FACTOID # 7: The top five best educated states are all in the Northeast.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Joseph Brodsky
Bookcover of Works and Days in Russian
Bookcover of Works and Days in Russian

Joseph Brodsky (May 24, 1940January 28, 1996), born Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodsky (Russian: Ио́сиф Алекса́ндрович Бро́дский) was a Russian-born poet and essayist who won the Nobel Prize in Literature (1987) and was chosen Poet Laureate of the United States (1991-1992). He had an honorary degree of the University of Silesia. Image File history File links Bookcover_Brodsky_Trudy_i_dni. ... Image File history File links Bookcover_Brodsky_Trudy_i_dni. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... A poet is someone who writes poetry. ... An essay is a short work of writing that treats a topic from an authors personal point of view. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... The Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress is appointed by the United States Librarian of Congress and earns a stipend of $35,000 a year. ... An honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum, not to be confused with an honors degree) is an academic degree awarded to an individual as a decoration, rather than as the result of matriculating and studying for several years. ... Historical Background The University of Silesia was established in Katowice in 1968 as the nineth university in Poland and is an autonomous state university. ...

Contents

In the Soviet Union

Brodsky was born into a Jewish family in Leningrad, the son of a professional photographer in the Soviet Navy. In the early childhood he survived the Siege of Leningrad. When he was fifteen, Brodsky left school and tried to enter the School of Submariners (школа подводников) without success. He went on to work as a milling machine operator (фрезеровщик) at a plant. Later, having in mind to become a physician, he worked at a morgue at the Kresty prison. Subsequently, and a variety of jobs at a hospital, in a ship boiler room, and on geological expeditions. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... This is a list of notable photographers in the art, documentary and fashion traditions. ... The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR, literally Naval military forces of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet armed forces. ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Georg von Küchler Kliment Voroshilov Georgy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and an estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда (transliteration: blokada... The Doctor by Samuel Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... Mortuary, a film directed by Tobe Hooper, see Mortuary (film). ...


At the same time, Brodsky engaged in a program of self-education. He learned English and Polish (mainly to translate poem by Czesław Miłosz, who was the favourite Brodski's poet and a friend), acquired deep interest in classical philosophy, religion, mythology, English and American poetry. Later in life, he admitted that he picked up books from anywhere he could find them, including even garbage dumps. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... CzesÅ‚aw MiÅ‚osz in September 1999 CzesÅ‚aw MiÅ‚osz (1911-2004), Cracow (Poland), December 1998 CzesÅ‚aw MiÅ‚osz( ); (June 30, 1911 – August 14, 2004) was a Polish poet and essayist. ... Socrates (central bare-chested figure) about to drink hemlock as mandated by the court. ... // For the Derek Sherinian album, see Mythology (Derek Sherinian album). ...


Brodsky began writing his own poetry and producing literary translations around 1957. His writings were apolitical. The young Brodsky was encouraged and influenced by the poet Anna Akhmatova who called some of his verses "enchanting." He had no degree in the liberal arts. Akhmatova in the 1920s Anna Akhmatova (Russian: , real name А́нна Андре́евна Горе́нко) (June 23, 1889 [O.S. June 11] — March 5, 1966) was the pen name of Anna Andreevna Gorenko, the leader and the heart and soul of St Petersburg tradition of Russian poetry in the course of half a century. ... In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ...


In 1963, he was arrested and in 1964 charged with parasitism ("тунеядство") by the Soviet authorities. A famous excerpt from the transcript of his trial made by journalist Frida Vigdorova and smuggled to the West: The Nazi propaganda poster titled New People reads: This person suffering from hereditary defects costs the people 60,000 Reichmarks during his lifetime. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) Translation: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow Official languages None; Russian de facto Government Socialist Republic/Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev... The term Western World or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ...

