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Encyclopedia > Joseph Brant
Joseph Brant, painted in London by leading court painter George Romney in 1776
Joseph Brant, painted in London by leading court painter George Romney in 1776

Thayendanegea or Joseph Brant (c. 1743 – 24 November 1807) was a Mohawk leader and British military officer during the American Revolution. Brant was perhaps the most well-known North American Indian of his generation. He met many of the most significant people of the age, including George Washington and King George III. The American folk image emphasized the atrocities his forces committed against settlers on the western frontier; in Canada, he is remembered for his effort to regain land for his people. Image File history File links Joseph Brant painting by George Romney in London, 1776. ... Image File history File links Joseph Brant painting by George Romney in London, 1776. ... Portrait of Miss Willoughby, second half of 18th century. ... The designation C: (sometimes C: ) is the drive letter that refers to the main partition (or portion of an hard drive) on an MS-DOS or Windows personal computer. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the people known as Mohawk. For other uses, see Mohawk. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... First Nations is a common title used in Canada to describe the various societies of indigenous peoples of North America located in what is now Canada, who are not of Inuit or Métis descent. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... George III redirects here. ...

Contents

Early years

In March, 1743, Brant was born at Cuyahoga Ohio Country on the banks of the Cuyahoga River, near present-day Akron, Ohio.[1] This was during the hunting season when Mohawks traveled to the area. He was named Thayendanegea, which can mean two wagers (sticks) bound together for strength, or possibly "he who places two bets." He was a Mohawk of the Wolf Clan (his mother's clan). Fort Hunter church records indicate that his parents were Christians and their names were Peter and Margaret Tehonwaghkwangearahkwa[2]. Peter died before 1753. Other sources cite the father's name as Nickus Kanagaradankwa.[citation needed] The Cuyahoga River (IPA pronunciation: , or kuy-a-HAW-ga, locally kie-uh-HOE-guh) is located in Northeast Ohio in the United States. ... Nickname: The Rubber Capital of the World Location within the state of Ohio Country United States State Ohio County Summit Founded 1825 Incorporated 1835 (village) - 1865 (city) Government  - Mayor Don Plusquellic (D) Area  - City  62. ...


His mother Margaret, or Owandah, the niece of Tiaogeara[citation needed], a Caughnawaga sachem, took Joseph and his older sister Mary (known as Molly) to Canajoharie, on the Mohawk River in east-central New York, where they had lived before her family moved to the Ohio River. His mother remarried on 9 September 1753 in Fort Hunter (Church of England) a widower named Brant Canagaraduncka, who was a Mohawk sachem. Her new husband's grandfather was Sagayendwarahton, or "Old Smoke," who visited England in 1710.[citation needed] The marriage bettered Margaret's fortunes and the family lived in the best house in Canajoharie, but it conferred little status on her children, as Mohawk titles descended through the female line. However, Brant's stepfather was also a friend of William Johnson, who was to become General Sir William Johnson, Superintendent for Northern Indian Affairs. During Johnson's frequent visits to the Mohawks he always stayed at the Brant's house. Johnson married Joseph’s sister, Molly. A sagamore is the head of a Native American tribe. ... Koñwatsiãtsiaiéñni or Mary (Molly) Brant ( c. ... Canajoharie is a town located in Montgomery County, New York. ... The Mohawk River is a major waterway in north-central New York, United States. ... This article is about the state. ... A sagamore is the head of a Native American tribe. ... Sir William Johnson Sir William Johnson (1715-1774) was an Irish pioneer and army officer in colonial New York, and the British Superintendent of Indian Affairs from 1755 to 1774. ...


Starting at about age 15, Brant took part in a number of French and Indian War expeditions, including James Abercrombie’s 1758 invasion of Canada via Lake George, William Johnson's 1759 Battle of Fort Niagara, and Jeffery Amherst's 1760 siege of Montreal via the St. Lawrence River. He was one of 182 Indians who received a silver medal for good conduct. Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... James Abercrombie or Abercromby (1706 – April 23, 1781) was a British General and commander of forces in America during the French and Indian War who met with disaster in the Battle of Carillon (1758). ... Lake George, nicknamed the Queen of American Lakes, is a long narrow lake at the southeast base of the Adirondack Mountains, northern New York, USA. The lake extends about 32. ... The Battle of Fort Niagara was one of the final battles in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War. ... Jeffrey Amherst by Joshua Reynolds Jeffrey Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst (sometimes spelled Geoffrey, he himself spelled his name as Jeffery) (January 29, 1717 - August 3, 1797) served as an officer in the British army Born in Sevenoaks, England, he became a soldier aged about 14. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ...


In 1761, Johnson arranged for three Mohawks including Joseph to be educated at Eleazar Wheelock's Moor's Indian Charity School in Connecticut, the forerunner of Dartmouth College, where he studied under the guidance of the Reverend Eleazar Wheelock. Wheelock wrote Brant was "of a sprightly genius, a manly and gentle deportment, and of a modest, courteous and benevolent temper". Brant learned to speak, read, and write English. Brant met Samuel Kirkland at the school. In 1763, Johnson prepared to place Brant at King's College in New York City, but the outbreak of Pontiac's Rebellion upset these plans and Brant returned home. After Pontiac's rebellion Johnson thought it was not safe for Brant to return to the school. The Reverend Eleazar Wheelock (April 22, 1711 – April 24, 1779) was an American Congregational minister, orator, educator, and founder of Dartmouth College. ... Rev. ... Combatants British Empire American Indians Commanders Jeffrey Amherst, Henry Bouquet Pontiac, Guyasuta Strength ~3,000 soldiers[1] ~3,500 warriors[2] Casualties 450 soldiers killed, 2,000 civilians killed or captured, 4,000 civilians displaced ~200 warriors killed, possible additional war-related deaths from disease Pontiacs Rebellion was a...


