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Encyclopedia > Joseph C. Wilson
 This article documents a current event.
Information may change rapidly as the event progresses.
This page is for the diplomat. For others of that name see Joseph Wilson.
For more detail about the political scandal, see Plame affair.
Wilson, on occasion of delivering President's Lecture, at Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts, on October 17, 2005
Wilson, on occasion of delivering President's Lecture, at Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts, on October 17, 2005

Joseph Charles Wilson IV (born November 6, 1949) is a retired diplomat of the United States Foreign Service, who was posted to African nations and Iraq during the George H. W. Bush administration. During the George W. Bush administration, after his retirement from foreign service, Wilson became known to the general public as a result of his controversial opinion-editorial published in the New York Times on July 6, 2003, four months after the 2003 invasion of Iraq began. In the op-ed, entitled "What I Didn't Find in Africa," Wilson documents his February 2002 trip investigating whether Iraq purchased or attempted to purchase Yellowcake from Niger in the late 1990s and accuses the George W. Bush administration of "exaggerating the Iraqi threat" in order to justify war."[1] Image File history File links Current_event_marker. ... Joseph C. Wilson IV was a United States career foreign service officer and later a diplomat between 1976 and 1998. ... The Plame Affair concerns the claim that the identity of Valerie E. Wilson (née Valerie Elise Plame; also known as Valerie Plame), who was working for the CIA possibly as a covert agent, was revealed by a government official. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 125 KB) Photograph of former Ambassador w:Joseph C. Wilson in w:Worcester, Massachusetts, USA, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 125 KB) Photograph of former Ambassador w:Joseph C. Wilson in w:Worcester, Massachusetts, USA, 2005. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... The United States Foreign Service represents the United States to the world. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom South Korea Australia Poland Romania others. ... Powdered yellowcake in a drum Yellowcakes (also known as urania) are uranium concentrates obtained from leach solutions. ... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ...


Shortly thereafter, columnist Robert Novak, while writing on the choice of Wilson for the Niger mission, disclosed that Wilson's wife, Valerie Plame, worked for the CIA. In his column of July 14, 2003, Novak states: "Wilson never worked for the CIA, but his wife, Valerie Plame, is an agency operative on weapons of mass destruction. Two senior administration officials told me that Wilson's wife suggested sending him to Niger to investigate the Italian report. The CIA says its counterproliferation officials selected Wilson and asked his wife to contact him. 'I will not answer any question about my wife,' Wilson told me."[2] Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative political commentator and political figure. ... Joseph and Valerie Wilson Valerie E. Wilson, née Valerie Elise Plame, (born April 19, 1963 in Anchorage, Alaska) is a former United States CIA officer who once held non-official cover (NOC) status. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Counter-proliferation refers to military efforts to combat proliferation, including the application of military power to protect forces and interests, intelligence collection and analysis. ...


After Attorney General John Ashcroft recused himself from the case, Deputy Attorney General James Comey named Patrick J. Fitzgerald to the Office of the Special Counsel as a special prosecutor to determine who was involved in disclosing the identity of a CIA operative to various reporters in the spring of 2003.[3] On 28 October 2005, this investigation, which is still open, resulted in criminal indictment of Vice President Dick Cheney's former Chief of Staff Lewis ("Scooter") Libby, charging him with five counts of alleged felonious misconduct impeding the investigation, including obstruction of justice (one count), making false statements to investigators (two counts), and perjury in testimony before a federal grand jury (two counts).[4] Libby's trial date is set for early 2007.[5] Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see ) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... John David Ashcroft (born May 9, 1942) was the 79th Attorney General of the United States. ... James Comey James B. Comey was Deputy Attorney General of the United States, serving in President George W. Bushs administration. ... Patrick J. Fitzgerald (born December 22, 1960 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American attorney and the current U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois. ... Special Counsel refers to at least two distinct individuals within the government of the United States. ... A special prosecutor is a lawyer from outside the government appointed by the attorney general or Congress to investigate a federal official for misconduct while in office. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with CIA leak grand jury investigation. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... I. Lewis Scooter Libby Irve Lewis Scooter Libby, Jr. ... Modern Obstruction of Justice, in a common law state, refers to the crime of offering interference of any sort to the work of police, investigators, regulatory agencies, prosecutors, or other (usually government) officials. ... Perjury is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under oath or affirmation in a court of law or in any of various sworn statements in writing. ... A grand jury is a type of jury, in the common law legal system, which determines if there is enough evidence for a trial. ...


In August 2006, after years of controversial speculation and an ongoing grand jury investigation, the general public learned from news reports and advance word of the book Hubris, by Michael Isikoff and David Corn, that Novak's "primary source" of this information for his column of 14 July 2003 was former Deputy Secretary of State Richard L. Armitage.[6] Since that public disclosure, Novak has disputed several details of Armitage's account made in the latter's subsequent media interviews.[7] A grand jury is a type of jury, in the common law legal system, which determines if there is enough evidence for a trial. ... Michael Isikoff is an investigative journalist for the US-based magazine Newsweek. ... David Corn is a political correspondent for The Nation and author of the book as well as the political novel Deep Background and the biography Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIAs Crusades. ... Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) is the current United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department. ...


While, unlike the public, Special Counsel Fitzgerald knew early in his investigation that Richard Armitage was Robert Novak's "primary source" of the leak of the identity of CIA operative Valerie Plame Wilson, neither he nor his office has commented upon that development (yet) publicly. The Special Counsel investigation of criminal wrongdoing in the matter popularly called "Plamegate" appears to remain ongoing. On March 6, 2007, after the conviction of Lewis Libby on four of the five counts of the grand jury indictment in United States of America v. I. Lewis Libby, also known as "Scooter Libby", Joseph C. Wilson issued a public statement.[8] Richard L. Armitage Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005, Previously, he was a high-ranking troubleshooter and negotiator in the Departments of State and Defense. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative political commentator and political figure. ... Joseph and Valerie Wilson Valerie E. Wilson, née Valerie Elise Plame, (born April 19, 1963 in Anchorage, Alaska) is a former United States CIA officer who once held non-official cover (NOC) status. ... The Plame Affair concerns the claim that the identity of Valerie E. Wilson (née Valerie Elise Plame; also known as Valerie Plame), who was working for the CIA possibly as a covert agent, was revealed by a government official. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... I. Lewis Scooter Libby Irve Lewis Scooter Libby, Jr. ... United States of America v. ...

Contents

Education

Wilson is a 1971 graduate of the University of California, Santa Barbara (Wilson, Politics of Truth 32). According to Richard Leiby, in the Washington Post, Wilson once joked that he majored in "history, volleyball, and surfing," maintaining a "C" average and working as a carpenter for five years after graduation.[9] He became more serious about his education, "won a graduate fellowship and studied public administration," and, having become fluent in French as a teenager, he entered the Foreign Service in 1976, as an administrative "cone" officer (far less glamourous than the political "cone" officers who undertake the sexier work in embassies), specializing in African affairs.[9] The University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) is a coeducational public university located on the Pacific Ocean in Santa Barbara County, California, USA. It is one out of 10 campuses of the University of California. ... ... The United States Foreign Service is a personnel system established under the Foreign Service Act. ...


Diplomatic career

Wilson served in the U.S. Foreign Service from January 1976 through 1998. The United States Foreign Service is a personnel system established under the Foreign Service Act. ...

All details of Wilson's diplomatic postings are from "Diplomatic Career of Ambassador Joseph Wilson," The Politics of Truth 451.

From 1988 to 1991, he was the Deputy Chief of Mission at the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq. He was praised by George H. W. Bush after sheltering more than one hundred Americans at the embassy, despite Saddam Hussein's threats to execute anyone who refused to hand over foreigners. As a result, in 1990, he also became the last American diplomat to meet with Saddam Hussein.[10] When Hussein sent a note to Wilson (along with other embassy heads in Iraq) threatening to execute anyone sheltering foreigners in Iraq, Wilson publicly repudiated the dictator by appearing at a press conference wearing a homemade noose around his neck and saying "If the choice is to allow American citizens to be taken hostage or to be executed, I will bring my own fucking rope," a flair for public appearance that has become a trademark of Wilson. Niamey, population 665 918* is the capital of Niger and a capital of a department of Tilabery. ... Lomé, estimated population 700,000 (1998), is the capital of Togo. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States Government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... City motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Province Gauteng Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... Bujumbura, estimated population 300,000 (1994), is the capital of Burundi. ... Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. ... Thomas Stephen Foley (born March 26, 1929 in Spokane, Washington) is an American politician of the Democratic Party, having served as the most recent Democratic speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives and ambassador to Japan. ... Image of Kinshasa and Brazzaville, taken by NASA. Brazzaville is the capital and largest city of the Republic of the Congo and is located on the Congo River. ... Baghdad (Arabic ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The U.S. European Command (EUCOM) is Unified Combatant Command of the United States military, headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany. ... Stuttgart is the capital of Baden-Württemberg, Germany and has about 600,000 inhabitants (June 2004). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A street map of Baghdad Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. ... George Herbert Walker Bush GCB (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States of America serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: [1]; April 28, 1937[2] – December 30, 2006[3]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979, until April 9, 2003. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: [1]; April 28, 1937[2] – December 30, 2006[3]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979, until April 9, 2003. ...


As a self-identified non-partisan career diplomat, Wilson later served as U.S. ambassador to Gabon and São Tomé and Príncipe during the administration of President George H. W. Bush and helped direct Africa policy for the National Security Council during the administration of President Bill Clinton.[11] An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... George Herbert Walker Bush GCB (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States of America serving from 1989 to 1993. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... The National Security Council (NSC) of the United States is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


Professional activities after retirement from foreign service

Wilson manages JC Wilson International Ventures Corporation, a consulting firm specializing in strategic management and international business development.[12] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about International Development. ...


Also active as a public speaker, Wilson is represented exclusively by Greater Talent Network Inc., a celebrity speakers bureau.[13] It has been suggested that After dinner speaker be merged into this article or section. ... Greater Talent Network (GTN) is a celebrity speakers bureau based in New York City that exclusively represents prominent public speakers from all sectors of society, including politics, business, literature, sports, arts and entertainment. ...


Honors

Awards

Joseph and Valerie Wilson Valerie E. Wilson, née Valerie Elise Plame, (born April 19, 1963 in Anchorage, Alaska) is a former United States CIA officer who once held non-official cover (NOC) status. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the U.S publication. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States Government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States Government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) is a coeducational public university located on the Pacific Ocean in Santa Barbara County, California, USA. It is one out of 10 campuses of the University of California. ... The American Foreign Service Association (AFSA), established in 1924, is the professional association of the United States Foreign Service. ...

Decorations

  • Commander in the Order of the Equatorial Star (Government of Gabon)
  • Admiral in the El Paso Navy (El Paso County Commissioners)

El Paso County is a county located in the state of Texas. ...

Personal life

Wilson was born in Bridgeport, Connecticut, to Joseph Charles Wilson III and Phyllis (Finnell) Wilson. He currently lives in Washington, D.C., with his third wife, the former Valerie Elise Plame, and their two children, twins Trevor Rolph and Samantha Finnell Diana, born in 2000. He is also the father of another set of twins, also a boy and a girl, Sabrina Cecile and Joseph Charles, who were born in 1979, during his first marriage to his "college sweetheart," Susan Otchis, which ended amicably in the mid-80s, toward the end of his service in Burundi; they were divorced in 1986. For the next twelve years, Wilson was married to his second wife, Jacqueline, "a Frenchwoman who had been raised in Africa" (Wilson, The Politics of Truth 68-69). Wilson met Plame in 1997, while working for President Bill Clinton; they married in 1998, after his divorce from Jacqueline, which had been "delayed because I was never in one place long enough to complete the process," though he and she had already been living separate lives since the mid-90s (Wilson, Politics of Truth 242). Among his hobbies are golf, bicycling, and fitness. (See Who's Who biography).[14] Nickname: Location in Connecticut Coordinates: NECTA Bridgeport-Stamford Region Greater Bridgeport Incorporated (town) 1821 Incorporated (city) 1836 Government type Mayor-council  - Mayor John M. Fabrizi Area    - City 50. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Federal District District of Columbia  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack Evans... Joseph and Valerie Wilson Valerie E. Wilson, née Valerie Elise Plame, (born April 19, 1963 in Anchorage, Alaska) is a former United States CIA officer who once held non-official cover (NOC) status. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


Family and political background

Wilson grew up in a "proud Republican family" in which "there is a long tradition of politics and service to country" and for which "Politics was a staple around the table" (Politics of Truth 31). His mother's uncle James ("Sunny Jim") Rolph was mayor of San Francisco from 1912-1931, "the city's longest-serving mayor," and served as governor of California "until his death in office in 1934" (31). For his mother's brothers, as they told their new brother-in-law (who was to become Wilson's father), Barry Goldwater was "a bit liberal" (31). Military service was also a strong part of his family history: both his grandfathers had served in the two world wars, his paternal grandfather (the "Colonel") receiving both the British Distinguished Flying Cross and the French Croix de Guerre "for his exploits in World War I" (32), and his son, Wilson's father Joe, "was a Marine pilot in World War II and was among the last pilots to take off from the deck of the aircraft Franklin just before it was hit by two bombs dropped from a Japanese dive-bomber, one of which exploded amid planes waiting to take off," resulting in "the deaths of more than seven hundred American servicemen. . . . He never forgot how lucky he was to have survived––not to mention that my younger brother and I would never have been born" (31). James Rolph Jr. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998[1]) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for President in the 1964 election. ... The Distinguished Flying Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdoms Royal Air Force and other services, and formerly to officers of other Commonwealth countries, for an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against the enemy... The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ...


On his father's side, the Wilson's uncle is Pete Wilson (R), former United States Senator and Governor of California. Peter Barton Wilson (born August 23, 1933) is an American Republican politician from California. ...


The Vietnam protests of the 1960s, when Wilson was a student at the University of California, Santa Barbara, galvanized him along with much of that generation and "pitted parents against kids in [his] family just as it did in many households around the country" (32). The University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) is a coeducational public university located on the Pacific Ocean in Santa Barbara County, California, USA. It is one out of 10 campuses of the University of California. ...