Judge: And what is your profession in general?
Brodsky: Poet translator.
Judge: Who recognized you as a poet? Who enrolled you in the ranks of poets?
Brodsky: No one. And who enrolled me in the ranks of humanity?
Judge: Did you study this?
Brodsky: This?
Judge: To become a poet. You did not try to finish high school where they prepare, where they teach?
Brodsky: I didn’t think you could get this from school.
Judge: How then?
Brodsky: I think that it ... comes from God.[1]

For his "parasitism" Brodsky was sentenced to five years of internal exile with obligatory engagement in physical work and served 18 months in Archangelsk region. The sentence was commuted in 1965 after prominent Soviet and foreign literary figures, such as Evgeny Evtushenko and Jean Paul Sartre, protested. Internal Exile (“A Collection of a Boys Own Stories”) was Fishs second solo album after leaving Marillion in 1988. ... Manual labour (or manual labor) is physical work done with the hands, especially in an unskilled job such as fruit and vegetable picking, road building, or any other field where the work may be considered physically arduous, and which has as a profitable objective, usually the production of goods. ... Murmansk, Archangelsk, Dikson, Tiksi, on the Arctic Ocean The city of Arkhangelsk (Арха́нгельск, formerly in English Archangel) lies on the Northern Dvina River (Се́верная Двина́) near... Time magazine, April 13, 1962 Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Yevtushenko (Евгений Александрович Евтушенко; born July 18, 1933) is a Russian poet, whose work contains scathing attacks... Jean Paul Sartre Jean-Paul Sartre (June 21, 1905–April 15, 1980) was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic. ...


In 1964, Leonid Brezhnev came to power. As the Khrushchev Thaw period ended, only four of Brodsky's poems were published in the Soviet Union. He refused to publish his writings censored and most of his work has appeared only in the West or in samizdat. Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev Russian: ; January 1, 1907 [O.S. December 19, 1906] – November 10, 1982) was the effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, at first in partnership with others. ... In Soviet history, Kruschevs Thaw or Khrushchev Thaw refers to the period between the end of 1950s and the beginning of 1960s, when repressions and censorship reached a low point. ... Censorship is the removal of information from the public, or the prevention of circulation of information, where it is desired or felt best by some controlling group or body, that others are not allowed to access the information which is being censored. ... Samizdat, book published by Pathfinder Press containing a collection of forbidden Trotskyist Samizdat texts. ...


In the United States

On June 4, 1972 Brodsky was exiled from the USSR and became a U.S. citizen in 1980. His first teaching position in the United States was at the University of Michigan (U-M). He has been Poet-in-Residence and Visiting Professor at the U-M, Queens College, Smith College, Columbia University, and Cambridge University in England. He was a Five-College Professor of Literature at Mount Holyoke College. June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... United States citizenship is membership of the United States political system. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM or U of M) is a coeducational public research university in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Queens College, Queens College or Queens College is the name of more than one institution, see: Queens College, Cambridge Queens College, Charlotte Queens College, Hong Kong Queens College, London Queens College, New York Queens College, Nassau The Queens College, Oxford Queens College was the... Smith College, located in Northampton, Massachusetts, is the largest womens college in the United States []. Smith admits only female undergraduates, but admits both men and women as graduate students. ... Columbia University is a private university whose main campus lies in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of the Borough of Manhattan in New York City. ... The University of Cambridge, located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Mount Holyoke College, (founded as Mount Holyoke Female Seminary 8 November 1837), is a liberal arts womens college in South Hadley, Massachusetts. ...


He achieved major successes in his career as an English language poet and essayist. In 1978, Brodsky was awarded an honorary degree of Doctor of Letters at Yale University, and on May 23, 1979, he was inducted as a member of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. In 1981, Brodsky received the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation's "genius" award. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A Doctor of Letters is a university academic degree. ... Yale redirects here. ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... For the Smashing Pumpkins song, see 1979 (song). ... The American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters was formed in 1976 from the merger of the National Institute of Arts and Letters, which was founded in 1898, and the American Academy of Arts and Letters, which was founded in 1904. ... The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation is a private, independent grantmaking institution. ...


