King and the Corpse: Tales of the Soul's Conquest of Evil. Heinrich Zimmer (1948)
  • Philosophies of India. Heinrich Zimmer (1951)
  • The Portable Arabian Nights (1951)
  • The Art of Indian Asia. Heinrich Zimmer (1955)
  • Man and Time: Papers from the Eranos Yearbooks. Various authors (1954-1969)
  • Man and Transformation: Papers from the Eranos Yearbooks. Various authors (1954-1969)
  • The Mysteries: Papers from the Eranos Yearbooks. Various authors (1954-1969)
  • The Mystic Vision: Papers from the Eranos Yearbooks. Various authors (1954-1969)
  • Spirit and Nature: Papers from the Eranos Yearbooks. Various authors (1954-1969)
  • Spiritual Disciplines: Papers from the Eranos Yearbooks. Various authors (1954-1969)
  • Myths, Dreams, Religion. Various authors (1970)
  • The Portable Jung. Carl Jung (1971)

Mahendranath Gupta (1854–1932), who preferred to call himself M, was one of the foremost disciples of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and the author of The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna. ... Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Bangla: রামকৃষ্ণ পরমহংস Ramkrishno Pôromôhongsho), born Gadadhar Chattopadhyay (Bangla: গদাধর চট্টোপাধ্যায় Gôdadhor Chôţţopaddhae) [1], (February 18, 1836–August 16, 1886) was a Hindu religious teacher and an influential figure in the Bengal Renaissance of the Nineteenth century. ... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... Swami Nikhilananda (1895-1973), was an initiated disciple of Sri Sarada Devi. ... Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... Heinrich Zimmer Heinrich Zimmer (b. ... “Jung” redirects here. ...

General references

On the Life and Work of Joseph Campbell

Books

  • Segal, Robert. Joseph Campbell an Introduction, (1987)
  • Larsen, Stephen and Robin. Joseph Campbell: A Fire in the Mind. (1991)
  • Golden, Kenneth L. Uses of Comparative Mythology: Essays on the Work of Joseph Campbell (1992)
  • Manganaro, Marc. Myth, Rhetoric, and the Voice of Authority: A Critique of Frazer, Eliot, Frye, and Campbell. (1992)
  • Madden, Lawrence. (Editor) The Joseph Campbell Phenomenon: Implications for the Contemporary Church (1992)
  • Noel, Daniel C. (Editor) Paths to the Power of Myth (1994)
  • Snyder, Tom. Myth Conceptions: Joseph Campbell and the New Age (1995)
  • Henderson, Mary. Star Wars: The Magic of Myth (1997)Smithsonian Exhibit
  • Vogler, Christopher. The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure For Writers. (1998)
  • Ellwood, Robert. The Politics of Myth: A Study of C. G. Jung, Mircea Eliade, and Joseph Campbell (1999)

Articles

  • Man and Myth: A Conversation with Joseph Campbell. Sam Keen. Psychology Today, v. 5 (1971)
  • Living Myths: A Conversation with Joseph Campbell. Lorraine Kisly. Parabola, v. 1 (1976)
  • The Professor with a Thousand Faces. Donald Newlove. Esquire, v. 88 (1977)
  • Earthrise: The Dawning of a New Spiritual Awareness. Eugene Kennedy. New York Times Magazine. (April 15, 1979)
  • Elders and Guides: A Conversation with Joseph Campbell. Michael McKnight. Parabola, v. 5 (1980)
  • The Masks of Joseph Campbell. Florence Sandler and Darrell Reeck. Religion, v. 11 (1981)
  • The faces of Joseph Campbell. Brendan Gill. New York Review of Books, v. 36, number 14 (September 28, 1989)
  • Brendan Gill vs Defenders of Joseph Campbell-An Exchange. Various Authors. New York Review of Books, v. 36, number 17 (November 9, 1989)
  • Joseph Campbell on Jews and Judaism. Robert Segal. Religion, v. 22 (April 1992)
  • “Was Joseph Campbell a Postmodernist?’’ Joseph M. Felser. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, v. 64 (1998)
  • Why Joseph Campbell's Psychologizing of Myth Precludes the Holocaust as Touchstone of Reality. Maurice Friedman, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, v. 67 (1998)
  • Joseph Campbell as Antisemite and as Theorist of Myth: A Response to Maurice Friedman. Robert A. Segal, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, v. 66 (1999)