In March 1764, Brant participated in one of the Iroquois war parties that attacked Delaware Indian villages in the Susquehanna and Chemung valleys. They destroyed three good-sized towns and burned 130 houses and killed their cattle. No enemy warriors were even seen.[3] For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ...


On July 22, 1765, he married Peggie (also known as Margaret) in Canajoharie. Peggie was a white captive sent back from western Indians and said to be the daughter of a Virginia gentleman.[4] They moved into Brant's parent's house and when his father died in the mid-1760s the house became Joseph's. He owned a large and fertile farm of 80 acres near the village of Canajoharie on the south shore of the Mohawk. He raised corn, kept cattle, sheep, horses, and hogs. He also kept a small store. Brant dressed in "the English mode" wearing "a suit of blue broad cloth". With Johnson's encouragement the Mohawk's made Brant a war chief and their primary spokesman. In March, 1771 his wife died from consumption. Canajoharie may refer to: Canajoharie (town), New York Canajoharie (village), New York This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Canajoharie may refer to: Canajoharie (town), New York Canajoharie (village), New York This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


In the spring of 1772, he moved to Fort Hunter to live with the Reverend John Stuart. He became Stuart's interpreter, teacher of Mohawk, and collaborated with him in translating the Anglican catechism and the Gospel of Mark into the Mohawk language. Brant became a lifelong Anglican. The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... Mohawk is a Native American language spoken by the Mohawk nation in the United States and Canada. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ...


In 1773, Brant moved back to Canajoharie and married Peggie's half-sister Susanna. Canajoharie may refer to: Canajoharie (town), New York Canajoharie (village), New York This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


American Revolution

Brant spoke at least three and possibly all of the Six Nations languages. He was a translator for the department of Indian affairs since at least 1766 and in 1775, was appointed as departmental secretary with the rank of Captain for the new British Superintendent for Northern Indian affairs, Guy Johnson. In May, 1775 he fled the Mohawk valley with Guy Johnson and most of the Indian warriors from Canajoharie to Canada, arriving in Montreal on July 17. His wife and children went to Onoquaga. On November 11, 1775, Guy Johnson took Brant along with him when he traveled to London. Brant hoped to get the Crown to address past Mohawk land grievances, and the government promised the Iroquois people land in Canada if he and the Iroquois nations would fight on the British side. In London, Brant became a celebrity, and was interviewed for publication by James Boswell. While in public he carefully dressed in the Indian style. He also became a Mason, and received his apron personally from king George III. The term Six Nations can refer to: The six nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, a union of Native American/First Nations tribes. ... This painting by Benjamin West is traditionally identified as a portrait of Colonel Guy Johnson, though a recent biography of Sir William Johnson claims that it actually depicts Sir William, Guys uncle. ... This painting by Benjamin West is traditionally identified as a portrait of Colonel Guy Johnson, though a recent biography of Sir William Johnson claims that it actually depicts Sir William, Guys uncle. ... Canajoharie may refer to: Canajoharie (town), New York Canajoharie (village), New York This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Onaquaga (sometimes spelled Onoquaga) was a large Iroquois village, located on both sides of the Susquehanna River near present-day Windsor, New York, until it was destroyed along with nearby Unadilla, by the Continental Army in October, 1778. ... This painting by Benjamin West is traditionally identified as a portrait of Colonel Guy Johnson, though a recent biography of Sir William Johnson claims that it actually depicts Sir William, Guys uncle. ... James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck and 1st Baronet (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... George III (George William Frederick) (4 June 1738–29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain, and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ...


Brant returned to Staten Island, New York in July 1776 and immediately became involved with Howe's forces as they prepared to retake New York. Although the details of his service that summer and fall were not officially recorded, he was said to have distinguished himself for bravery, and it has been deduced that he was with Clinton, Cornwallis, and Percy in the flanking movement at Jamaica Pass in the Battle of Long Island in August 1776.[5] It was at this time that he embarked on a lifelong relationship with Lord Percy, later Duke of Northumberland, the only lasting friendship he shared with a white man. Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Charles Lee Sir William Howe, Lord Cornwallis Strength 19,000 regulars and militia 25,000 soldiers, 10,000 seamen The New York and New Jersey campaign was a series of engagements in the American Revolutionary War between British forces under General Sir... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Israel Putnam William Howe, Charles Cornwallis, Henry Clinton Strength 11,000-13,000 unknown, nearly 20,000 (about 10,000 of which were militia ) 22,000 (including 9,000 Hessians) Casualties 1,719 total (312 dead, 1,407 wounded, captured...