In 1986, his collection of essays Less Than One won the National Book Critic's Award for Criticism. In 1987, he won the Nobel Prize for Literature, being the fifth Russian-born writer to do so. At an interview in Stockholm airport, to a question: "You are an American citizen who is receiving the Prize for Russian-language poetry. Who are you, an American or a Russian?", he responded: "I am Jewish".[2] Nobel Prize medal. ...   (IPA: ; UN/LOCODE: SE STO) is the capital of Sweden, and consequently the site of its Government and Parliament as well as the residence of the Swedish head of state, King Carl XVI Gustaf. ...


In 1991, Brodsky became Poet Laureate of the United States. His inauguration address was printed in Poetry Review. The Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress is appointed by the United States Librarian of Congress and earns a stipend of $35,000 a year. ...

Grave of Brodsky in San Michele
Grave of Brodsky in San Michele

Brodsky died of a heart attack in his New York City apartment on January 28, 1996 and was buried at Isola di San Michele cemetery in Venice, Italy. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (842x928, 275 KB) Grave of Joseph Brodsky in San Michele. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (842x928, 275 KB) Grave of Joseph Brodsky in San Michele. ... San Michele, nicknamed The Island of the Dead, is the cemetery island of Venice. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... San Michele, nicknamed The Island of the Dead, is the cemetery island of Venice. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) is the capital of the Italian regions and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ...


Poets who influenced Brodsky included Osip Mandelstam, W.H. Auden, Robert Frost, and Stephen Spender. Osip Mandelstam Osip Emilyevich Mandelstam (also spelled Mandelshtam) (Russian: ) (January 15 [O.S. January 3] 1891 – December 27, 1938) was a Jewish Russian poet and essayist, one of the foremost members of the Acmeist school of poets. ... Christopher Isherwood and W.H. Auden, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1939 Wystan Hugh Auden (February 21, 1907–September 29, 1973) was an English poet. ... Robert Frost (1941) Robert Frost (March 26, 1874 – January 29, 1963) was an American poet. ... Sir Stephen Harold Spender CBE, (February 28, 1909 – July 16, 1995) was an English poet, novelist and essayist who concentrated on themes of social injustice and the class struggle in his work. ...


Ideas

A recurring theme in Brodsky's writing is the relationship between the poet and society. In particular, Brodsky emphasized the power of literature to positively impact its audience and to develop the language and culture in which it is situated. He suggested that the Western literary tradition was in part responsible for the world having overcome the catastrophes of the twentieth century, such as Nazism, Communism and the World Wars. During his term as the Poet Laureate, Brodsky promoted the idea of bringing the Anglo-American poetic heritage to a wider American audience by distributing free poetry anthologies to the public through a government-sponsored program. This proposal was met with limited enthusiasm in Washington. A poet is someone who writes poetry. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... There have been two World Wars, now more commonly known as World War I or First World War (from 1914 to 1918), and World War II or Second World War (from 1939 to 1945). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Quotes

  • Were we to choose our leaders on the basis of their reading experience and not their political programs, there would be much less grief on earth. I believe — not empirically, alas, but only theoretically--that for someone who has read a lot of Dickens to shoot his like in the name of an idea is harder than for someone who has read no Dickens.
  • Every writing career starts as a personal quest for sainthood, for self-betterment. Sooner or later, and as a rule quite soon, a man discovers that his pen accomplishes a lot more than his soul.
  • There are worse crimes than burning books. One of them is not reading them.

Bibliography

Collected Poems in English
Collected Poems in English
Poetry (English)
  • A Part of Speech (1977)
  • To Urania (1984)
  • So Forth (1984)
  • Collected Poems in English (2000)
  • Nativity Poems (2001)
Essays (English)
  • Less Than One (1986))
  • Watermark (1992)
  • On Grief and Reason (1996)
Plays (English)
Interviews (English)
  • Joseph Brodsky: Conversations (2003)