For a year midway in his career as a diplomat (1985-1986), Wilson served as a Congressional Fellow in the offices of Senator Al Gore and Representative Tom Foley; his working for Democrats was simply a matter of "happenstance."[14] Of the 2000 election he writes: Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. ... Thomas Stephen Foley (born March 26, 1929 in Spokane, Washington) is an American politician of the Democratic Party, having served as the most recent Democratic speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives and ambassador to Japan. ...

In retrospect, I was naïve in thinking that a mature democracy like ours would naturally embrace the rule of law and engage in polite discourse instead of the law of tooth and claw I had seen operate abroad. In this case, the shameless lust for power, and the genuine hatred among the right wing for Bill Clinton, just overwhelmed the Democrats. I was appalled by the gutter tactics of the out-of-state rabble that bullied public servants and intimidated them into stopping the recount of ballots in Miami-Dade County. I had railed against such conduct in flawed elections in Africa, and disliked it just as much in my own country.

Although I had voted for the candidate who ultimately lost the election, I assumed hopefully, and naïvely again, that once in office George W. Bush and his experienced team would curb the excesses of the extremists, and that the country would be in good hands. Valerie and I even attended a swank inauguration reception on Pennsylvania Avenue where we looked down on the president's parade route and celebrated with Bush supporters the peaceful transition of power that is the hallmark of our democracy. In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... Miami-Dade County (formerly known as Dade County) is a county located in the southeastern part of the state of Florida. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society; or otherwise claimed to violate common standards of ethics and reciprocity. ... Pennsylvania Avenue as seen from the Old Post Office building in 2005 Pennsylvania Avenue is an important street in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ...

In May 2002, "several months after [his] trip to Niger," Wilson writes, he "participated in the annual conference of the American Turkish Council," one of whose "keynote speakers was Richard Perle, a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute and one of the most virulent of the neoconservative war advocates. . . . In his speech at the conference, Perle spoke openly of a coming war with Iraq. His words, laden with the fire and brimstone of the true zealot, troubled me deeply. In a symposium that I cochaired the same afternoon with the former Turkish military commander, Cevik Bir, I voiced concerns. It was the first time in more than a decade that I'd spoken publicly about Iraq" (The Politics of Truth 291). According to its 2005 annual report, current ATC board members include: Brent Scowcroft, the board chairman and former national security adviser for George H. W. Bush George Perlman of Lockheed Martin Elizabeth Avery of Pepsico Ozer Baysal of Pfizer Andy Button of Boeing Richard K. Douglas of General Electric Sherry... Richard Norman Perle, (born September 16, 1941 in New York City), is an American political advisor and lobbyist who worked for the Reagan administration as an assistant Secretary of Defense and worked on the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee from 1987 to 2004. ... The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a conservative think tank, founded in 1943, whose stated mission is to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism--limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility, vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies... Gen. ...


In 2003 Wilson began to support and formally endorsed John Kerry for president, donated $2,000 to his campaign, and served as an advisor to and speechwriter for the campaign in 2003 and 2004.[17] He has made contributions to the campaigns of Democratic candidates, such as Senator Ted Kennedy of Massachusetts and Congressman Charles B. Rangel of New York, and to Republican Congressman Ed Royce of California.[18] Al Gore (born December 11, 1943) is a Vietnam Veteran and the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Edward Moore Ted Kennedy (born February 22, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Charles Bernard Rangel, (born June 11, 1930 in (Harlem) New York, NY) is an American politician. ... Ed Royce Edward Randall Royce, Jr. ...


After the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Wilson supported activist groups like Win Without War, a nonpartisan coalition of groups united in opposition to the Iraq War, has been quoted in the organization's press releases, and has been attacked by conservatives for such anti-war activism.[19] Nevertheless, according to an article to which Scott Shane and Lynette Clemetson contributed, published in the New York Times: "Despite conservatives' efforts to portray him as a left-wing extremist, [Wilson] insisted he remained a centrist at heart. But after his tangle with the current administration, he admits 'it will be a cold day in hell before I vote for a Republican, even for dog catcher.'"[20] Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom South Korea Australia Poland Romania others. ... This article is about opposition to the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the Iraq War from outside Iraq. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Wilson endorses Veterans for a Secure America (VSA). Veterans for a Secure America (VSA) is a group of over sixty non incumbent military veterans who are running for Congress as Democrats in the 2006 House and Senate elections. ...


Wilson's trip to Niger

In late February of 2002, Wilson was sent to Niger on behalf of the CIA to investigate the possibility that Saddam Hussein had a deal to buy enriched uranium yellowcake. Wilson met with the current Ambassador, Owens-Kirkpatrick, at the embassy, and was informed that she had already debunked that story. However, they agreed Wilson would interview dozens of officials who had been in the Niger government when the deal had supposedly taken place. Wilson ultimately concluded "it was highly doubtful that any such transaction had ever taken place."[1] Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: [1]; April 28, 1937[2] – December 30, 2006[3]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979, until April 9, 2003. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... Powdered yellowcake in a drum Yellowcakes (also known as urania) are uranium concentrates obtained from leach solutions. ...


But, according to the U.S. Senate Select Intelligence Committee Report, Wilson also reported that, although former Nigerien prime minister Ibrahim Assane Mayaki was unaware of any pending sales contract with Iraq, an Iraqi delegation had approached Mayaki in June 1999, expressing an interest in "expanding commercial relations."[citations needed] Mayaki believed this overture may have meant that they wanted to purchase yellowcake uranium –– one of Niger’s few exports –– but claimed that he refused to discuss any trade issues at all due to active UN sanctions on Iraq, and so steered the conversation in another direction.[21] Ibrahim Hassane Mayaki (b. ...


The controversy surrounding Wilson began with President Bush's 2003 State of the Union Address,[22] containing his now-infamous "16 words" in which he stated that "The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa."[23] Documents unrelated to Wilson's trip and finding Iraq had made a yellowcake overture had been obtained by the U.S. Embassy in Rome on October 9, 2002, and distributed throughout the U.S. intelligence community shortly thereafter, but not passed on to the IAEA until February 3, 2003.[citation needed] Two months later, documents suggesting that Iraq had tried to buy 500 tons of uranium from Niger, were judged to be "obvious" forgeries by the IAEA.[24] 2003 State of the Union address given by U.S. President George W. Bush The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the... The September Dossier is the name given to a document published by the United Kingdom Labour government on 24 September 2002. ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Yellowcake Forgery refers to falsified classified documents initially uncovered by Italian intelligence which possibly depicted an attempt by Iraqs Saddam Hussein regime to purchase yellowcake uranium from the country of Niger, in defiance of United Nations sanctions. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ...


It has been suggested [weasel words] that the documents that the IAEA judged to be forgeries were not the same documents on which the British based their original assessment.[citation needed] Two British Parliamentary reports confirm the original intelligence.[citation needed] One of these reports, the Butler Report, suggests that the forged documents were distributed with the knowing goal of being discovered as obvious forgeries so as to discredit the intelligence.[25] The IAEA released its report a month later, just weeks before the start of the Iraq war. On February 3, 2004 the British Government announced an inquiry into the intelligence relating to Iraqs weapons of mass destruction which played a key part in the Governments decision to invade Iraq (as part of the U.S.-led coalition) in 2003. ...

Main article: Plame affair

The Plame Affair concerns the claim that the identity of Valerie E. Wilson (née Valerie Elise Plame; also known as Valerie Plame), who was working for the CIA possibly as a covert agent, was revealed by a government official. ...

"What I Didn't Find in Africa," by Joseph C. Wilson IV

In the July 6, 2003 issue of The New York Times, Wilson contributed an "Op-Ed" entitled "What I Didn't Find in Africa," in which he accuses the Bush administration of "exaggerating the Iraqi threat" in order to justify war. In this account, often referred to later as his "New York Times 'Op-Ed,'" Wilson states the rationale for his trip as follows: "The vice president's office asked a serious question. I was asked to help formulate the answer" (italics added).[1] July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ...


Critics contend that in "What I Didn't Find in Africa" Wilson falsely claims to have been sent by the vice president personally; however, Wilson's text does not support that criticism. Supporters counter that in his rationale for his trip in "What I Didn't Find in Africa," as on other occasions in print and in media interviews, Wilson states only that he was sent by the CIA in response to questions asked by the "office" of the vice president, not personally by Vice President Cheney himself.


George Tenet, the director of the CIA during Wilson's trip, has said that the administration was not directly briefed on Wilson's report "because this report, in our view, did not resolve whether Iraq was or was not seeking uranium from abroad, it was given a normal and wide distribution (within the intelligence community), but we did not brief it to the President, Vice-President or other senior Administration officials."[26] George Tenet George John Tenet (born January 5, 1953) is Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University and was previously the Director of Central Intelligence for the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. ...


On Monday, 7 July 2003, the day after the publication of "What I Didn't Find in Africa," the Bush administation admitted "that accusations included in the president's State of the Union address have turned out to be inaccurate."[27] In a press conference held in Africa, where he was then traveling with President Bush, Secretary of State Colin Powell, "fielded questions about the faulty intelligence" and concluded: "There was sufficient evidence floating around at that time that such a statement was not totally outrageous or not to be believed or not to be appropriately used. It's that once we used the statement, and after further analysis, and looking at other estimates we had, and other information that was coming in, it turned out that the basis upon which that statement was made didn't hold up, and we said so, and we've acknowledged it, and we've moved on."[28] 2003 State of the Union address given by U.S. President George W. Bush The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ...


Nevertheless, as Colin Powell suggested at the time –– referring to "the case I put down on the 5th of February [2003], for an hour and 20 minutes, roughly, on terrorism, on weapons of mass destruction, and on the human rights case, a short section at the end, we stand behind" –– the Bush administration still maintains that other intelligence that Iraq may have attempted to acquire uranium in Africa may have been correct. Many supporters of the theory point to the Butler Review, which found, without giving evidence of such a claim, that there was credible intelligence that Iraq had attempted to acquire uranium from Niger in 1999, but not in 2002, and that there was even less certain intelligence that Iraq had attempted to acquire uranium from the Democratic Republic of Congo. On February 3, 2004 the British Government announced an inquiry into the intelligence relating to Iraqs weapons of mass destruction which played a key part in the Governments decision to invade Iraq (as part of the U.S.-led coalition) in 2003. ...


Critics of the theory view the evidence relating to the Democratic Republic of Congo as suspect and point out that, while President Bush mentioned "Africa" in his State of the Union Address, in fielding questions in a "press gaggle" about the President's statement, also on 7 July 2003, press secretary Ari Fleischer affirmed explicitly that President Bush's claim that Iraq was seeking to purchase uranium from "Africa" derived specificially from information pertaining only to Niger and that the "the President did not have that information [about other African nations from the NIE] prior to his giving the State of the Union."[29] 2003 State of the Union address given by U.S. President George W. Bush The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the... Ari Fleischer conducts a White House press conference Lawrence Ari Fleischer (born October 13, 1960) was the press secretary for U.S. President George W. Bush from January 2001 to July 2003. ...


In addition, nuclear expert Norman Dombey has pointed out that the information relied upon by the Butler Review on the Niger issue was incomplete; on 25 July 2004, he notes: "The Butler report says the claim was credible because an Iraqi diplomat visited Niger in 1999, and almost three-quarters of Niger's exports were uranium. But this is irrelevant, since France controls Niger's uranium mines."[30] Moreover, when asked by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence to discuss the conclusions of British intelligence, Deputy Director of Intelligence John McLaughlin stated, "The one thing where I think they stretched a little bit beyond where we would stretch is on the points about Iraq seeking uranium from various African locations. We've looked at those reports and we don't think they are very credible. It doesn't diminish our conviction that he's going for nuclear weapons, but I think they reached a little bit on that one point."[30] On February 3, 2004 the British Government announced an inquiry into the intelligence relating to Iraqs weapons of mass destruction which played a key part in the Governments decision to invade Iraq (as part of the U.S.-led coalition) in 2003. ... On February 3, 2004 the British Government announced an inquiry into the intelligence relating to Iraqs weapons of mass destruction which played a key part in the Governments decision to invade Iraq (as part of the U.S.-led coalition) in 2003. ...

See also: Butler Review, September Dossier, and Plame affair timeline
The Politics of Truth, by Ambassador Joseph Wilson
The Politics of Truth, by Ambassador Joseph Wilson

On February 3, 2004 the British Government announced an inquiry into the intelligence relating to Iraqs weapons of mass destruction which played a key part in the Governments decision to invade Iraq (as part of the U.S.-led coalition) in 2003. ... The September Dossier is the name given to a document published by the United Kingdom Labour government on 24 September 2002. ... The Plame affair (rel. ... Image File history File links Wilson_The_Politics_of_Truth. ... Image File history File links Wilson_The_Politics_of_Truth. ...

The Politics of Truth, by Ambassador Joseph Wilson

In 2004 Wilson published a book entitled The Politics of Truth: Inside the Lies that Led to War and Betrayed My Wife's CIA Identity: A Diplomat's Memoir (New York: Carroll & Graf, 2004; paperback ed., 2005).[31] Both a political and personal memoir, Wilson's autobiographical account of over two decades of his life in foreign service includes detailed descriptions of his extensive diplomatic-career experiences, his first marriage and family, briefer references to his second marriage, his meeting of Valerie Plame, their courtship and marriage, and a detailed narrative of the events leading to his decision to go public with his criticisms of the Bush administration and its aftermath, extended in appendices of chronological "timelines" and "Newspaper Commentaries Published by Ambassador Joseph Wilson Before and After the United States Invasion of Iraq in 2003" (461-86); the book includes a "Bibliography" (487-96) and a detailed index (497-517). The 2005 paperback edition is "Updated with a New Preface by the Author ["Anatomy of a Smear" (li-lxix)] and an Investigative Report on the Niger Documents Affair by Russ Hoyle" ("The Niger Affair: The Investigation That Won't Go Away" (xiii-xlix)]. Wilson's dedications read: Carroll & Graf Publishers is an imprint of Avalon Publishing Group specializing in history, biography, and fiction. ...

To my wife Valerie, I cannot begin to tell you how sorry I am for what your government has done to you. If I could give you back your anonymity I would do so in a minute.