In November, Brant left New York City travelling northwest through American held territory. Disguised, traveling at night and sleeping during the day, he reached Onoquaga where he met up with his family. At the end of December he was at Fort Niagara. He traveled from village to village in the confederacy urging the Iroquois to abandon neutrality and to enter the war on the side of the British. The Iroquois balked at Brant's plans because the full council of the Six Nations had previously decided on a policy of neutrality and had signed a treaty of neutrality at Albany in 1775, and also because they considered Brant a minor war chief from a relatively weak people, the Mohawks. Frustrated, Brant freelanced by heading in the spring to Onoquaga to conduct war his way. Few Onoquaga villagers joined him, but in May he was successful in recruiting Loyalists who wished to strike back. This group became known as Brant's Volunteers. In June, he led them to Unadilla to obtain supplies. At Unadilla, he was confronted by 380 men of the Tryon County militia led by Nicholas Herkimer. Herkimer requested that the Iroquois remain neutral while Brant said the Indians owed their loyalty to the King. Historical recreation actors at Old Fort Niagara Fort Niagara is a three hundred-year-old fortification originally built to protect the interests of New France in northern North America. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... The term Six Nations can refer to: The six nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, a union of Native American/First Nations tribes. ... Brants Volunteers was an irregular corp raised in 1777 during the American Revolution by Joseph Brant which fought on the British side in the Province of New York. ... Unadilla is a village located in the Town of Unadilla in southern Otsego County, New York. ... Unadilla is a village located in the Town of Unadilla in southern Otsego County, New York. ... At the start of the American Revolution, the Tryon County militia comprised four regiments, formed according to their geographical locations: 1st regiment: Canajoharie District 2nd regiment: Palatine District 3rd regiment: Mohawk District 4th regiment: German Flatts & Kingsland district In 1777, a 5th regiment from Cherry Valley was created. ... Herkimer at the Battle of Oriskany, August 6, 1777 Nicholas Herkimer (c. ...


Northern Campaign

In July, 1777 the Six Nations council decided to abandon neutrality and to enter the war on the British side. Brant was not present at this council. Sayenqueraghta and Cornplanter were named to be the war chiefs of the confederacy. Brant had previous been made a war chief of the Mohawk's the other major Mohawk war chief was John Deseronto. The term Six Nations can refer to: The six nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, a union of Native American/First Nations tribes. ... Sayenqueraghta (early 18th century – 1786) was the war chief of the eastern Seneca tribe in the mid 18th century. ... Chief Cornplanter portrait by F. Bertoli, 1796 Gaiäntwakê (c. ...


In July, Brant led his Volunteers north to link up with St. Leger at Fort Oswego. In August 1777, Brant played a major role at the Battle of Oriskany in support of a major offensive led by General John Burgoyne. After St. Leger's retreat, Brant travelled to Burgoyne's main army and told him the news of St. Leger's retreat from Fort Stanwix.[6] Burgoyne's restrictions on native warfare caused Brant to depart for Fort Niagara where he spent the winter planning the next years campaign. His wife Susanna likely died at Fort Niagara that winter. Fort Oswego was an important frontier post for British traders in the 18th century. ... Combatants Tryon County militia 40 Oneida Indians Hanau Jager detachment Kings Royal Regiment of New York Butlers Rangers Seneca Indians Natives of the Seven Nations of Canada: Mohawks, Abenakis, Algonquins, Nipissings and Hurons Commanders Nicholas Herkimer † Sir John Johnson, John Butler, Chief Joseph Brant Strength 800 450+ Casualties... Commanders Horatio Gates John Burgoyne Template:Campaignbox American Revolutionary War: Campaign of 1777 The campaign of 1777 was a series of battles in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War for control of the Hudson River. ... For other persons named Burgoyne, see Burgoyne (disambiguation). ... Historical recreation actors at Old Fort Niagara Fort Niagara is a three hundred-year-old fortification originally built to protect the interests of New France in northern North America. ...


In April 1778, Brant returned to Onoquaga, becoming the most active partisan commander engaging in raids mostly with his Volunteers on the Americans, stealing their cattle, burning their houses, and killing many. On May 30, he led an attack on Cobleskill (Battle of Cobleskill) and in September, along with Captain William Caldwell, he led a mixed force of Indians and Loyalists in a raid on German Flatts. Onaquaga (sometimes spelled Onoquaga) was a large Iroquois village, located on both sides of the Susquehanna River near present-day Windsor, New York, until it was destroyed along with nearby Unadilla, by the Continental Army in October, 1778. ... The Battle of Cobleskill (Cobleskill massacre) occurred on May 30-June 1, 1778, in Cobleskill, New York. ... William Caldwell (c. ... German Flatts is a town in Herkimer County, New York, United States. ...


In October, 1778, Continental soldiers and local militia attacked Brant's base of Onoquaga while Brant's Volunteers were away on a raid. The American commander described Onoquaga as "the finest Indian town I ever saw; on both sides [of] the river there was about 40 good houses, square logs, shingles & stone chimneys, good floors, glass windows". The soldiers burned the houses, killed the cattle, chopped down the apple trees, spoiled the growing corn crop, and killed some native children they found in the corn fields. On November 11, 1778 Brant was a leader in the attack in the Cherry Valley massacre. Incident in Cherry Valley - fate of Jane Wells from the original picture by Alonzo Chappel by Thomas Phillibrown, engraver. ...