Image File history File links Bookcover_Brodsky_Collected_Poems_in_English. ... Image File history File links Bookcover_Brodsky_Collected_Poems_in_English. ... // British publication Gay News successfully prosecuted in the United Kingdom for blasphemy and libel for publishing James Kirkups The Love that Dares to Speak its Name Samuel Beckett, Collected Poems in English and French Elizabeth Bishop, Geography III, which includes In the Waiting Room, The Moose, and the villanelle... // December 19 - Philip Larkin turns down the British Poet Laureateship, and Ted Hughes becomes Poet Laureate. ... // The movie Dead Man, written and directed by Jim Jarmusch, about a man named William Blake on a trek through the American West who is taken as the resurrected Romantic poet by a character named Nobody. ... // Griffin Poetry Prize is established, with one award given each year for the best work by a Canadian poet and one award given for best work in the English language internationally. ... // December 9–10 — Professor John Basinger, 67, performed, from memory, John Miltons Paradise Lost at Three Rivers Community-Technical College in Norwich, Connecticut, a feat that took 18 hours. ... See also: 1985 in literature, other events of 1986, 1987 in literature, list of years in literature. ... See also: 1991 in literature, other events of 1992, 1993 in literature, list of years in literature. ... See also: 1995 in literature, other events of 1996, 1997 in literature, list of years in literature. ... See also: 1985 in literature, other events of 1986, 1987 in literature, list of years in literature. ... See also: 1990 in literature, other events of 1991, 1992 in literature, list of years in literature. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

In Russian

  • Труды и Дни (Works and Days, 1998) Edited by Pyotr Veil and Lev Losev (Online)
  • Строфы века. Антология русской поэзии (Verses of the Century, 1995) Edited by Evgeny Evtushenko

// Anne Carson, Autobiography of Red: A Novel in Verse, (Knopf) ; named a notable book of the year by The New York Times Book Review Ted Hughes, Birthday Letters, (Farrar, Straus & Giroux); named a notable book of the year by The New York Times Book Review Mark Strand, Blizzard of One... // February 16 — Announcement that 300 poems by S.T. Coleridge have been discovered February 17 — Sothebys announces discovery of four Walt Whitman notebooks John Ashbery, Can You Hear, Bird? Odysseus Elytis, West of Sadness (Δυτικά της λύπης) (his last book) Carl Rakosi, Poems, 1923-1941 Richard Howard edits The Best American Poetry...

Footnotes

  1. ^ The original transcript reads: Судья: А вообще какая ваша специальность? Бродский: Поэт. Поэт-переводчик. Судья: А кто это признал, что вы поэт? Кто причислил вас к поэтам? Бродский: Никто. (Без вызова). А кто причислил меня к роду человеческому? Судья: А вы учились этому? Бродский: Чему? Судья: Чтобы быть поэтом? Не пытались кончить Вуз, где готовят... где учат... Бродский: Я не думал, что это дается образованием. Судья: А чем же? Бродский: Я думаю, это... (растерянно)... от Бога... The translation is taken from Remembering Joseph Brodsky by Cissie Dore Hill at Hoover Institution Archives
  2. ^ Works and Days. A Jew or a Hellene? chapter by Simon Markish
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Joseph Brodsky
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Hoover Tower at the Hoover Institution The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace is a public policy think tank and library founded by Herbert Hoover at Stanford University, his alma mater. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Joseph Brodsky - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (883 words)
Joseph Brodsky (May 24, 1940 – January 28, 1996), born Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodsky (Russian: Ио́сиф Алекса́ндрович Бро́дский) was a poet and essayist who won the Nobel Prize in Literature (1987) and was chosen Poet Laureate of the United States (1991-1992).
On June 4, 1972 Brodsky was exiled from the USSR and became a U.S. citizen in 1980.
Brodsky died of a heart attack in his New York City apartment on January 28, 1996 and was buried at Isola di San Michele cemetery in Venice, Italy.
Joseph Brodsky - definition of Joseph Brodsky in Encyclopedia (379 words)
Brodsky taught himself English and Polish, acquired deep interest in classical philosophy, religion, mythology, English and American poetry and began writing poetry in 1958.
On June 4 1972 Brodsky was exiled and became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1977.
Brodsky died of a heart stroke in New York City and was buried at Isola di San Michele cemetery in Venice, Italy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m