To Sabrina and Joe, who experienced so many of these adventures with me.

To Trevor and Samantha, in the hopes that by reading this you will gain some insight into events that took place before you could understand their significance.

To Dad and Mom, who will never read this but who, as Marines, did their best to teach me the meaning of duty to country.

The epigraph is from The Divine Comedy, by Dante Alighieri: Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ...

The hottest places in Hell are reserved for those who, in times of great moral crisis, maintain their neutrality.

The Senate Intelligence Committee Report

See also: Report on the U.S. Intelligence Community's Prewar Intelligence Assessments on Iraq

The U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Report on the U.S. Intelligence Community's Prewar Intelligence Assessments on Iraq (39-44) presents the following as established facts, some of which are still controversial: U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell displays a vial of anthrax during his presentation to the UN Security Council, February 5, 2003. ... The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence is dedicated to overseeing the American Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the U.S. federal government who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches. ... U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell displays a vial of anthrax during his presentation to the UN Security Council, February 5, 2003. ...

  • The U.S. embassy in Niger issued a cable reporting that the alleged Iraq-Niger uranium deal warranted a hard look.
  • Valerie Plame suggested her husband travel to Niger to look into it.
  • A WINPAC analyst sent an email saying the results "from this source" will be suspect and not believable, but the CIA decided to send Wilson anyway.
  • In February 2002, Wilson arrived in Niger and met with former officials of Niger. [Wilson states in "What I Didn't Find in Africa" that this meeting was arranged by the current Ambassador, who had already interviewed them.]
  • On March 1, 2002 the CIA published an intelligence assessment, "Niger: Sale of Uranium to Iraq is Unlikely," unrelated to Wilson's trip. This assessment was not provided to Vice President Cheney.
  • On March 8, 2002 an intelligence report based on Wilson's trip was disseminated. The report indicated the former Prime Minister of Niger had said no contracts to sell uranium to Iraq were signed during his tenure. An Iraqi delegation had approached him in June 1999, however, to discuss "expanding commercial relations." The Prime Minister took this overture to refer to uranium yellowcake sales. The Prime Minister did not pursue the matter because of the UN sanctions on Iraq then in effect.
  • The Senate Intelligence Committee Report finds that Wilson's description of his findings differ from some parts of the DO intelligence report "in some respects":
    • Wilson told the Senate his findings refuted the notion Iraq had sought uranium from Niger.
    • The intelligence report written from Wilson's findings, but not by Wilson, confirms that in 1999 Iraq had approached Niger for increased trade, which was interpreted by the former Prime Minister as suggesting that Iraq was seeking uranium.
  • The Senate Intelligence Committee Report also finds that Wilson's description of the information provided to him by the CIA differed from the CIA's account.
    • Wilson claimed that the CIA told him about documents pertaining to an alleged uranium sale to Iraq.
    • The CIA reports officer denied giving Wilson any such information and noted there were no such "documents" circulating at the time (44-45).[32]

The U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence ultimately concludes in its Iraq Report (issued on July 7 and updated on July 9, 2004): The Weapons Intelligence Non Proliferation and Arms Control Center (WINPAC) is a program with the Central Intelligence Agency that analyzes intelligence related to dual-use technology and export controls. ... The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence is dedicated to overseeing the American Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the U.S. federal government who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches. ...

"Most of the major key judgments in the Intelligence Community's October 2002 National Intelligence Estimate (NIE), Iraq's Continuing Programs for Weapons of Mass Destruction, either overstated, or were not supported by, the underlying intelligence reporting."[33]

Overall, however, the Senate Intelligence Committee's Report observes:

Problems with the Intelligence Community's HUMINT efforts were also evident in the Intelligence Community's handling of Iraq's alleged efforts to acquire uranium from Niger. The Committee does not fault the CIA for exploiting the access enjoyed by the spouse of a CIA employee traveling to Niger. The Committee believes, however, that it is unfortunate, considering the significant resources available to the CIA, that this was the only option available."[33]

The "Niger Conclusions" relating to Wilson's op-ed essay about President Bush's "16 words" in his 2003 State of the Union address are Conclusions 12-26.[33] The September Dossier is the name given to a document published by the United Kingdom Labour government on 24 September 2002. ... 2003 State of the Union address given by U.S. President George W. Bush The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the...

Selected press commentary and Wilson's responses

Susan Schmidt opens her article on the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence report in the Washington Post by stating that it challenges some of the statements made by Wilson and suggests that Wilson's wife was more involved in his selection for the mission than Wilson has repeatedly asserted: Susan Schmidt is a reporter with the Washington Post and was awarded the Pullitzer Prize for investigative reporting in 2006. ... The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence is dedicated to overseeing the American Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the U.S. federal government who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches. ... ...

Former ambassador Joseph C. Wilson IV, dispatched by the CIA in February 2002 to investigate reports that Iraq sought to reconstitute its nuclear weapons program with uranium from Africa, was specifically recommended for the mission by his wife, a CIA employee, contrary to what he has said publicly."[34]

This introduction does not, however, take into account wide differences of interpretation relating to Wilson's comments on the matter both in print and in media interviews that she reports throughout the body of her article. Schmidt highlights the following:

The report states that a CIA official told the Senate committee that Plame "offered up" Wilson's name for the Niger trip, then on Feb. 12, 2002, sent a memo to a deputy chief in the CIA's Directorate of Operations saying her husband "has good relations with both the PM [prime minister] and the former Minister of Mines (not to mention lots of French contacts), both of whom could possibly shed light on this sort of activity." The next day, according to the report, the operations official cabled an overseas officer seeking concurrence with the idea of sending Wilson.[34]

But high-ranking CIA officials told the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence that they disputed the claim that Plame was involved in the final decision to send Wilson and indicated that the operations official who made it was not present at the meeting where Wilson was chosen. As reported by Knut Royce and Tim Phelps in Newsday on 22 July 2003: Newsday is a daily tabloid-size newspaper that primarily serves Long Island and the New York City borough of Queens, although it is sold throughout the New York City metropolitan area. ...

A senior intelligence officer confirmed that Plame was a Directorate of Operations undercover officer who worked "alongside" the operations officers who asked her husband to travel to Niger. But he said she did not recommend her husband to undertake the Niger assignment. "They (the officers who did ask Wilson to check the uranium story) were aware of who she was married to, which is not surprising," he said. "There are people elsewhere in government who are trying to make her look like she was the one who was cooking this up, for some reason," he said. "I can’t figure out what it could be." "We paid his (Wilson’s) airfare. But to go to Niger is not exactly a benefit. Most people you’d have to pay big bucks to go there," the senior intelligence official said. Wilson said he was reimbursed only for expenses.[35]

Wilson states in "Sixteen Words," the first chapter of The Politics of Truth:

Apart from being the conduit of a message from a colleague in her office asking if I would be willing to have a conversation about Niger's uranium industry, Valerie had had nothing to do with the matter. Though she worked on weapons of mass destruction issues, she was not at the meeting I attended where the subject of Niger's uranium was discussed, when the possibility of my actually traveling to the country was broached. She definitely had not proposed that I make this trip. (5)[36]

Schmidt renders the quotation from Wilson in a misleading way, however, omitting any sign of her editorial ellipsis: It has been suggested that Elliptical construction be merged into this article or section. ...

Wilson has asserted that his wife was not involved in the decision to send him to Niger. "Valerie had nothing to do with the matter," Wilson wrote in a memoir published this year [The Politics of Truth (2004)]. "She definitely had not proposed that I make the trip."

Wilson stood by his assertion in an interview yesterday [July 9, 2003], saying Plame was not the person who made the decision to send him. Of her memo [of Feb. 12, 2002 sent to a deputy chief in the CIA's Directorate of Operations saying her husband "has good relations with both the (Nigerian) PM (prime minister) and the former Minister of Mines (not to mention lots of French contacts), both of whom could possibly shed light on this sort of activity"], he said: "I don't see it as a recommendation to send me."[34]

Wilson's responses to this article, published in The Politics of Truth, point out significant errors of fact and interpretation in Susan Schmidt's account of the Committee's report: Susan Schmidt is a reporter with the Washington Post and was awarded the Pullitzer Prize for investigative reporting in 2006. ...

Her article was replete with factual errors that could have been avoided had she bothered to read the text of the report or even done some basic research, such as looking up the CIA statement made the previous year in the Newsday article about Valerie's lack of involvement in the trip. But she did not. Indeed, her reporting was so sloppy that from the lead sentence she conflated what the three Republican senators––and not even a majority of their own party's representation on the committee––asserted with what the actual report concluded. She even confused Iraq with Iran, a significant error of fact. She also quoted a phrase from this book that Valerie "had nothing to do with the matter" without the qualifying phrase in the beginning of the sentence: "other than serve as a conduit." Schmidt asserted that my report, rather than debunking intelligence about the purported uranium sales to Iraq, had bolstered the case for most intelligence analysts. She went further, noting that "contrary to Wilson's assertions and even the government's previous statements, the CIA did not tell the White House it had qualms about the reliability of the Africa intelligence that made its way into 16 fateful words in President Bush's January 2003 State of the Union address."

Both of these assertions were patently false, and even a cursory reading of the body of the report dedicated to the Niger case would have borne that out. (lix)

Wilson's reply particularly to Senators Roberts, Bond, and Hatch was published online as "Joseph Wilson's Letter to the Senate": "The Former Ambassador Responds to Allegations by Republican Members of the Senate Intelligence Committee Report Challenging His Credibility" on AlterNet on July 19, 2004.[37] AlterNet, a project of the non-profit Independent Media Institute, is a progressive news website that was launched in 1998 and receives over 2 million visitors per month. ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In a "statement [submitted] to the Congress," former CIA officer Larry C. Johnson further refutes the "allegation" cited most often in the media: Larry C. Johnson is a former officer of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency as well as the State Departments Office of Counterterrorism[1]. He is the CEO of Berg Associates, LLC. He has worked as a private consultant on issues of international terrorism and has been a commentator...

Another false claim is that Valerie sent her husband on the mission to Niger. According to the Senate Intelligence Committee Report issued in July 2004, it is clear that the Vice President himself requested that the CIA provide its views on a Defense Intelligence Agency report that Iraq was trying to acquire uranium from Niger. The Vice President's request was relayed through the CIA bureaucracy to the Director of the Counter Proliferation Division at the CIA. Valerie worked for a branch in that Division. The Senate Intelligence Report is frequently cited by Republican partisans as "proof" that Valerie sent her husband to Niger because she sent a memo describing her husband's qualifications to the Deputy Division Chief. Several news personalities, such as Chris Matthews and Bill O'Reilly, continue to repeat this nonsense as proof. What the Senate Intelligence Committee does not include in the report is the fact that Valerie's boss had asked her to write a memo outlining her husband's qualifications for the job. She did what any good employee does; she gave her boss what he asked for.[38]

Accounts of Valerie Plame's involvement in her husband's selection appear to differ markedly, but the main difference may be semantic. Wilson claims that his wife simply contacted him on the agency's behalf at its behest, responded to her supervisor's request for information, and escorted her husband to the meeting before leaving it, prior to any decision being made; whereas some press accounts whose reliability does appear at times indeed questionable claim that Plame may also have "recommended" her husband by virtue of her writing a summary of his qualifications when he was already being considered. According to the Senate Intelligence Committee's report, "Interviews and documents provided to the Committee indicate that his wife, a CPD [ Counterproliferation Division] employee, suggested his name for the trip" (italics added).[39] Nevertheless, as Schmidt clearly states, "Wilson has asserted that his wife was not involved in the decision to send him to Niger," and the Senate Intelligence Committee Report in no way contradicts or even counters that assertion (italics added). Counter-proliferation refers to military efforts to combat proliferation, including the application of military power to protect forces and interests, intelligence collection and analysis. ...


Schmidt states in her July 10, 2003 article in the Washington Post: that the Senate Intelligence Committee Report points to inconsistencies in Wilson's retrospective accounts of his trip to Niger (which Wilson disputes): ...

The report also said Wilson provided misleading information to The Washington Post last June. He said then that he concluded the Niger intelligence was based on documents that had clearly been forged because "the dates were wrong and the names were wrong.[34]

Nevertheless, Schmidt concludes:

Still, it was the CIA that bore the brunt of the criticism of the Niger intelligence. The panel found that the CIA has not fully investigated possible efforts by Iraq to buy uranium in Niger to this day, citing reports from a foreign service and the U.S. Navy about uranium from Niger destined for Iraq and stored in a warehouse in Benin.

The agency did not examine forged documents that have been widely cited as a reason to dismiss the purported effort by Iraq until months after it obtained them. The panel said it still has "not published an assessment to clarify or correct its position on whether or not Iraq was trying to purchase uranium from Africa."[34]

Initial dispute between Wilson and the White House

Some pertinent contexts

President George W. Bush gave a major speech on 7 October 2002, claiming: "The Iraqi regime . . . possesses and produces chemical and biological weapons. It is seeking nuclear weapons." According to a report published in the Washington Post, earlier drafts of that speech included the specific claim that uranium was sought from Niger, but the CIA successfully requested that President Bush's speechwriters remove it.[40] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... ...


President Bush included the "16 words" in his January 2003 State of the Union address, claiming that Iraq had sought uranium from a country in Africa, even after the CIA had expressed reservations in October 2002. The National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) of October 2002 states that "the claims of Iraqi pursuit of natural uranium in Africa are, in INR's assessment, highly dubious."[41] The September Dossier is the name given to a document published by the United Kingdom Labour government on 24 September 2002. ... 2003 State of the Union address given by U.S. President George W. Bush The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the... National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) express the coordinated judgments of the US Intelligence Community, and thus represent the most authoritative assessment of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) with respect to a particular national security issue. ...


In 2002, CIA analysts had testified before Congress that, prior to the Iraq invasion, they believed that Iraq was trying to acquire nuclear weapons and that these tubes could be used in a centrifuge for nuclear enrichment, as claimed by the Bush administration and its supporters and as reported initially in the mainstream media.[42] The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Mass media is the term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience (typically at least as large as the whole population of a nation state). ...