In February, 1779, he traveled to Montreal to meet with Frederick Haldimand who had replaced Carleton as Commander and Governor in Canada. Haldimand gave Brant a commission of Captain of the Northern Confederated Indians. He also promised provisions, but no pay, for his Volunteers. Haldimand also pledged that after the war had ended the Mohawks would be restored, at the expense of the government, to the state they were before the conflict started. Sir Frederick Haldimand (August 11, 1718 – June 5, 1791) was a British army officer and governor. ...


In May, Brant returned to Fort Niagara where, with his new salary and plunder from his raids, he acquired a farm on the Niagara River, six miles from the fort. To work the farm and to serve the household, he used slaves he had captured on his raids. Brant bought a black slave, a seven year old African American girl named Sophia Burthen Pooley; she travelled with him and his family for many years before he sold her for $100 to an Englishman.[7] He built a small chapel for the Indians who started living nearby. He started living with Catherine Adonwentishon Croghan, whom he married in the winter of 1780. She was the daughter of the prominent American colonist and Indian agent, George Croghan and a Mohawk mother, Catharine Tekarihoga. Through her mother, Catharine Adonwentishon was head of the Turtle clan, the first in rank in the Mohawk Nation. Her birthright was to name the Tekarihoga, the principal sachem of the Mohawk nation. Historical recreation actors at Old Fort Niagara Fort Niagara is a three hundred-year-old fortification originally built to protect the interests of New France in northern North America. ... Satellite image of the Niagara River. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... There are articles for more than one person named George Croghan. ...


Brant's honors and gifts caused jealousy from rival chiefs, in particular Sayenqueraghta. A British general said that Brant "would be much happier and would have more weight with the Indians, which he in some measure forfeits by their knowing that he receives pay". In late 1779, Haldimand decided, when a commission for Brant as a colonel arrived from Lord Germain, to pocket it and not tell Brant. Sayenqueraghta (early 18th century – 1786) was the war chief of the eastern Seneca tribe in the mid 18th century. ... George Sackville, 1st Viscount Sackville (January 26, 1716 - August 26, 1785) was a British soldier and politician who was Secretary of State for America in Lord Norths cabinet during the American Revolution. ...


In early July, 1779, the British learned of plans for a major American expedition into Seneca country. In an attempt to disrupt the Americans plans John Butler sent Brant and his Volunteers on a quest for provisions and to gather intelligence on the Delaware in the vicinity of Minisink. After stopping at Onaquaga Brant attacked and defeated the Americans at the Battle of Minisink on July 22, 1779. Brant's raid failed to disrupt the American expedition. People named John Butler include: John Butler (pioneer) (1728-1796), a United States pioneer involved in the American Revolutionary War. ... Onaquaga (sometimes spelled Onoquaga) was a large Iroquois village, located on both sides of the Susquehanna River near present-day Windsor, New York, until it was destroyed along with nearby Unadilla, by the Continental Army in October, 1778. ... The Battle of Minisink, which commenced on July 22, 1779 at Minisink Ford in Orange County, New York during the American Revolution was one of the most bloody and decisive battles of the War where Loyalists and Iroquois under the leadership of Joseph Brant, a Mohawk who was a Colonel...


In the Sullivan Campaign the Americans sent a large force deep into Iroquois territory to defeat the Iroquois and to destroy their villages. The Iroquois were defeated on August 29, 1779 at the Battle of Newtown. The Americans swept away all Indian resistance in New York, burned their villages, and forced the Iroquois to fall back to Fort Niagara. Brant was wintering at Fort Niagara in 1779-80. For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of Newtown (29 August 1779) was the only major battle of the Sullivan Expedition, an armed offensive led by Gen. ... Historical recreation actors at Old Fort Niagara Fort Niagara is a three hundred-year-old fortification originally built to protect the interests of New France in northern North America. ...