Secondary References

Books

  • Pearson, Carol and Pope, Katherine. The Female Hero in American and British Literature. (1981)
  • Ford, Clyde W. The Hero with an African Face: Mythic Wisdom of Traditional Africa. (2000)
  • Jones, Steven Swann. The Fairy Tale: The Magic Mirror of the Imagination. (2002)
  • Erickson, Leslie Goss. Re-Visioning of the Heroic Journey in Postmodern Literature: Toni Morrison, Julia Alvarez, Arthur Miller, and American Beauty (2006)
  • Joiner, Ann Livingston. A Myth in Action: The Heroic Life of Audie Murphy. (2006)

Joseph Campbell and Marija Gimbutas Library

Campbell's papers and library were donated to the Center for the Study of Depth Psychology at the Pacifica Graduate Institute in Carpinteria, California by the Joseph Campbell Foundation. The collection is housed in the Joseph Campbell and Marija Gimbutas Library. Campbell had frequently lectured at Pacifica, a private school which supports graduate work in mythology and depth psychology. The founding curator, psychologist Jonathan Young, worked closely with Campbell's widow, choreographer Jean Erdman, to gather the materials from Campbell's homes in Honolulu and Greenwich Village, New York City.The Campbell collection numbers approximately 3,000 volumes and covers a broad range of subjects, including anthropology, folklore, religion, literature, and psychology. The collection also includes audio and video tapes of lectures, original manuscripts, and research papers. [9]. Carpinteria is a small oceanside city located in the southeastern extremity of Santa Barbara County, California, east of Santa Barbara and northwest of Ventura. ... The Joseph Campbell Foundation is a US not-for-profit organization dedicated to preserve, protect and perpetuate the work of influential American mythologist Joseph Campbell (1904-1987). ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... Depth psychology is a broad term that refers to any psychological approach examining the depth (the hidden or deeper parts) of human experience. ... Joseph Campbell with Jonathan Young, 1985. ... See also Jean Erdman, Baron Dieskau. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


References

  1. ^ Joseph Campbell Foundation website
  2. ^ http://www.online.pacifica.edu/cgl/Campbellchronology
  3. ^ http://www.jcf.org/works.php?id=331
  4. ^ http://www.pupress.princeton.edu/titles/234.html
  5. ^ http://www.films.com/id/11017/The_Mythology_of_Star_Wars_with_George_Lucas_and_Bill_Moyers.htm
  6. ^ http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/StarWars/sw-unit1.htm
  7. ^ http://www.online.pacifica.edu/cgl/lucas
  8. ^ Transcribed in book of same name [ISBN 0-06-096463-4]
  9. ^ http://www.online.pacifica.edu/cgl/Campbell

See also

Religion and mythology differ, but have overlapping aspects. ...

External links

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  • The Way of Art

  Results from FactBites:
 
Joseph Campbell (2089 words)
Campbell is considered by some to be one of the most famous autodidacts, or 'self-educators', and is sometimes seen as a poster child for this way of learning.
Joseph Campbell believed all the religions of the world, all the rituals and deities, to be “masks” of the same transcendent truth which is “unknowable.” He claims Christianity and Buddhism, whether the object is 'Buddha-consciousness' or 'Christ-consciousness,' to be an elevated awareness above “pairs of opposites,” such as right and wrong.
Campbell intended it to mean that one should follow the natural order and cycles of life, though, like Aleister Crowley's “Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the law,” it has been misunderstood by critics as a call to craven libertinism.
Joseph Campbell (532 words)
Joseph Campbell was born in New York City on July 25, 1904.
Campbell argued that world's mythologies, ritual practices, folk traditions, and major religions share certain symbolic themes, motifs, and patterns of behavior.
Campbell died at age of eighty-three on October 31, 1987, at his home in Honolulu, Hawaii, after a brief illness.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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