On 11 December 2005, the Los Angeles Times reported that French intelligence had warned the Bush Administration repeatedly that there was no evidence that Saddam sought uranium from Niger: "The French conclusions were reached after extensive on-the-ground investigations in Niger and other former French colonies, where the uranium mines are controlled by French companies, said Alain Chouet, the French former official. He said the French investigate at the CIA's request. . . . [T]he essence of Chouet's account — that the French repeatedly investigated the Niger claim, found no evidence to support it, and warned the CIA — was extensively corroborated by [a] former CIA official and a current French government official, who both spoke on condition of anonymity."[43] December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the Western United States. ...


David Corn reveals in The Nation that Valerie Plame worked for the CIA to help determine the use of aluminum tubes purchased by Iraq.[44] This article is about the U.S publication. ... Aluminum tubes purchased by Iraq were intercepted in Jordan in 2001. ...

See also: Joseph C. Wilson#Support_for_Wilson

For more detail about the political scandal, see Plame affair. ...

Selected additional press commentary

An editorial published in the Wall Street Journal asserts that Wilson had lied about what he reports in "What I Didn't Find in Africa": "In short, Joe Wilson hadn't told the truth about what he'd discovered in Africa, how he'd discovered it, what he'd told the CIA about it, or even why he was sent on the mission," concluding: "The media and the Kerry campaign promptly abandoned him, though the former never did give as much prominence to his debunking as they did to his original accusations. But if anyone can remember another public figure so entirely and thoroughly discredited, let us know."[45] The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ...


A year later, another editorial headlined "A Good Leak" in the Washington Post claims that "Mr. Wilson was the one guilty of twisting the truth and that, in fact, his report [to the CIA] supported the conclusion that Iraq had sought uranium."[46] "A Good Leak" also claims that "President Bush was right to approve the declassification of parts of a National Intelligence Estimate about Iraq three years ago in order to make clear why he had believed that Saddam Hussein was seeking nuclear weapons."[46][47] ...


But the New York Times directly counters claims made in the Washington Post editorial in its own editorial headlined "A Bad Leak": The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... ...

President Bush says he declassified portions of the prewar intelligence assessment on Iraq because he "wanted people to see the truth" about Iraq's weapons programs and to understand why he kept accusing Saddam Hussein of stockpiling weapons that turned out not to exist. This would be a noble sentiment if it actually bore any relationship to Mr. Bush's actions in this case, or his overall record.

Mr. Bush did not declassify the National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq — in any accepted sense of that word — when he authorized I. Lewis Libby Jr., through Vice President Dick Cheney, to talk about it with reporters. He permitted a leak of cherry-picked portions of the report. The declassification came later.

And this president has never shown the slightest interest in disclosure, except when it suits his political purposes. He has run one of the most secretive administrations in American history, consistently withholding information and vital documents not just from the public, but also from Congress.[48]

Another editorial in the Wall Street Journal gives excerpts from the British and American "investigations" pertaining to Wilson's trip to Niger, finding justification for his perspective presented in "What I Didn't Find in Africa," along with some qualifications and distinctions between some evidence of Iraq's attempts at acquiring uranium yellowcake from African nations such as Niger and its actual lack of following through on such attempts.[49] The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... Powdered yellowcake in a drum Yellowcakes (also known as urania) are uranium concentrates obtained from leach solutions. ...


In response to repeating selected portions from the addenda of its Republican members to the conclusions of the Senate Select Intelligence Committee Report so widely cited without question by many in the media, Wilson and others have sharply disputed those claims and refuted those attempting to "discredit" him.[50]


Moreover, a Washington Post news report by Dafna Linzer and Barton Gellman, which appears in the same issue as "A Good Leak," indicates that the White House's disclosure of certain portions of the October 2002 National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) may have misrepresented to reporters the actual level of confidence of the intelligence community in the proposition that Saddam Hussein was seeking uranium. Linzer and Gellman state that "At Cheney's instruction, Libby testified, he [Libby] told [reporter] Miller that the uranium story was a "key judgment" of the intelligence estimate, a term of art indicating there was consensus on a question of central importance. In fact, the alleged effort to buy uranium was not among the estimate's key judgments, which were identified by a headline and bold type and set out in bullet form in the first five pages of the 96-page document."[51] This report further notes that, according to the NIE, "U.S. intelligence did not know the status of Iraq's procurement efforts, 'cannot confirm' any success and had 'inconclusive' evidence about Iraq's domestic uranium operations. . . . The State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research, likewise, called the claim 'highly dubious.' For those reasons, the uranium story was relegated to a brief inside passage in the October estimate" (italics added).[51] ...


A few days later Dafna Linzer wrote another article in the Washington Post describing a letter from Special Counsel Patrick J. Fitzgerald to Judge Reggie B. Walton correcting a sentence appearing in his recent filings describing Scooter Libby's testimony regarding his conversation with Judith Miller about the October 2002 NIE. Purportedly, that sentence states erroneously that Libby "was to tell Miller, among other things, that a key judgment of the NIE held that Iraq was 'vigorously trying to procure' uranium." Instead, the sentence should have conveyed that Libby was to tell Miller some of the key judgments of the NIE "and that the NIE stated that Iraq was 'vigorously trying to procure' uranium."[52] ... Patrick J. Fitzgerald Patrick J. Fitzgerald (born December 22, 1960, in Brooklyn, Kings County, New York) is an American attorney and the current U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois. ... Judge Reggie B. Walton U.S. District Judge for the District of Columbia Reggie B. Walton is a United States District Judge for the District of Columbia. ... Judith Miller Judith P. Miller (born January 2, 1948), is an American journalist. ... NIE may mean: newly industrializing economy Northern Ireland Electricity NIE, the Polish anti-communist resistance movement in 1940s Nie, a Polish weekly founded by Jerzy Urban The Polish word for no or not. National Intelligence Estimate National Institute of Engineering The German word for never Categories: Disambiguation ...


Replying to complaints from various readers, the Post's ombudsman, Deborah Howell, notes that Dafna Linzer's and Barton Gellman's reporting relied on Fitzgerald's representations in his legal filings, that the editorial was written before the front-page report and that although the writer had not read the report, it would not have changed his mind. She also notes that the basis for the editorial's claim that Wilson's report "supported the conclusion that Iraq had sought uranium" was the fact that there was a meeting between Iraqi and Nigerien trade officials "because that's mostly what Niger has to export." She also observes that the editorial had inconsistently dealt with the report of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, which noted that "the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research analysts believed that [Wilson's] report supported their assessment that Niger was unlikely to be willing or able to sell uranium to Iraq." She concludes: An ombudsman is an official, usually (but not always) appointed by the government or by parliament, who is charged with representing the interests of the public by investigating and addressing complaints reported by individual citizens. ... Deborah Howell (born January 15, 1941) is an American journalist who is currently the ombudsman for the Washington Post. ...

It would have been helpful if the editorial had put statements about Wilson in more context –– especially the controversy over his trip and what he said. It also could have used a sentence to say what is known in every newsroom: Leaks are good for journalism.

On the Gellman/Linzer story, it would have been good to quote more from the WMD commission's and Iraq Survey Group's reports and specifically their conclusions.

Both pieces demonstrate the high wall between editorial and news. While editorial writers read reporters' stories, Executive Editor Len Downie doesn't regularly read editorials (although he read this one) lest it make a mark on how he runs the news pages.

Some readers think it's a scandal when two parts of the newspaper appear to be in conflict with each other, but it's not that unusual that reporting –– particularly in news and editorial –– will depend on different sources. It happened again last week when an editorial and a story gave different estimates for how long it might take Iran to build a nuclear bomb.

Reporting about national security and intelligence gathering is always fraught with fraught [sic]; it is a subject I will write about again.[53]

Related controversies directly pertaining to Wilson

Claims made by retired generals Vallely and McInerney

On 3 November 2005, retired U.S. Army Major General Paul E. Vallely appeared on the John Batchelor Show on ABC Radio, claiming, according to Art Moore, in an "exclusive" posting on WorldNetDaily, that Paul E. Vallely is the senior military analyst for FOX News. ... John Batchelor is a writer and radio talk show host who is syndicated on the ABC radio network. ... ABC Radio is a division of the American Broadcasting Company focused on AM radio and FM radio broadcasting. ... WorldNetDaily, also known as WND, is a conservative online news site, founded in 1997. ...

the man at the center of the CIA leak controversy, Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson, revealed his wife Valerie Plame's employment with the agency in a casual conversation more than a year before she allegedly was "outed" by the White House through a columnist [Robert Novak]. Maj. Gen. Paul Vallely told WorldNetDaily that Wilson mentioned Plame's status as a CIA employee over the course of at least three, possibly five, conversations in 2002 in the Fox News Channel's "green room" in Washington, D.C., as they waited to appear on air as analysts. . . . Vallely said, citing CIA colleagues, that in addition to his conversations with Wilson, the ambassador was proud to introduce Plame at cocktail parties and other social events around Washington as his CIA wife.

"That was pretty common knowledge," he said. "She's been out there on the Washington scene many years."

If Plame were a covert agent at the time, Vallely said, "he would not have paraded her around as he did."[54] WorldNetDaily, also known as WND, is a conservative online news site, founded in 1997. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ...

Vallely does not take into account the common modus operandi for "covert operatives" in espionage and counter-espionage: "Hide in plain sight." The concept of a "cover" is that one can "parade" around in public (as the Wilsons did to celebrate Bush's election on Pennsylvania Avenue or when they attended other public events and private parties or engaged in normal family activities with their children). Espionage (spying) is a practice of obtaining information about an organization or a society that is considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder of the information. ... Counter-intelligence ... Under cover work means infiltrating suspect nations, criminal or terrorist underworld groups and individuals. ... Pennsylvania Avenue street sign, 2004. ...


Such "secret agents" might even be photographed for a feature in Vanity Fair, although the Wilsons' did so for an issue published only after Plame was outed (Jan. 2004) about the very subject of her outing. Such openness is designed to throw people off one's trail so that John Q. Public (and one's rivals or enemies) would never suspect that one is actually working in intelligence or counter-intelligence. Espionage (spying) is a practice of obtaining information about an organization or a society that is considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder of the information. ... American actress Demi Moore, on a typical Vanity Fair cover (August, 1991) Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles based on sensational exaggerations, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and lies. ... The name John Q. Public is used on a sample Social Security card John Q. Public is a generic name in the United States to denote a hypothetical member of society deemed a common man. ... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ...

The WilsonsHaraz N. Ghanbari/Associated Press, MSNBC, Time
The Wilsons
Haraz N. Ghanbari/Associated Press, MSNBC, Time

As Vicky Ward explains in her feature on the Wilsons in Vanity Fair: Image File history File linksMetadata Valerie_and_Joseph_Wilson. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Valerie_and_Joseph_Wilson. ... American actress Demi Moore, on a typical Vanity Fair cover (August, 1991) Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles based on sensational exaggerations, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and lies. ...

To most readers this information might have seemed harmless, but on July 22 [2003]Newsday's Knut Royce and Timothy M. Phelps reported that, according to their intelligence sources, Plame was an "undercover officer." In fact, she had NOC status, that is, nonofficial cover. NOCs are not ordinarily deskbound intelligence analysts who work inside C.I.A. headquarters. Mostly they operate abroad, frequently using fake job descriptions and sometimes fake names. According to a former senior C.I.A. officer, to blend in they often have to work two jobs: that of their "cover" and that involving their C.I.A. duties, which usually consists of handling foreign agents in the field, but can also involve recruiting them. NOCs have no diplomatic protection and so are vulnerable to hostile regimes that can imprison or execute them without official repercussions. A NOC's only real defense is his or her cover, which can take years to build. Because of this vulnerability, a NOC's identity is considered within the C.I.A. to be, as former C.I.A. analyst Kenneth Pollack has put it, "the holiest of holies."[14] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Given Ward's description of the vulnerability of NOCs, it is even more highly unlikely that Wilson would ever have divulged his wife's "NOC status" to Vallely (a relative stranger) or even to a relative (e.g., his own brother), to his closest friends, or to anyone else without appropriate government clearance for such classified information. According to the Intelligence Identities Protection Act, Ward continues, neither should any one of the "senior government officials" have disclosed it intentionally to Novak or to other reporters (or intentionally given reporters and their readers enough clues to ferret it out themselves).[55] The Intelligence Identities Protection Act of 1982 (PL97-200, 50 U.S. Code Secs. ...


Wilson's response to the claims

According to another "exclusive" posted on the blog WorldNetDaily––which appears as a featured link on the John Batchelor Show website––Wilson demanded through his lawyer that Vallely retract these allegations, calling them "patently false": WorldNetDaily, also known as WND, is a conservative online news site, founded in 1997. ... John Batchelor is a writer and radio talk show host who is syndicated on the ABC radio network. ...

Ambassador Joseph Wilson's attorney is demanding Maj. Gen. Paul Vallely retract a statement he made to WND that the man at the center of the CIA leak case "outed" his own wife as a CIA employee in conversations more than a year before her identity was revealed in a syndicated column.

A demand letter was sent by Christopher Wolf, partner at Proskauer Rose LLP and counsel for Wilson, to both Vallely and WND tonight.

It disputes Vallely's claim that Wilson mentioned Valerie Plame's status with the CIA in conversations in 2002 in the Fox News Channel's "green room" in Washington as they waited to appear as analysts.

"As you know, that assertion and the claim that Ambassador Wilson revealed to you or to anyone that his wife worked for the CIA is patently false, and subjects you and anyone publishing your statements to legal liability," states the letter.

It continues: "We are writing to demand that you immediately retract the assertion attributed to you and to insist that you stop making the false allegation. In addition, we request that you identify all persons or entitites (sic) to whom you made any claim that Ambassador Wilson revealed his wife's employment at the CIA to you."[56]

According to Farah and Moore, "The e-mail received by WND included earlier comments by Wilson to his attorney": WorldNetDaily, also known as WND, is a conservative online news site, founded in 1997. ...