Brant resumed small-scale attacks on the Mohawk Valley. In February, 1780, he and his party set out, and in April attacked Harpersfield. In mid-July, 1780 Brant led an attack on the Oneida village of Kanonwalohale. Some of the Oneida surrendered, but most took refuge at Fort Stanwix. Brant's raiders destroyed the Oneida houses, horses, and crops. They then went to the lower Mohawk where they attacked Canajoharie and Fort Plank. On their return they divided into small parties to attack Schoharie, Cherry Valley, and German Flatts. They then took part in a third raid major raid on the Mohawk Valley with Butler's Rangers and King's Royal Regiment of New York. Brant was wounded in the heel at the Battle of Klock's Field. He burned his former hometown of Canajoharie because it had become inhabited by American settlers. The Mohawk Valley region of the U.S. state of New York includes the industrialized cities of Utica and Rome, along with other smaller commercial centers. ... Harpersfield is a town located in Delaware County, New York. ... Oneida is the name of several places in the United States of America, derived from the Oneida tribe of the Iroquois: Oneida, Illinois Oneida, Kansas Oneida, Kentucky in Clay County, Kentucky, home of Oneida Baptist Institute Oneida, New York Oneida, Pennsylvania Oneida, Tennessee Oneida (town), Wisconsin in Outgamie County Oneida... Fort Stanwix was a colonial fort erected in 1758 by British General John Stanwix, at the location of present-day Rome, New York. ... Canajoharie may refer to: Canajoharie (town), New York Canajoharie (village), New York This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Cherry Valley is a town located in Otsego County, New York. ... German Flatts is a town in Herkimer County, New York, United States. ... Butlers Rangers (1777–1784) was a Loyalist (or Tory) irregular militia regiment in the British Army during the American Revolutionary War. ... The Kings Royal Regiment of New York was the first Loyalist regiment raised June 19, 1776 in Canada during the American Revolution. ... Combatants Albany County Militia Tryon County militia Kings Royal Regiment of New York Butlers Rangers Brants Volunteers 34th Regiment of Foot Commanders Brigadier General Robert Van Rensselaer John Johnson Strength 3037 800 to 1500 On October 19, 1780 after destroying the area around Stone Arabia, John Johnson... Canajoharie may refer to: Canajoharie (town), New York Canajoharie (village), New York This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In April, 1781 Brant was sent west to Fort Detroit to help defend against an expedition into the Ohio Country to be led by the Virginian George Rogers Clark. This change of theater may have been because there were few settlements left to destroy in the Mohawk Valley or because Brant had just gotten into a drunken brawl. In August 1781, Brant completely defeated a detachment of Clark's army, ending the threat to Detroit. He was wounded in the leg and spent the winter 1781-1782 at Fort Detroit. From 1781 to 1782, Brant tried to keep the disaffected western tribes loyal to the Crown before and after the British surrender at Yorktown. Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or Fort Detroit was a fort established by the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac in 1701. ... The Ohio Country, showing the present-day U.S. state boundaries The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake... Clark as painted by Matthew Harris Jouett in 1825 George Rogers Clark (November 19, 1752 – February 13, 1818) was a soldier from Virginia and the preeminent American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. ... Colonel Archibald Andrew Lochry (Lockrees/Lochry/Lockery/Loughry/Loughrey) (1733-1781) was a colonial American military officer whose command ended in disaster when he and nearly every member of his force were killed or captured by Mohawk forces led by George Girty (brother of Simon Girty) and under the command... Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or Fort Detroit was a fort established by the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac in 1701. ...


In June, 1782 he and his Indians went to Fort Oswego where they helped rebuild the fort. In July, 1782 he and 460 Iroquois left for a raid on Fort Herkimer and Fort Dayton, but did not accomplish much. Sometime during this raid a letter from Frederick Haldimand arrived recalling the party and asking for a cessation of hostilities. Brant denounced the defensive policy as a betrayal of the Iroquois, and urged the Indians to continue the war, but they were unable without British supplies. Fort Oswego was an important frontier post for British traders in the 18th century. ... Sir Frederick Haldimand (August 11, 1718 – June 5, 1791) was a British army officer and governor. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ...


In the Treaty of Paris (1783) that ended the war, Britain and the United States ignored the sovereignty of the Indians, and sovereign Six Nation lands were agreed to be part of the United States. Promises of protection of their domain had been an important factor in inducing the Iroquois to fight on the side of the British. The Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1784) served as a peace treaty between the Americans and the Iroquois. Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ...


"Monster Brant"

Brant became infamous for the Wyoming Valley massacre, which it was widely believed he led, although he was not present at the battle. During the war, he was known as the Monster Brant and stories of his massacres and atrocities added to a hatred of Indians that soured relations for 50 years. In later years historians have argued that he actually had been a force for restraint in the violence that characterized many of the actions in which he was involved; they have discovered times when he displayed his compassion and humanity, especially towards women, children, and non-combatants. Colonel Ichabod Alden said that he "should much rather fall into the hands of Brant than either of them [Loyalists and Tories]".[8]As an example, Lt. Col. William Stacy of the Continental Army was the highest ranking officer captured during the Cherry Valley massacre. Several accounts indicate that during the fighting, or shortly thereafter, Col. Stacy was stripped naked, tied to a stake, and was about to be tortured and killed, but was spared by Brant. Stacy, like Brant, was a Freemason. It is reported that Stacy made an appeal as one Freemason to another, and Brant intervened.[9][10][11][12] Combatants Britain United States Commanders Colonel John Butler Colonel Zebulon Butler Strength 900 regulars and Native American warriors 360 milita Casualties three killed, eight wounded over 300 killed and captured (164+6 known dead) The Wyoming massacre was an encounter during the American Revolutionary War between American Patriots and Loyalists... Ichabod Alden (August 11, 1739-November 11, 1778) was an American Revolutionary War officer and commanding officer during the Cherry Valley Massacre. ... William Stacy (1734–1802) was an officer of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and a pioneer to the Ohio Country. ... The Continental Army was an army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ...


In 1797, when Brant traveled through New York, the governor provided him with a bodyguard because Brant's life had been threatened.


After War Years

Joseph Brant, painted in London by Gilbert Stuart in 1786
Joseph Brant, painted in London by Gilbert Stuart in 1786

In 1783, he was sent to Montreal for discussion with Haldimand in order to get him away from Fort Niagara. At Brant's urging, British General Sir Frederick Haldimand made a grant of land for a Mohawk reserve on the Grand River in Ontario in October, 1784. (Haldimand Proclamation, see also Six Nations of the Grand River). In the fall of 1784, at a meeting at Buffalo Creek, the clan matrons decided that the Six Nations should divide with half going to the Haldimand grant and the other half staying in New York. Brant built his own house at Brant's Town which was described as "a handsome two story house, built after the manner of the white people. Compared with the other houses, it may be called a palace." He had about twenty white and black servants and slaves. Joseph thought the government made a ridiculous fuss over the keeping of slaves. He had a good farm and did extensive farming, and kept cattle, sheep, and hogs. Image File history File links Joseph Brant painted by Gilbert Stuart in 1786 Oil on canvas 23. ... Image File history File links Joseph Brant painted by Gilbert Stuart in 1786 Oil on canvas 23. ... Self portrait, 1778 Gilbert Charles Stuart (n̩ Stewart) (December 3, 1755 - July 9, 1828) was an American painter. ... Historical recreation actors at Old Fort Niagara Fort Niagara is a three hundred-year-old fortification originally built to protect the interests of New France in northern North America. ... Sir Frederick Haldimand (August 11, 1718 РJune 5, 1791) was a British army officer and governor. ... Grand River Ontario This article is about the Grand River in Southern Ontario, Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... On October 25, 1784, the Governor General of Quebec, Frederick Haldimand granted land to the Iroquois, who had served on the British side during the American Revolution, as follows: Frederick Haldimand, Captain General and Governor General in Chief of the Province of Quebec and Territories depending thereon, &c &c &c... Six Nations of the Grand River is the name applied to two contiguous Indian reserves southeast of Brantford, Ontario, Canada РSix Nations reserve no. ... The term Six Nations can refer to: The six nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, a union of Native American/First Nations tribes. ...


In the summer of 1783, Brant initiated the formation of the Western Confederacy consisting of the Iroquois and twenty-nine other Indian nations to defend the Fort Stanwix Treaty line of 1768 by denying any nation the ability to cede any land without the common consent. In November, 1785 he traveled to London to ask for assistance in defending the Indian confederacy from attack by the Americans. Brant was granted a generous pension and an agreement to fully compensate the Mohawk for their loses (this in contrast to the Loyalists, who only received a fraction of their losses) but no promises of support for the Western Confederacy. He also took a trip to Paris, returning to Canada in June, 1786. The Western Confederacy, also known as Western Indian Confederacy, was a loose confederacy of North American Indians in the Great Lakes region following the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783). ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ...


In 1790, after the Western Confederacy had been attacked in the Northwest Indian War, they asked Brant and the Six Nations to enter the war on their side. Brant refused, he instead asked Lord Dorchester for British assistance for the Western Confederacy. Dorchester also refused, but later, in 1794, did provide the Indians with arms and provisions. In 1792, Brant was invited to Philadelphia where he met the President and his cabinet. The Americans offered him a large pension, and a reservation in the United States for the Mohawks to lure them to the United States. Brant refused, but Pickering said the Brant did take some cash payments. George Washington told Knox in 1794, "to buy Captain Brant off at almost any price".[13] Brant attempted a compromise peace settlement between the Western Confederacy and the Americans, but he failed. The war continued, and the Indians were defeated in 1794 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The unity of the Western Confederacy was broken with the peace Treaty of Greenville in 1795. Combatants United States Western Lakes Confederacy Commanders Josiah Harmar Arthur St. ... The term Six Nations can refer to: The six nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, a union of Native American/First Nations tribes. ... Sir Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester (1724-1808) was a British soldier who served as Governor of the Province of Quebec. ... For the American Civil War action on April 8, 1862, see Battle of Shiloh. ... This depiction of the treaty negotiations may have been painted by one of Anthony Waynes officers. ...


In early 1797, he traveled to Philadelphia where he met the British Minister, Robert Liston and United States government officials. He assured the Americans that he "would never again take up the tomahawk against the United States". At this time the British were at war with France and Spain, and while Brant was meeting with the French minister, Pierre August Adet, Brant stated: "he would offer his services to the French Minister Adet, and march his Mohawks to assist in effecting a revolution & overturning the British government in the province".[14] When he returned home, there were fears of a French attack. Russell wrote: "the present alarming aspect of affairs - when we are threatened with an invasion by the French and Spaniards from the Mississippi, and the information we have received of emissaries being dispersed among the Indian tribes to incite them to take up the hatchet against the King's subjects". He also wrote Brant "only seeks a feasible excuse for joining the French, should they invade this province." London ordered Russell to not allow the Indians to alienate their land, but with the prospects of war to appease Brant, Russell confirmed Brant's land sales. Brant then declared: "they would now all fight for the King to the last drop of their blood".


In late 1800 and early 1801 Brant wrote to Governor George Clinton to secure a large tract of land near Sandusky which could serve as a refuge should the Grand River Indians rebel, but suffer defeat. In September, 1801 Brant is reported as saying: "He says he will go away, yet the Grand River Lands will [still] be in his hands, that no man shall meddle with it amongst us. He says the British Government shall not get it, but the Americans shall and will have it, the Grand River Lands, because the war is very close to break out."[15] In January, 1802, the Executive Council of Upper Canada learned of this plot which was lead by Aaron Burr and George Clinton to overthrow British rule in cooperation with some inhabitants and to create a republican state to join the United States. September, 1802, the planned date of invasion, passed uneventfully and the plot evaporated. George Clinton (July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and politician. ... This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836), the U.S. politician. ...


Brant bought about 3,500 acres from the Mississauga Indians at the head of Burlington Bay. Simcoe would not allow such a sale between Indians, so he bought this track of land from the Mississauga and then gave the land to Brant. Around 1802, Brant moved there and built a mansion that was intended to be a half-scale version of Johnson Hall. He had a prosperous farm in the colonial style with 100 acres of crops. // Johnson Hall is the home for 348 residents. ...