"This is slanderous," Wilson wrote. "I never appeared on tv before at least July 2002 and only saw him maybe twice in the green room at FOX. Vallely is a retired general and this is a bald faced lie. Can we sue? This is not he said/he said, since I never laid eyes on him till several months after he alleges I spoke to him about my wife."[56]

Subsequently, in media appearances and via online posts by Art Moore in WorldNetDaily, General Vallely revised the number of times that he claimed to have met and spoken with Wilson specifically about his wife's "employment" for the CIA (yet still not her specific status as a NOC) to only "one occasion." Wilson vigorously disputed the General's claims regarding any such conversation touching on his wife's "employment".[57] WorldNetDaily, also known as WND, is a conservative online news site, founded in 1997. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


According to John Batchelor's own post on the blog RedState on November 6, 2005, Lt. General Tom McInerney (USAF Retired) said that Joe Wilson also "boasted" about his wife's job with the CIA to him while they were waiting in the green room at FOX News.[58] Wilson has also labeled these further claims "slanderous," while serving notice of possible legal repercussions on Vallely, McInerney, and WorldNetDaily. Again following Vallely's lead, after being threatened with legal action by Wilson's lawyer, in his own various later media appearances, McInerney has also backed away from initial impressions that he gave that he himself also had experiences in conversations with Wilson that supported his friend Vallely's claims. According to the investigation by Media Matters, contradicting such allegations by Batchelor on his radio show, it has become clear that he did not have any such firsthand experience of his own pertaining to Wilson's wife's "employment".[57] John Batchelor is a writer and radio talk show host who is syndicated on the ABC radio network. ... RedState is an American political weblog aimed at Republicans and conservatives. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... WorldNetDaily, also known as WND, is a conservative online news site, founded in 1997. ... Media Matters for America is a non-profit organization founded by former conservative (now liberal activist) David Brock to refute and/or otherwise analyze conservative influence on the media. ...


Responses to the claims by others

Liberal Websites say they have proof Vallely is lying, saying research service LexisNexis shows Vallely and Wilson never appeared on FOX on the same day. But in fact, Vallely and Wilson appeared on the same day nine times in 2002, and on the same show twice — on September 8 and September 12, when both men appeared within 15 minutes of one another."[59] Brit Hume (born Alexander Britton Hume, June 22, 1943) is the Washington, D.C. managing editor of the Fox News Channel. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ...

  • A compendium of the appearances by Wilson and Vallely on FOX posted on the blog Crooks and Liars reveals that there is only one possible date, September 12, 2002, during which the two would have been in the green room within hours of each other.[60]
  • Denver criminal defense attorney Jeralyn Merritt, a legal analyst and frequent guest on Fox News and several other networks, who has personally been in their green rooms, also scoured the FOX transcripts to compile this information independently and presented all of it and her related "conclusion" in her blog TalkLeft: The Politics of Crime:

My conclusion: Only September 12 is a possibility. That date, Wilson's segment was over 15 minutes before Vallely's began. The Fox green room in New York is very small and contains an even smaller makeup room that only has one guest chair. Guests are by themselves in the makeup room. I assume Wilson would have been having his makeup done before his segment, so Vallely wouldn't have been with him then. Even if they did overlap in the green room for a couple of minutes, it strains credulity to think the topic of Wilson's wife's employment with the CIA would have come up. There likely would have only time for mere pleasantries. [Add: If they were in D.C. instead of New York, ignore this last sentence.][61] Crooks and Liars is an American political blog aimed at liberals and progressives. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ...

  • Former CIA officer Larry C. Johnson strongly questions the credibility of both Generals, posting on his own blog No Quarter:

I too was a Fox News Contributor in 2002 and spent a lot of time in the Green Room with both Vallely and McInerney. I saw them but never saw Joe Wilson. What is really curious is that I know I spent more time with Vallely and McInerney than Joe Wilson ever did and the subject of my wife (or their wives) never came up.[62] Larry C. Johnson is a former officer of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency as well as the State Departments Office of Counterterrorism[1]. He is the CEO of Berg Associates, LLC. He has worked as a private consultant on issues of international terrorism and has been a commentator...

  • In agreement with others who have been in the Fox studio green rooms, former Naval intelligence officer and NSA analyst Wayne Madsen also doubts Vallely's claims:

As someone who spent a fair amount of time at Fox News' Washington green room, I can say that . . . [w]hen you are booked by Fox to appear, a car is sent around to pick you up. The car arrives with enough time to transport you to the studios at 400 North Capitol Street, usually 15 minutes before air time. However, most of that time is spent checking in and sitting for makeup. If you happen upon another guest in the green room before sitting for makeup, they are likely only minutes from air time –– certainly not enough time to engage in a biographical rendition about your family with a total stranger. If two guests appeared at the same time at Fox in Washington, they were taken to different studios.[63] NSA can stand for: National Security Agency of the USA The British Librarys National Sound Archive This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Wayne Madsen is a Washington, D.C.-based investigative journalist, author, and syndicated columnist. ...

That Vallely and Wilson crossed paths and conversed about Plame in the Fox green room in either Washington or New York is simply not an established or verifiable fact. Even if Wilson had mentioned to Vallely that his wife worked for the CIA (which is still highly dubious), Vallely himself makes no verifiable assertion that they discussed her "classified status" as an "operative" of the CIA, which is the particular aspect of her "employment" at issue in any unauthorized disclosures of it relating to Novak's column and the later Grand Jury investigation of the "Plame leak" by Special Counsel Fitzgerald. One of Wikipedias rules to consider. ... Espionage (spying) is a practice of obtaining information about an organization or a society that is considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder of the information. ...


Moreover, the claims of both Vallely and McInerney that Valerie Wilson's classified affiliation with the CIA was generally well known outside the intelligence community in Washington, D.C., is contradicted by the 28 Oct. 2005 Office of the Special Counsel indictment of Lewis "Scooter" Libby, as already cited above: Valerie Plame with her husband Joseph C. Wilson Valerie Plame Wilson (born 1963) is an employee of the American Central Intelligence Agency who was identified as a CIA operative in a newspaper column by Robert Novak on July 14, 2003. ... Special Counsel refers to at least two distinct individuals within the government of the United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with CIA leak grand jury investigation. ... I. Lewis Scooter Libby Irve Lewis Scooter Libby, Jr. ...

At all relevant times from January 1, 2002 through July 2003, Valerie Wilson was employed by the CIA, and her employment status was classified. Prior to July 14, 2003, Valerie Wilson’s affiliation with the CIA was not common knowledge outside the intelligence community. ("Joseph Wilson and Valerie Plame Wilson" 3; italics added).[64]

Richard Armitage as Novak's "primary source"

In their recent book Hubris, Michael Isikoff and David Corn assert that it was Richard Armitage, Deputy Secretary of State, who first revealed that Wilson's wife worked for the CIA to Robert Novak sometime before July 8, 2003.[65] In late August 2006, along with advance publicity for the book, news accounts and editorials began focusing on that public revelation: Richard L. Armitage Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005, Previously, he was a high-ranking troubleshooter and negotiator in the Departments of State and Defense. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative political commentator and political figure. ...

Richard L. Armitage, a former deputy secretary of state, has acknowledged that he was the person whose conversation with a columnist in 2003 prompted a long, politically laden criminal investigation in what became known as the C.I.A. leak case, a lawyer involved in the case said on Tuesday [August 29, 2006].[6]

An editorial published in the Washington Post on September 1, 2006 headlined "End of an Affair" proclaims "It turns out that the person who exposed CIA agent Valerie Plame was not out to punish her husband," opining further: ...

It now appears that the person most responsible for the end of Ms. Plame's CIA career is Mr. Wilson. Mr. Wilson chose to go public with an explosive charge, claiming — falsely, as it turned out — that he had debunked reports of Iraqi uranium-shopping in Niger and that his report had circulated to senior administration officials. He ought to have expected that both those officials and journalists such as Mr. Novak would ask why a retired ambassador would have been sent on such a mission and that the answer would point to his wife. He diverted responsibility from himself and his false charges by claiming that President Bush's closest aides had engaged in an illegal conspiracy. It's unfortunate that so many people took him seriously.[66]

As reported by Legal News TV, aware that he too has now been added to the civil suit brought against Rove, Libby, and Cheney by Joe and Valerie Wilson, Armitage seemed explicitly contrite:

Revealing himself as the source who leaked Valerie Plame's identity as a CIA operative just got Richard Armitage sued. Though the former Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage expressed regrets and apologies in media interviews, Valerie Plame and her husband, former Ambassador Joseph Wilson amended their lawsuit to add Armitage as a defendant along with Vice President Dick Cheney and I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby.

Yet, unlike the allegations leveled against his co-defendants, the couple does not allege that Armitage intentionally leaked Plame's identity to punish the couple for Wilson's criticisms of the Administration's policy in Iraq. According to the amended complaint, Armitage acted independently of his White House colleagues, but nonetheless violated Plame's right to privacy.

"There wasn't a day when I didn't feel like I had let down the president, the secretary of state, my colleagues, my family and the Wilsons. I value my ability to keep state secrets. This was bad and I really felt badly about this."[67]

In a column posted in TownHall.com on 14 September 2006, however, Novak disputes details of Armitage's recent media accounts of their conversations, offering a politically-charged reinterpretation of their past and present contexts: Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative political commentator and political figure. ...

When Richard Armitage finally acknowledged last week he was my source three years ago in revealing Valerie Plame Wilson as a CIA employee, the former deputy secretary of state's interviews obscured what he really did. I want to set the record straight based on firsthand knowledge.

First, Armitage did not, as he now indicates, merely pass on something he had heard and that he "thought" might be so. Rather, he identified to me the CIA division where Mrs. Wilson worked, and said flatly that she recommended the mission to Niger by her husband, former Amb. Joseph Wilson. Second, Armitage did not slip me this information as idle chitchat, as he now suggests. He made clear he considered it especially suited for my column.

An accurate depiction of what Armitage actually said deepens the irony of him being my source. He was a foremost internal skeptic of the administration's war policy, and I long had opposed military intervention in Iraq. Zealous foes of George W. Bush transformed me improbably into the president's lapdog. But they cannot fit Armitage into the left-wing fantasy of a well-crafted White House conspiracy to destroy Joe and Valerie Wilson. The news that he and not Karl Rove was the leaker was devastating news for the Left.[68] Richard L. Armitage Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005, Previously, he was a high-ranking troubleshooter and negotiator in the Departments of State and Defense. ... [edit intro] Valerie Plame with her husband Joseph C. Wilson, photographed after her CIA identity became public knowledge. ...

Despite Robert Novak's own conclusion that the identification of Armitage is "devastating news" for "the Left" in its attempts to corroborate what Novak calls the "left-wing fantasy of a well-crafted White House conspiracy to destroy Joe and Valerie Wilson," former Ambassador Wilson continues to enjoy support among investigative journalists and others in both the mainstream media and the alternative media who believe that such a "conspiracy" did exist and that its cover up may still exist, such as Frank Rich (The Greatest Story Ever Sold) and Robert Parry ("U.S. Press Bigwigs Screw Up, Again" and "How Obtuse Is the U.S. Press?"). Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative political commentator and political figure. ... Mass media is the term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience (typically at least as large as the whole population of a nation state). ... Alternative media are defined most broadly as those media practices falling outside the mainstreams of corporate communication. ... Frank Rich (born June 2, 1949 in Washington, D.C.) is a columnist for The New York Times. ... Robert Parry is an American investigative journalist who has written extensively about the Iran-Contra scandal. ...


In the "October/November Preview" published in the American Journalism Review (Philip Merrill College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park) and aptly entitled "Whatever," AJR's editor and senior vice president Rem Rieder similarly observes the "collective yawn" with which the mainstream media appears to have greeted the disclosure that it was Richard Armitage who was Robert Novak's "primary source" in "Plamegate."[69] The University of Maryland, College Park (also known as UM, UMD, or UMCP) is a public university located in the city of College Park, in Prince Georges County, Maryland, just outside Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... Mass media is a term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Richard L. Armitage Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005, Previously, he was a high-ranking troubleshooter and negotiator in the Departments of State and Defense. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative political commentator and political figure. ... The Plame Affair concerns the claim that the identity of Valerie E. Wilson (née Valerie Elise Plame; also known as Valerie Plame), who was working for the CIA possibly as a covert agent, was revealed by a government official. ...


Citing "a column agreeing with readers that his paper had underplayed Armitage and that the story belonged out front," Rieder says that "Kansas City Star Readers' Representative Derek Donovan put it well: 'Questioning – even suspicion – of those in power is a dearly-held American tradition, and many critical eyes have long, and I think rightly, focused on Rove's political influence at the White House. 'But that's not the issue here. From a simple standpoint of reporting news equitably, I think the Armitage revelation merited more prominent play.'"[69] Karl Rove Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W. Bush. ... Richard L. Armitage Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005, Previously, he was a high-ranking troubleshooter and negotiator in the Departments of State and Defense. ...


Rieder himself wonders rhetorically:

So why the lame response? The easy answer, and a popular one on the right, is that much-ballyhooed liberal bias of the media. And there's no doubt an episode like this gives great ammunition to those who see the press as a bunch of card-carrying, fire-breathing lefties.

But I'm not buying it. Is that the same bunch of pinkos who were so cowed after 9/11, so credulous in their coverage of WMD? The same ones who brought us the Monica Lewinsky circus? (OK, lying about sex under oath is bad, but worse than leading a nation into an optional war with a dubious rationale, far too few troops and no plans for what to do after the fighting stops?) Or, speaking of long-running, high-profile "scandals" about not so much, the ones who wallowed in Whitewater?

Maybe it's simply a matter of embarrassment. After so much breathless coverage of supposed White House character assassination, maybe the MSM just kind of hoped the whole thing would go away.

Whatever the reason, it was a curious and disappointing performance.[69] For the album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... Monica Lewinsky on her U.S. Government ID Monica Samille Lewinsky (born July 23, 1973 in San Francisco) is an American woman who is believed to have had an affair with President of the United States Bill Clinton while she worked at the White House in 1995-1996. ... Whitewater is formed in a rapid, when a rivers gradient drops enough to form a bubbly, or aerated and unstable current; the frothy water appears white. ... North façade of the White House, seen from Pennsylvania Avenue. ... Mass media is a term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ...

Debate as to the merits of Wilson's claims in The Politics of Truth appears to remain ongoing, and the "case" of the Wilsons against past and present officials of the Bush administration is still unresolved as it moves through the legal justice system.[70]


Support for Wilson

In "A White House Smear," based in part on an interview with Ambassador Wilson and published in The Nation on 15 July 2003, David Corn asks: This article is about the U.S publication. ... David Corn is a political correspondent for The Nation and author of the book as well as the political novel Deep Background and the biography Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIAs Crusades. ...