1830s lithograph based on the last portrait of Brant, an 1806 oil on canvas painting by Ezra Ames.
1830s lithograph based on the last portrait of Brant, an 1806 oil on canvas painting by Ezra Ames.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 41 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 41 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface, as well as a method of manufacturing semiconductor and MEMS devices. ... Oil on Canvas is a live album by Japan, released in 1983 by Virgin Records, after the band had split in 1982. ... Ezra Ames (May 5, 1768-February 23, 1836) was a popular portrait painter in Albany, New York during the late 18th and early 19th cenuries. ...

Death

Joseph Brant died in his house at the head of Lake Ontario (site of what would become the city of Burlington, Ontario) on November 24, 1807. His last words, spoken to his adopted nephew John Norton, reflect his life-long commitment to his people: "Have pity on the poor Indians. If you have any influence with the great, endeavor to use it for their good." In 1850, his remains were carried 34 miles (55 km) in relays on the shoulders of young men of Grand River to a tomb at Her Majesty's Chapel of the Mohawks in Brantford. Motto: Stand By Coordinates: , Country Province Region Halton Regional Municipality Established 1874 Government  - Mayor Cam Jackson  - Governing Body Burlington City Council  - MPs Mike Wallace (CPC), Garth Turner (Liberal)  - MPPs Joyce Savoline (PC), Ted Chudleigh (PC) Area  - Total 187 km² (72 sq mi) Population (2006)  - Total 164,415 (Ranked 27th)  - Density... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Mohawk chief Major John Norton (Teyoninhokovrawen) played a prominent role in the War of 1812, leading Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) warriors from Grand River into battle against American invaders at Queenston Heights, Stoney Creek, and Chippawa. ... Mohawk Chapel, Brantford Her Majestys Chapel of the Mohawks is the oldest church in Ontario and the only royal chapel in North America. ...


Legacy

Brant acted as a tireless negotiator for the Six Nations to control their land without crown oversight or control. He used British fears of his dealings with the Americans and the French to extract concessions. His conflicts with British administrators in Canada regarding tribal land claims were exacerbated by his relations with the American leaders.


Brant was a war chief, and not a hereditary Mohawk sachem. His decisions could and were sometimes overruled by the sachems and clan matrons. However, his natural ability, his early education, and the connections he was able to form made him one of the great leaders of his people and of his time. The situation of the Six Nations on the Grand River was better than that of the Iroquois who remained in New York. His lifelong mission was to help the Indian to survive the transition from one culture to another, transcending the political, social and economic challenges of one the most volatile, dynamic periods of American history. He put his loyalty to the Six Nations before loyalty to the British. His life cannot be summed up in terms of success or failure, although he had known both. More than anything, Brant's life was marked by frustration and struggle.


His attempt to create pan-tribal unity proved unsuccessful, though his efforts would be taken up a generation later by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh. This article is about the Native American tribe. ... For other uses, see Tecumseh (disambiguation). ...

Statue of Joseph Brant at the Valiants Memorial in Ottawa
Statue of Joseph Brant at the Valiants Memorial in Ottawa

During his lifetime, Brant was the subject of many portrait artists. Two in particular signify his place in American, Canadian, and British history. George Romney's portrait, painted during the first trip to England in 1775-1776, hangs in the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa. The Charles Willson Peale portrait was painted during his visit to Philadelphia in 1797, and hangs in Independence Hall. Brant always changed from his regular clothes to dress in Indian fashion for the portraits. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixels, file size: 1. ... Five busts on the west side of the memorial represent each of the five military periods. ... Portrait of Miss Willoughby, second half of 18th century. ... Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827), self-portrait from 1822 Charles Willson Peale (April 15, 1741 – February 22, 1827) was an American painter, soldier and naturalist. ...


Brant's house in Burlington was demolished in 1932. The present Joseph Brant Museum was constructed on land Brant once owned.

  • The City of Brantford the County of Brant, Ontario, located on part of his land grant, is named for him as is, the Erie County Town of Brant.
  • Joseph Brant Memorial Hospital in Burlington is named for Brant, and stands on land he had owned.
  • A statue of Brant, located in Victoria Square, Brantford, was dedicated in 1886.
  • The township of Tyendinaga and the Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory Indian reserve are named for Brant, taking their name from an alternate spelling of his traditional Mohawk name.
  • The neighborhood of Tyandaga in Burlington is similarly named, using a simplified spelling of his Mohawk name.
  • Thayendanegea is one of the 14 leading Canadian military figures commemorated at the Valiants Memorial in Ottawa.

Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Province Established May 31, 1877 Government  - City Mayor Mike Hancock  - Governing Body Brantford City Council  - MP Lloyd St. ... The city of Brant (or County of Brant) is a single-tier municipality and a census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Erie County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Brant is a town located in Erie County, New York. ... Tyendinaga is a township in the Canadian province of Ontario, located in Hastings County. ... Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory is an 73 km² (18000-acre) Mohawk Indian reserve on the Bay of Quinte in southeastern Ontario, Canada, east of Belleville and immediately to the west of Shannonville. ... In Canada, an Indian reserve is specified by the Indian Act as a tract of land, the legal title to which is vested in Her Majesty, that has been set apart by Her Majesty for the use and benefit of a band. ... Five busts on the west side of the memorial represent each of the five military periods. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ...