Is it relevant that Wilson's wife might have suggested him for the unpaid gig [to Niger]? Not really. And Wilson notes, with a laugh, that at that point their twins were two years old, and it would not have been much in his wife's interest to encourage him to head off to Africa. What matters is that Wilson returned with the right answer and dutifully reported his conclusions. (In March 2003, the International Atomic Energy Agency concluded that the documents upon which the Niger allegation was based were amateurish forgeries.) His wife's role—if she had one—has nothing but anecdotal value. And Novak's sources could have mentioned it without providing her name. Instead, they were quite generous.
. . . .
The Wilson smear was a thuggish act. Bush and his crew abused and misused intelligence to make their case for war. Now there is evidence Bushies used classified information and put the nation's counter-proliferation efforts at risk merely to settle a score. It is a sign that with this gang politics trumps national security.[71] Counter-proliferation refers to military efforts to combat proliferation, including the application of military power to protect forces and interests, intelligence collection and analysis. ...

More recently, on 6 September 2006, in an article posted in the online version of The Nation alluding to his book co-authored with Newsweek's Michael Isikoff, David Corn writes: This article is about the U.S publication. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... Michael Isikoff is an investigative journalist for the US-based magazine Newsweek. ... David Corn is a political correspondent for The Nation and author of the book as well as the political novel Deep Background and the biography Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIAs Crusades. ...

Valerie Wilson was no analyst or paper-pusher. She was an operations officer working on a top priority of the Bush Administration. Armitage, Rove and Libby had revealed information about a CIA officer who had searched for proof of the President's case. In doing so, they harmed her career and put at risk operations she had worked on and foreign agents and sources she had handled.

Another issue was whether Valerie Wilson had sent her husband to Niger to check out an intelligence report that Iraq had sought uranium there. Hubris contains new information undermining the charge that she arranged this trip. In an interview with the authors, Douglas Rohn, a State Department officer who wrote a crucial memo related to the trip, acknowledges he may have inadvertently created a misimpression that her involvement was more significant than it had been.
. . . .
"We knew nothing about what was going on in Iraq," a CIA official recalled. "We were way behind the eight ball. We had to look under every rock." Wilson, too, occasionally flew overseas to monitor operations. She also went to Jordan to work with Jordanian intelligence officials who had intercepted a shipment of aluminum tubes heading to Iraq that CIA analysts were claiming--wrongly--were for a nuclear weapons program. (The analysts rolled over the government's top nuclear experts, who had concluded the tubes were not destined for a nuclear program.)
. . . .
When the Novak column ran, Valerie Wilson was in the process of changing her clandestine status from NOC to official cover, as she prepared for a new job in personnel management. Her aim, she told colleagues, was to put in time as an administrator—to rise up a notch or two—and then return to secret operations. But with her cover blown, she could never be undercover again. Moreover, she would now be pulled into the partisan warfare of Washington. As a CIA employee still sworn to secrecy, she wasn't able to explain publicly that she had spent nearly two years searching for evidence to support the Administration's justification for war and had come up empty. (Italics added.)[72] Joseph and Valerie Wilson Valerie E. Wilson, née Valerie Elise Plame, (born April 19, 1963 in Anchorage, Alaska) is a former United States CIA officer who once held non-official cover (NOC) status. ... Richard L. Armitage Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005, Previously, he was a high-ranking troubleshooter and negotiator in the Departments of State and Defense. ... Karl Rove Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W. Bush. ... I. Lewis Scooter Libby Irve Lewis Scooter Libby, Jr. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Official Cover is a term used in espionage to refer to an operative who assumes a position in an organization with diplomatic ties to the government he or she is working for. ...

Like Isikoff and Corn, later journalists in the mainstream media, independent journalists, interviewed CIA agents, and other skeptics of the George W. Bush administration still vigorously dispute its frequently-repeated claims and earlier testimony of some CIA agents that the purchase of the aluminum tubes by Iraq constitutes proof of a renewed nuclear enrichment program for the eventual production of weapons of mass destruction. Such ongoing questioning of these controversial and hotly-debated claims tends to support Wilson's arguments about such rationales for the 2003 invasion of Iraq being part of a "fabric of lies, distortions, and misinformation that it [the administration] had woven and fed the world to justify its war" in his 2004 book The Politics of Truth (414-15).[73] Mass media is the term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience (typically at least as large as the whole population of a nation state). ... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... Aluminum tubes purchased by Iraq were intercepted in Jordan in 2001. ... Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom South Korea Australia Poland Romania others. ...


As Robert Parry observes: Robert Parry is an American investigative journalist who has written extensively about the Iran-Contra scandal. ...

Now, based on a new report about Armitage’s role in leaking Plame’s identity, the New York Times, the Washington Post and other leading U.S. news organizations are joining in a new campaign to disparage those who harbored suspicions about the Bush administration’s actions – from special prosecutor Fitzgerald to former Ambassador Wilson.

For these national journalists who act as if they are oblivious to all the evidence of a long-running White House smear campaign and cover-up, it might be time to pose the “Shawshank Redemption” question: “How can you be so obtuse?”

Of course, in the movie, the warden really wasn’t “obtuse.” He just wanted to keep benefiting from [his prisoner] [Andy] Dufrense’s financial skills and, most importantly, to protect his corrupt schemes. The motives of the Washington news media may be more of a mystery. ("How Obtuse Is the U.S. Press?") Richard L. Armitage Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005, Previously, he was a high-ranking troubleshooter and negotiator in the Departments of State and Defense. ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... ... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... Patrick J. Fitzgerald (born December 22, 1960 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American attorney and the current U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois. ... North façade of the White House, seen from Pennsylvania Avenue. ... The Shawshank Redemption is a 1994 movie, written and directed by Frank Darabont, based on the Stephen King novella Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption. ...

Ian Buruma argues, in his New York Times Book Review of Frank Rich's The Greatest Story Ever Sold: Ian Buruma talks with an attendee at the Texas Book Festival. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Frank Rich (born June 2, 1949 in Washington, D.C.) is a columnist for The New York Times. ...

Newspaper editors should not have to feel the need to prove their patriotism, or their absence of bias. Their job is to publish what they believe to be true, based on evidence and good judgment. As Rich points out, such journals as The Nation and The New York Review of Books were quicker to see through government shenanigans than the mainstream press. And reporters from Knight Ridder got the story about intelligence fixing right, before The New York Times caught on. “At Knight Ridder,” Rich says, “there was a clearer institutional grasp of the big picture.”

Intimidation is only part of the story, however. The changing nature of gathering and publishing information has made mainstream journalists unusually defensive. That more people than ever are now able to express their views, on radio shows and Web sites, is perhaps a form of democracy, but it has undermined the authority of editors, whose expertise was meant to act as a filter against nonsense or prejudice. And the deliberate confusion, on television, of news and entertainment has done further damage. ("Theater of War" 11, col. 1)[74] This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... For other senses of this word, see bias (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S publication. ... The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a biweekly magazine on literature, culture, and current affairs published in New York which takes, as its point of departure that the discussion of important books is itself an indispensable literary activity. ... Mass media is a term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Partial list of newspapers The following is a partial list of newspapers owned by Knight Ridder: Contra Costa Times Detroit Free Press Kansas City Star The Miami Herald Philadelphia Inquirer Saint Paul Pioneer Press San Jose Mercury News The State External link Knight Ridder corporate website Categories: Companies traded on... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... Mass media is a term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... A journalist is a person who practices journalism. ... For with(out) prejudice in law, see Prejudice (law). ... For the newspaper that gave News Corporation its name, see The News (Adelaide). ... A stilt-walker entertaining shoppers at a shopping centre in Swindon, England Entertainment is an event, performance, or activity designed to give pleasure or relaxation to an audience (although, for example, in the case of a computer game the audience may be only one person). ...

Recent accolades and interviews

On 3 August 2005, Joseph C. Wilson, along with his wife, Valerie Plame, received a "Wings of Justice Award" from BuzzFlash.[75] Joseph and Valerie Wilson Valerie E. Wilson, née Valerie Elise Plame, (born April 19, 1963 in Anchorage, Alaska) is a former United States CIA officer who once held non-official cover (NOC) status. ...


In the third interview with former Ambassador Wilson conducted by BuzzFlash, on 7 September 2006, they have the following exchange:

BuzzFlash: Reporters and pundits have used various terms — Plamegate and Wilsongate, among others — when talking about this administration's treatment of you and your wife, Valerie Plame. BuzzFlash and BuzzFlash readers see it as symbolic of the White House's willingness to betray the national security interests of the United States by seeking vengeance on individuals. We'd like to ask you for an update, on three different levels, to the degree that you can discuss the facts with us despite lawsuits and ongoing investigations.

First of all, there’s a lot of speculation about the Counsel for the Department of Justice and the status of his investigation. Is Patrick Fitzgerald done with his indictments, or is it possible that there will be further indictments?

Joseph Wilson: Let me tell you just as an overview of what this case has been about — the other day, a friend of mine informed me that he had been in touch with a career Justice Department prosecutor who said that what was done in compromising Valerie’s identity was treason. I think that’s what it is. Betrayal of the national security of my country is an act of treason.

It’s entirely possible that Mr. Fitzgerald will penetrate the veil to get there. He made very clear in his press conference that he was unable to determine certain things about the underlying crimes because he alleged there had been obstruction of justice. I haven’t talked to Mr. Fitzgerald in a long time. I don’t really know what the status of the investigation is. But I have full confidence in Mr. Fitzgerald. He’s proven himself in this and other cases to be a valiant prosecutor, and not to be intimidated by the politically powerful. I fully expect that he can get to the bottom of it. But whatever crime was committed, was committed against the country, not against Joe Wilson, even though Valerie's and my name are associated with it.

BuzzFlash: From a technical standpoint, there’s confusion in the press, as there often is. Is he still continuing an investigation with a second grand jury?

Joseph Wilson: I have no idea where it stands. Mr. Fitzgerald only talks to me when he has questions to ask of me. He doesn’t share with me the yields of the investigation.

I will say this about the apparent confusion in the press: Where they’ve asked the question, they might well get an answer. The fact that they don’t ask indicates that they’re not terribly interested. If the press will continue to serve as apologists for an administration that has done this, then they are either willfully ignorant or complicit in this campaign to destroy the national security of the country, and to use political and official positions to seek personal revenge on people who they deem to be critics.[75] The Plame Affair concerns the claim that the identity of Valerie E. Wilson (née Valerie Elise Plame; also known as Valerie Plame), who was working for the CIA possibly as a covert agent, was revealed by a government official. ... The Plame Affair concerns the claim that the identity of Valerie E. Wilson (née Valerie Elise Plame; also known as Valerie Plame), who was working for the CIA possibly as a covert agent, was revealed by a government official. ... Joseph and Valerie Wilson Valerie E. Wilson, née Valerie Elise Plame, (born April 19, 1963 in Anchorage, Alaska) is a former United States CIA officer who once held non-official cover (NOC) status. ... A special prosecutor is a lawyer from outside the government appointed by the attorney general or Congress to investigate a federal official for misconduct while in office. ... Patrick J. Fitzgerald (born December 22, 1960 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American attorney and the current U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois. ... The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... Traitor redirects here. ... Modern Obstruction of Justice, in a common law state, refers to the crime of offering interference of any sort to the work of police, investigators, regulatory agencies, prosecutors, or other (usually government) officials. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Joseph C. Wilson IV, "What I Didn't Find in Africa," New York Times July 6, 2003, accessed September 17, 2006.
  2. ^ Robert Novak, "Mission to Niger," Washington Post, July 14, 2003:A21; posted online, October 20, 2005, accessed September 17, 2003.
  3. ^ Office of Special Counsel; Libby Indictment (28 Oct. 2005)PDF (152 KiB)."On or about September 26, 2003, the Department of Justice authorized the Federal Bureau of Investigation (“FBI”) to commence a criminal investigation into the possible unauthorized disclosure of classified information regarding the disclosure of Valerie Wilson’s affiliation with the CIA to various reporters in the spring of 2003" ("The Criminal Investigation" 8); "Joseph Wilson was married to Valerie Plame Wilson (“Valerie Wilson”). At all relevant times from January 1, 2002 through July 2003, Valerie Wilson was employed by the CIA, and her employment status was classified. Prior to July 14, 2003, Valerie Wilson’s affiliation with the CIA was not common knowledge outside the intelligence community" ("Joseph Wilson and Valerie Plame Wilson" 3; italics added).
  4. ^ Libby Indictment (28 Oct. 2005)PDF (152 KiB).
  5. ^ John King, "Ex-Cheney Aide Gets Trial Date: Libby Faces Charges Stemming from Leak of CIA Operative's Name," CNN, February 3, 2006, accessed September 17, 2006.
  6. ^ a b Neil A. Lewis. "Source of C.I.A. Leak Said to Admit Role", New York Times, August 30, 2006.
  7. ^ Robert Novak, "Armitage's Leak," TownHall.com September 14, 2006, accessed September 17, 2006.
  8. ^ Joseph C. Wilson, "Statement in Response to Jury's Verdict in U.S. v. I. Lewis 'Scooter' Libby", press release, online posting, Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington (CREW), March 6, 2007, accessed 6 March 2007.
  9. ^ a b Richard Leiby, "Man Behind the Furor: Wilson: Envoy With an Independent Streak," Washington Post October 1, 2003, A01; rpt. in Wilson Bio, u-r-next.com, accessed September 26, 2006.
  10. ^ See Chapter Five, "How to Shake Hands with a Dictator," 107-27 in the 2005 paperback ed. of Wilson,The Politics of Truth.
  11. ^ See Chapter Eight: "Watching the War from a Distance," Chapter Nine: "All in a Diplomat's Life––from Gabon to Albania," and Chapter Ten: "Diplomats and Generals," and Chapter Eleven: "Coming Home for Good," 182-210 in the 2005 paperback ed. of Wilson, The Politics of Truth.
  12. ^ "Joseph Wilson" as listed by Greater Talent Network and Biography of Joseph C. Wilson IV listed at CPSAG, both accessed September 19, 2006; cf. "Wilson: From Envoy To Accuser," CBS News October 1, 2003, accessed September 17, 2006.
  13. ^ Biography for "Joseph Wilson," website of Greater Talent Network Inc., n.d., accessed September 17, 2006.
  14. ^ a b c d Vicky Ward, "Double Exposure", Vanity Fair January 2004, accessed September 23, 2006.
  15. ^ Department of State AwardsPDF (161 KiB).
  16. ^ Past Award Winners
  17. ^ Wilson, The Politics of Truth 410-12; cf. Newsmeat. See also Joseph Curl, "Spouse of Outed CIA Officer Signs On with Kerry," Washington Times February 14, 2004.
  18. ^ Joseph C. Wilson search at opensecrets.org, n.d., accessed September 17, 2006.
  19. ^ See Wilson, The Politics of Truth 381 and press release, Win Without War, September 24, 2003; cf. Joseph Curl, "Spouse of Outed CIA Officer Signs On with Kerry," Washington Times February 14, 2004.
  20. ^ Qtd. by Scott Shane and Lynette Clemetson, contributors to "Private Spy and Public Spouse Live At Center of Leak Case," New York Times, July 5, 2005, National Desk: A1, col. 2 (Late Ed. - Final).
  21. ^ Report on the U.S. Intelligence Community's Prewar Intelligence Assessments on IraqPDF, intelligence.senate.gov July 7, 2004; cf. Version of Report with "Additional Views,"PDF (24.1 MiB) July 9, 2004; both accessed September 13, 2006.
  22. ^ 2003 State of the Union Address
  23. ^ See, e.g, 16 Words (CNN) and "previous" link as provided by CNN.com.
  24. ^ See the "Timeline" entitled "Events surrounding the 'Sixteen Words' and the Disclosure of the Undercover Status of CIA Operative Valerie Plame, Wife of Ambassador Joseph Wilson," 452-54 in Wilson, The Politics of Truth:

    September 2002: First public mention of Niger-Iraq uranium connection is made in British White paper. July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative political commentator and political figure. ... ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Joseph and Valerie Wilson Valerie E. Wilson, née Valerie Elise Plame, (born April 19, 1963 in Anchorage, Alaska) is a former United States CIA officer who once held non-official cover (NOC) status. ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative political commentator and political figure. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington (CREW) is a Washington, DC-based advocacy organization which professes to fight corruption by U.S. government officials. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... CBS News is the news division of American television and radio network CBS. Its current president is Sean McManus who is also head of CBS Sports. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Greater Talent Network (GTN) is a celebrity speakers bureau based in New York City that exclusively represents prominent public speakers from all sectors of society, including politics, business, literature, sports, arts and entertainment. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... American actress Demi Moore, on a typical Vanity Fair cover (August, 1991) Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles based on sensational exaggerations, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and lies. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The Washington Times is a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C.. It was founded in 1982 as a conservative alternative to the Washington Post by members of the controversial Unification Church. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Times is a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C.. It was founded in 1982 as a conservative alternative to the Washington Post by members of the controversial Unification Church. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes The mebibyte is closely related to the megabyte (MB), which can either be a synonym for mebibyte, or refer to 106... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


    January 28, 2003: The sixteen words are spoken by President Bush in his State of the Union address: "The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa." The September Dossier is the name given to a document published by the United Kingdom Labour government on 24 September 2002. ...


    March 7, 2003: International Atomic Energy Agency announces that documents provided by U.S. about Niger-Iraq uranium claim are forgeries.


    March 8, 2003: State Department spokesman says of forged documents: 'We fell for it'; shortly thereafter, Wilson tells CNN that the U.S. government has more information on this matter than the State Department spokesmen acknowledged. The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...

    Sources have informed Wilson that soon after the CNN interview, a decision was made at a meeting in the Office of the Vice President––possibly attended by Dick Cheney, Lewis "Scooter" Libby, Newt Gingrich, and other senior Republicans––to produce a workup on Wilson to discredit him. Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... I. Lewis Scooter Libby Irve Lewis Scooter Libby, Jr. ... Newton Leroy Gingrich (born June 17, 1943) served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. ...

    June 8, 2003: On Meet the Press Condoleezza Rice denies knowledge of how dubious the uranium claim was and dissembles: "Maybe somebody down in the bowels of the Agency knew about this, but nobody in my circles." Meet the Press (MTP) is a weekly television news show produced by NBC. It started as a radio show in 1945 as American Mercury Presents: Meet the Press, originating from WRC-AM in Washington. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA, colloquially known as The Company or simply, The Agency) is an intelligence agency of the United States Government. ...


    July 6, 2003: Wilson's op-ed, "What I Didn't Find in Africa," is published in the New York Times; Wilson appears on Meet the Press, describes his trip and why he came away convinced that no attempt by Iraq to purchase uranium from Niger had taken place. The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Meet the Press (MTP) is a weekly television news show produced by NBC. It started as a radio show in 1945 as American Mercury Presents: Meet the Press, originating from WRC-AM in Washington. ...


    July 8, 2003: Columnist Robert Novak encounters Wilson's friend on Washington, D.C., street and blurts out Valerie Plame's CIA employment. Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative political commentator and political figure. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Federal District District of Columbia  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack Evans... Joseph and Valerie Wilson Valerie E. Wilson, née Valerie Elise Plame, (born April 19, 1963 in Anchorage, Alaska) is a former United States CIA officer who once held non-official cover (NOC) status. ...


    July 14, 2003: Novak publishes column revealing Plame's status.


    July 16, 2003: In The Nation David Corn publishes "A White House Smear," explaining that the Intelligence Identities Protection Act may have been violated by leak. David Corn is a political correspondent for The Nation and author of the book as well as the political novel Deep Background and the biography Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIAs Crusades. ... The Intelligence Identities Protection Act of 1982 (PL97-200, 50 U.S. Code Secs. ...


    July 20, 2003: NBC's Andrea Mitchell tells Wilson that "senior White House sources" had phoned her to stress "the real story here is not the sixteen words . . . but Wilson and his wife." NBC (an abbreviation for National Broadcasting Company, its former corporate name) is an American television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... Andrea Mitchell Andrea Mitchell (born October 30, 1946) is an American journalist, television commentator, and writer. ...


    July 21, 2003: NBC's Chris Matthews tells Wilson: "I just got off the phone with Karl Rove. He says and I quote, 'Wilson's wife is fair game.' I will confirm that if asked." NBC (an abbreviation for National Broadcasting Company, its former corporate name) is an American television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... Chris Matthews Christopher John Matthews (born December 17, 1945) is an American journalist and political commentator. ...


    September 28, 2003: MSNBC announces that Justice Department has begun a criminal investigation into the leak. (452-53) MSNBC, a combination of MSN and NBC, is a 24-hour cable news channel in the United States and Canada, and a news website. ...

    Cf. Plame affair timeline.
  25. ^ Review of Intelligence on Weapons of Mass DestructionPDF (0.99 MiB) July 14, 2004, accessed September 18, 2006.
  26. ^ Quoted from "Statement by George J. Tenet, Director of Central Intelligence," official press release, Central Intelligence Agency July 11, 2003.
  27. ^ As reported in "Defending Claims," broadcast on The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, Online NewsHour, PBS, July 10, 2003, accessed September 18, 2006 (Both transcript and streaming video available online).
  28. ^ Qtd. from the transcript of the videotaped news conference, presented in the segment "Defending Claims."
  29. ^ See the official White House transcript of "Press Gaggle by Ari Fleischer," held in The James S. Brady Briefing Room, The White House, Washington, D.C., July 7, 2003, accessed September 18, 2006.
  30. ^ a b Raymond Whitaker, Propaganda: Butler 'wrong' on Iraq uranium link,"PDF (5.97 MiB) London Independent on Sunday July 25, 2004, rpt. in SpinWatch July 28, 2004, accessed September 18, 2006.
  31. ^ One of the subtitles is revised in the paperback ed. to Inside the Lies that Put the White House on Trial and Betrayed My Wife's CIA Identity (2005).
  32. ^ Many further details of former Ambassador Wilson's trip to Niger can be found in the body of the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Report on the U.S. Intelligence Community's Prewar Intelligence Assessments on Iraq, which contains a 48-page section dealing with intelligence related to Niger. GPO Access.gov The Senate Intelligence Committee ReportPDF July 7, 2006, updated July 9, 2006, accessed September 18, 2006.
  33. ^ a b c "Full Text: Conclusions of Senate's Iraq Report," MSNBC.
  34. ^ a b c d e Susan Schmidt, "Plame's Input Is Cited on Niger Mission: Report Disputes Wilson's Claims on Trip, Wife's Role," Washington Post July 10, 2004: A09.
  35. ^ Knut Royce and Tim Phelps, "Columnist Blows CIA Agent's Cover." Newsday July 22, 2003, accessed September 18, 2006; cited by Wilson, in his "Preface" entitled "Anatomy of a Smear," The Politics of Truth liv-lv; 489 ("Bibliography: Miscellaneous Sources").
  36. ^ See also Wilson's "Timeline" entitled "Events Durrounding the 'Sixteen Words' and the Disclosure of the Uncover Status of CIA Operative Valerie Plame, Wife of Ambassador Joseph Wilson," 452-54 in the 2005 paperback ed. of The Politics of Truth.
  37. ^ See also Wilson, "Debunking Distortions about My Trip to Niger." Washington Post July 17, 2004.
  38. ^ Larry C. Johnson, "Correcting the Record on Valerie Plame," as posted in Crooks and Liars July 22, 2005, accessed September 18, 2006.
  39. ^ "Full Text: Conclusions of Senate's Iraq Report," MSNBC.
  40. ^ Dana Priest and Dana Milbank, "President Defends Allegation On Iraq: Bush Says CIA's Doubts Followed Jan. 28 Address," Washington Post July 15, 2003: A01.
  41. ^ As reported in the The Guardian Online World Latest ed. and by UPI.
  42. ^ Central Intelligence Agency Report, Unclassified Report to Congress on the Acquisition of Technology Relating to Weapons of Mass Destruction and Advanced Conventional Munitions, 1 January Through 30 June 2002 [sic], ODCI.gov (CIA), 1 Jan.-30 June 2002, and "Attachment A: Unclassified Report to Congress on the Acquisition of Technology Relating to Weapons of Mass Destruction and Advanced Conventional Munitions, 1 July Through 31 December [2002], ODCI.gov (CIA), 1 July-31 Dec. 2002 [corrected]; both accessed September 19, 2006. [Corrected typographical error in date in title of CIA Report Attachment ("2002" not "2003" [sic]); "2002" is listed correctly on "Home" page for "Reports."]
  43. ^ Tom Hamburger, Peter Wallsten, and Bob Drogin, "The World: French Told CIA of Bogus Intelligence: The foreign spy service warned the U.S. various times before the war that there was no proof Iraq sought uranium from Niger, ex-officials say," Los Angeles Times December 11, 2005.
  44. ^ David Corn. "What Valerie Plame Really Did at the CIA", The Nation (web only), September 5, 2006. Here Corn alludes prominently to his own just-published book, co-written with Michael Isikoff of Newsweek:

    Her specific position at the CIA is revealed for the first time in a new book, Hubris: The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, and the Selling of the Iraq War, by the author of this article and Newsweek's Michael Isikoff. The book chronicles the inside battles within the CIA, the White House, the State Department and Congress during the run-up to the war. Its account of Wilson's CIA career is mainly based on interviews with confidential CIA sources. (Italics added.) The Plame affair (rel. ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes The mebibyte is closely related to the megabyte (MB), which can either be a synonym for mebibyte, or refer to 106... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA, colloquially known as The Company or simply, The Agency) is an intelligence agency of the United States Government. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer is an evening television news program broadcast weeknights on PBS in the United States. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... This page is about the official residence of the President of the USA. For other White Houses see White House (disambiguation). ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes The mebibyte is closely related to the megabyte (MB), which can either be a synonym for mebibyte, or refer to 106... The Independents old (pre-compact) masthead. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 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It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... MSNBC, a combination of MSN and NBC, is a 24-hour cable news channel in the United States and Canada, and a news website. ... ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Newsday is a daily tabloid-size newspaper that primarily serves Long Island and the New York City borough of Queens, although it is sold throughout the New York City metropolitan area. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Crooks and Liars is an American political blog aimed at liberals and progressives. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... MSNBC, a combination of MSN and NBC, is a 24-hour cable news channel in the United States and Canada, and a news website. ... Dana Priest is an author and a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist. ... Dana T. Milbank (born 27 April 1968) is an American political reporter for the Washington Post. ... ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the Western United States. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Michael Isikoff is an investigative journalist for the US-based magazine Newsweek. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ...

    Cf. David Corn, "Novak vs. Armitage: Was the Plame Leak Deliberate?" The Nation September 13, 2006, which also states:

    The book I co-wrote with Michael Isikoff, Hubris: The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, and the Selling of the Iraq War, has set off a dispute between conservative columnist Bob Novak and former Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage. (Italics added.) David Corn is a political correspondent for The Nation and author of the book as well as the political novel Deep Background and the biography Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIAs Crusades. ... This article is about the U.S publication. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative political commentator and political figure. ... Richard L. Armitage Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005, Previously, he was a high-ranking troubleshooter and negotiator in the Departments of State and Defense. ...

  45. ^ "Review & Outlook: Editorial: Karl Rove, Whistleblower: He Told the Truth about Joe Wilson," Wall Street Journal July 13, 2005.
  46. ^ a b "A Good Leak: President Bush Declassified Some of the Intelligence He Used to Decide On War in Iraq. Is that a scandal?" Washington Post, April 9, 2006: B06, accessed September 18, 2006.
  47. ^ Charles Duelfer, Comprehensive Report of the Special Advisor to the Director of Central Intelligence on Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction (aka the Duelfer Report), cia.gov September 30, 2004, accessed September 21, 2006.
  48. ^ "A Bad Leak" New York Times April 16, 2006, accessed September 23, 2006.
  49. ^ "On the Record: Saddam, Uranium and Africa: What Two Investigations Say about Bush's Statements on Iraq, Yellowcake and Niger," Wall Street Journal July 15, 2004, accessed September 22, 2006.
  50. ^ "Joseph Wilson's Letter to the Senate: The former Ambassador Responds to Allegations by Republican Members of the Senate Intelligence Committee Report Challenging His Credibility," AlterNet July 19, 2004, [Reply to Senators Roberts, Bond, and Hatch].
  51. ^ a b Dafna Linzer and Barton Gellman, "A 'Concerted Effort' to Discredit Bush Critic: Prosecutor Describes Cheney, Libby as Key Voices Pitching Iraq-Niger Story," Washington Post April 9, 2006: A01, accessed September 18, 2006.
  52. ^ "Prosecutor in CIA Leak Case Corrects Part of Court Filing," Washington Post April 12, 2006: A08, accessed September 18, 2006.
  53. ^ Deborah Howell, "Two Views of the Libby Leak Case," Washington Post April 16, 2006: B06, accessed September 19, 2006. Howell also states: "Gellman said the commission and the ISG found no evidence that Iraq sought uranium abroad after 1991." That explicit statement is not reported in the Gellman/Linzer article to which she refers, however; it is in the government reports that cited by Gellman and Linzer and Linzer.
  54. ^ Art Moore, "The Plame Game: Analyst says Wilson 'outed' wife in 2002: Disclosed in casual conversations a year before Novak column," WorldNetDaily November 5, 2005, accessed September 19, 2006. See also archived listing for The John Batchelor Show for November 3, 2005. Cf. "Two years into Leak Investigation, Gen. Vallely Suddenly Claims, in Contradictory Statements, That Wilson Revealed Plame's Identity to Him," Media Matters November 9, 2005, accessed September 23, 2006 (incl. QuickTime video with audio voiceovers).
  55. ^ In American courts of criminal law, "proof of intent" is not easy to establish "beyond a reasonable doubt"; in civil courts, the "burden of proof" is less onerous; whereas Fitzgerald's Office of Special Counsel has been and is still engaged in a criminal investigation and whereas Libby's trial is specifically a criminal felony case, the Wilsons' suit against Libby, Cheney, Rove, and (most recently included) Armitage is a civil legal action. It does not appear yet that anyone has been charged with violating the Intelligence Identities Protection Act, which has severe criminal penalties, though that could change in the future.
  56. ^ a b Joseph Farah and Art Moore, "The Plame Game: Joe Wilson Fumes Over Vallely Charges in WND: Demands Retraction of Statements Alleging He 'Outed' Wife in Fox Studio," WorldNetDaily, November 5, 2005, accessed September 19, 2006. Cf. "Two years into Leak Investigation, Gen. Vallely Suddenly Claims, in Contradictory Statements, That Wilson Revealed Plame's Identity to Him," Media Matters November 9, 2005, accessed September 23, 2006 (incl. QuickTime video with audio voiceovers).
  57. ^ a b Art Moore, "The Plame Game: General Wants Wilson Apology: Threatened Again with Lawsuit Over Claim of 'Outing' CIA Wife," WorldNetDaily, November 8, 2005, accessed September 19, 2006. Cf. "Two years into Leak Investigation, Gen. Vallely Suddenly Claims, in Contradictory Statements, That Wilson Revealed Plame's Identity to Him," Media Matters November 9, 2005, accessed September 23, 2006 (incl. QuickTime video with audio voiceovers).
  58. ^ John Batchelor, "West Point Rallies Against Wilson," RedState November 6, 2005, accessed September 19, 2006. Cf. "Two years into Leak Investigation, Gen. Vallely Suddenly Claims, in Contradictory Statements, That Wilson Revealed Plame's Identity to Him," Media Matters November 9, 2005, accessed September 23, 2006 (incl. QuickTime video with audio voiceovers).
  59. ^ "Special Report with Brit Hume," "Liar, Liar, Pants on Fire?" FoxNews, November 11, 2005.
  60. ^ "Vallely and Wilson Fox Appearances," Crooks and Liars November 8, 2005, updated April 2, 2006, accessed September 19, 2006.
  61. ^ Jeralyn Merritt, "Swift Boating Joseph Wilson Won't Work," TalkLeft: The Politics of Crime November 8, 2005, updated November 9, 2006, accessed September 19, 2006.
  62. ^ Larry C. Johnson, "Trying to Smear Joe Wilson," No Quarter (blog) November 8, 2005, accessed September 19, 2006. Cf. Larry C. Johnson, "Plame Update," No Quarter (blog) October 5, 2005, accessed September 28, 2005.
  63. ^ Wayne Madsen, "When Lying Generals Lie," waynemadsenreport.com November 15, 2005, accessed September 20, 2006.
  64. ^ Libby Indictment (28 Oct. 2005)PDF (152 KiB).
  65. ^ Michael Isikoff and David Corn, Hubris: The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, and the Selling of the Iraq War (New York: Crown, [Sept. 8] 2006). ISBN 0-307-34681-1.
  66. ^ "End of an Affair: It turns out that the person who exposed CIA agent Valerie Plame was not out to punish her husband," Washington Post, September 1, 2006: A20.
  67. ^ "Richard Armitage Admits to Name-Dropping Incident," Legal News TV September 14, 2006, accessed September 21, 2006.
  68. ^ Robert Novak, "Armitage's Leak," TownHall.com September 14, 2006, accessed September 17, 2006.
  69. ^ a b c Rem Rieder, "October/November Preview: Whatever":"After months of saturation Plamegate coverage, the media couldn’t work up much excitement when the person who revealed Valerie Plame’s CIA role was identified," American Journalism Review (Philip Merrill College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park) Aug./Sept. 2006, accessed September 19, 2006.
  70. ^ For details pertaining to the civil suit filed by the Wilsons, see "Former CIA Officer Claims Conspiracy Outed Her Identity: Plame, Husband File Lawsuit Against Cheney, Libby, Rove," CNN July 14, 2006, accessed September 19, 2006; cf. "Richard Armitage Admits to Name-Dropping Incident," Legal News TV September 14, 2006, accessed September 21, 2006.
  71. ^ David Corn, "A White House Smear," The Nation July 15, 2003, accessed September 23, 2006.
  72. ^ David Corn, "What Valerie Plame Really Did at the CIA," The Nation September 6, 2006 (Web Only). accessed September 24, 2006; cf. Michael Isikoff and David Corn, Hubris: The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, and the Selling of the Iraq War (New York: Crown, [Sept. 8] 2006). ISBN 0-307-34681-1.
  73. ^ See, e.g., Robert Parry, "U.S. Press Bigwigs Screw Up, Again." ConsortiumNews.com (The Consortium for Independent Journalism, Inc) September 14, 2006 and "How Obtuse Is the U.S. Press?" ConsortiumNews.com (The Consortium for Independent Journalism, Inc) September 3, 2006, both accessed September 17, 2006; cf. Frank Rich, The Greatest Story Ever Sold: The Decline and Fall of Truth from 9/11 to Katrina (New York: Penguin Press, 2006), as cited in book rev. by Ian Buruma, "Theater of War," New York Times September 17, 2006, sec. 7 (Book Rev.): 10, cols. 2-3.
  74. ^ See Veterans for Peace, 2005 convention resolution "Inquiry into 'Intelligence Fixing,'" passed on August 6, 2005, as posted on veteransforpeace.org, accessed September 19, 2006. Cf. Fixing Intelligence for a Secure America (New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 2002), a book by Lt. Gen. William E. Odom, US Army, Ret., reviewed by Hayden B. Peake, "Intelligence in Recent Public Literature," cia.gov, accessed September 19, 2006. The unintended pun in General Odom's title associates what Buruma, Veterans for Peace, and others call "intelligence fixing" with what Odom –– prior to the controversy resulting from Ambassador Wilson's trip "intelligence-gathering" trip to Niger –– calls "fixing [broken] intelligence."
  75. ^ a b "Ambassador Joseph Wilson Updates BuzzFlash on the Bush Administration's Betrayal of Our National Security," BuzzFlash September 12, 2006, accessed September 19, 2006.

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July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... This article is about the U.S publication. ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Michael Isikoff is an investigative journalist for the US-based magazine Newsweek. ... David Corn is a political correspondent for The Nation and author of the book as well as the political novel Deep Background and the biography Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIAs Crusades. ... Robert Parry is an American investigative journalist who has written extensively about the Iran-Contra scandal. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Frank Rich (born June 2, 1949 in Washington, D.C.) is a columnist for The New York Times. ... Penguin Group is the second largest trade book publisher in the world. ... Ian Buruma talks with an attendee at the Texas Book Festival. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Veterans For Peace is an American organization founded in 1985. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

References

Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting (FAIR), founded in 1986, is an American organization that works against and documents what it perceives as bias in the media, censorship, and erroneous reporting. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting (FAIR), founded in 1986, is an American organization that works against and documents what it perceives as bias in the media, censorship, and erroneous reporting. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Iraq | 2003 Iraq conflict | Stub ... Iraq Survey Group insignia The Iraq Survey Group (ISG) was a fact-finding mission sent by the multinational force in Iraq after the 2003 Invasion of Iraq to find weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs developed by Iraq under the regime of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Weekly Standard is an American neoconservative political magazine published 48 times per year. ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Corn is a political correspondent for The Nation and author of the book as well as the political novel Deep Background and the biography Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIAs Crusades. ... This article is about the U.S publication. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... This article is about the U.S publication. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... This article is about the U.S publication. ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... USA Today is a national American newspaper published by the Gannett Corporation. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... Ben Ehrenreich is a freelance journalist and novelist. ... L.A. Weekly is a free weekly tabloid-sized newspaper (a so-called alternative weekly) in Los Angeles, California. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Ari Fleischer conducts a White House press conference Lawrence Ari Fleischer (born October 13, 1960) was the press secretary for U.S. President George W. Bush from January 2001 to July 2003. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Christopher Hitchens Christopher Eric Hitchens (born in Portsmouth, England, April 13, 1949) is an author, journalist and literary critic. ... Slate Thick slate fragment Slate roof Slate is a fine-grained, homogeneous, metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low grade regional metamorphism. ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Isikoff is an investigative journalist for the US-based magazine Newsweek. ... David Corn is a political correspondent for The Nation and author of the book as well as the political novel Deep Background and the biography Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIAs Crusades. ... Edward Moore Ted Kennedy (born February 22, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic Party. ... This article is about the U.S publication. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Larry C. Johnson is a former officer of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency as well as the State Departments Office of Counterterrorism[1]. He is the CEO of Berg Associates, LLC. He has worked as a private consultant on issues of international terrorism and has been a commentator... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (279th in Leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Clifford May is the president of the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies and Chairman of the Policy Committee of the Committee on the Present Danger (CPD). ... National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley Jr. ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative political commentator and political figure. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Robert Parry is an American investigative journalist who has written extensively about the Iran-Contra scandal. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Frank Rich (born June 2, 1949 in Washington, D.C.) is a columnist for The New York Times. ... Penguin Group is the second largest trade book publisher in the world. ... Ian Buruma talks with an attendee at the Texas Book Festival. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Clifford May is the president of the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies and Chairman of the Policy Committee of the Committee on the Present Danger (CPD). ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative political commentator and political figure. ... Joseph C. Wilson IV was a United States career foreign service officer and later a diplomat between 1976 and 1998. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes The mebibyte is closely related to the megabyte (MB), which can either be a synonym for mebibyte, or refer to 106... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... American actress Demi Moore, on a typical Vanity Fair cover (August, 1991) Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles based on sensational exaggerations, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and lies. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by Knight Ridder. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Common Dreams NewsCenter, according to its website, is based in Portland, Maine, and was founded in 1997. ... The Richard and Rhoda Goldman School of Public Policy (GSPP) is one of 14 schools and colleges at the University of California, Berkeley. ... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, and by other names, see below) is the oldest and flagship campus of the ten-campus University of California system. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Google Video is a free Google service that allows anyone to upload video clips to Googles web servers as well as make their own media available free of charge or through Google Video Store for a cost that they can set. ... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as Cal, UC Berkeley, UCB, or simply Berkeley) is a prestigious, public, coeducational university situated in the foothills of Berkeley, California to the east of San Francisco Bay, overlooking the Golden Gate and its bridge. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... AlterNet, a project of the non-profit Independent Media Institute, is a progressive news website that was launched in 1998 and receives over 2 million visitors per month. ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Common Dreams NewsCenter, according to its website, is based in Portland, Maine, and was founded in 1997. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Common Dreams NewsCenter, according to its website, is based in Portland, Maine, and was founded in 1997. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Common Dreams NewsCenter, according to its website, is based in Portland, Maine, and was founded in 1997. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington (CREW) is a Washington, DC-based advocacy organization which professes to fight corruption by U.S. government officials. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ...

External links

  • Biography of Joseph C. Wilson IV on the website of the Corporate and Public Strategy Advisory Group (CPSAG)
  • Interactive Graphic: Timeline of a Leak in The New York Times online (NYTimes.com)
  • Joseph C. Wilson 4th from Times Topics (NYTimes.com)
  • Joseph Wilson Biography at Greater Talent Network (Speakers Bureau)
  • Office of Special Counsel Patrick J. Fitzgerald
  • The Politics of Truth:: Inside the Lies that Put the White House on Trial and Betrayed My Wife's CIA Identity: A Diplomat's Memoir, by Joseph Wilson: website featuring excerpts from the book, interviews, and reviews, a news archive, and hyperlinked "Bibliography" (Copyright © 2004, Carroll & Graf Publishers & Joseph Wilson)
  • Brewster Jennings was a front for Valerie Plame, Jean C. Edwards, Robert Ellmann, Paul Jennings (of the Anglo-Irish Bank), and others. The Boston accounting firm Burke Dennehy at the same address and phone number was in turn a front for Brewster Jennings.
  • Plame's Brewster Jennings associate Jean C. Edwards is in the attendees lists of three Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics conferences where she spied on Iran, Turkey, Pakistan, Russia, and E. European countries involved in nuclear proliferation.

The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... Greater Talent Network (GTN) is a celebrity speakers bureau based in New York City that exclusively represents prominent public speakers from all sectors of society, including politics, business, literature, sports, arts and entertainment. ...

See also


 
 

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