Children

With Christine he had two children:

  • Isaac[1] He died from a wound his father gave him in self-defence. It is said that while he was dying he called for his father and he kept a loaded pistol under his pillow to kill him.[16]
  • Christine.

With Catherine Crogan he had seven children:

  • Joseph
  • Jacob (1786-1847)
  • John: He was named, Terkarihoga, after the death of Henry, by his mother Catherine. He did not marry.
  • Margaret
  • Catherine[2]
  • Mary
  • Elizabeth: She married William Johnson Kerr, grandson of Sir William Johnson and Molly Brant, and their child subsequently became Chief.

By this marriage to Catherine, Brant was also related to John Smoke Johnson, a grandson of Sir William Johnson and relative of Chief Hendrick. For other persons named John Brant, see John Brant (disambiguation). ... Sir William Johnson (1715-1774) was an English pioneer and soldier in the colonial New York, and the British Superintendent of Indian Affairs from 1755-1774. ... Molly Brant 1986 Postage Stamp Koñwatsiãtsiaiéñni or Mary (Molly) Brant ( c. ... Johnson (right) with John Tutela, and Young Warner, two other Six Nations War of 1812 veterans. ... Sir William Johnson (1715-1774) was an English pioneer and soldier in the colonial New York, and the British Superintendent of Indian Affairs from 1755-1774. ... This engraving of Hendrick was made around the time he attended the Albany Congress in 1754. ...


Notable Descendants

  • Lieutenant Cameron D. Brant, was the first of thirty members of the Six Nations, as well as the first Native North American, to die in WWI. He was killed in the 2nd Battle of Ypres on 23 April 1915 after leading his men "over the top."[17]
  • Another Joseph Brant descendant (4th great-grandson), Terence M. Walton, was the youngest veteran of the Korean War era, having enlisted in the U.S. Army at age 14.

Alternate spellings

Brant signed his name in various ways, including:

  • Tyandaga
  • Thayendanegea
  • Thaienteneka
  • Thayendanega
  • Joseph Thayendanegea
  • Joseph Brant
  • Jos. Brant
  • Brant

Footnotes

  1. ^ Kelsay pg. 43
  2. ^ Kelsay, pg. 40
  3. ^ Kelsay pg. 102
  4. ^ Kelsay pg. 110
  5. ^ Kelsay pp. 182-184
  6. ^ Watt, pg. 269
  7. ^ Drew, p. 192-195
  8. ^ Kelsay pg. 227
  9. ^ Barker, Recollections of the First Settlement of Ohio, 35.
  10. ^ Edes and Darlington, Journal and Letters of Col. John May, 70–1.
  11. ^ Drake, Memorials of the Society of Cincinnati, 465–67.
  12. ^ Beardsley, Reminiscences, 463.
  13. ^ Kelsey pg. 509
  14. ^ Taylor, pg. 336
  15. ^ Taylor, pg. 356
  16. ^ Kelsey pg. 564
  17. ^ Memorial record at Commonwealth War Graves Commission site.

References

  • Abler, Thomas S. "Joseph Brant" in John A. Garraty and Mark C. Carnes, eds., American National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-520635-5.
  • Barker, Joseph: Recollections of the First Settlement of Ohio, Marietta College, Marietta, Ohio (1958) p. 35; original manuscript written late in Joseph Barker's life, prior to his death in 1843.
  • Beardsley, Levi: Reminiscences; Personal and Other Incidents; Early Settlement of Otsego County, Charles Vinten, New York (1852) p. 463.
  • Cassar, George. Beyond Courage: the Canadians at the Second Battle of Ypres. Oberon Press, 1985. ISBN 0-88750-601-1.
  • Chalmers, Harvey and Ethel Brant Monture, Joseph Brant: Mohawk. Michigan State University Press, 1955.
  • Dictionary of Hamilton Biography (Vol I, 1791-1875) Thomas Melville Bailey, W.L. Griffin Ltd. pg=143 1981
  • Drake, Francis S.: Memorials of the Society of Cincinnati of Massachusetts, Boston (1873) pp. 465–67.
  • Drew Benjamin, The Refugee, of the Narratives of Fugitive Slaves in Canada, 1856 Available on Google Book Search
  • Edes, Richard S. and Darlington, William M.: Journal and Letters of Col. John May, Robert Clarke and Co, Cincinnati, Ohio (1873), pp. 70–1.
  • Graymont, Barbara. The Iroquois in the American Revolution. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1972. ISBN 0-8156-0083-6.
  • Graymont, Barbara. "Joseph Brant" Dictionary of Canadian Biography. 2000. online version
  • Jackson, Ray D. and Susan M. Jackson. America's Youngest Warriors, Volume III. Tempe, AZ, Veterans of Underage Military Service, 2006. pp.579-582. ISBN 0-9656093-3-2.
  • Johnson, Michael. Tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy. Oxford, Osprey Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-84176-490-6.
  • Kelsay, Isabel Thompson. Joseph Brant, 1743 - 1807, Man of Two Worlds. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1984. ISBN 0-8156-0182-4 (hardback); ISBN 0-8156-0208-1 (1986 paperback).
  • Loyalist Families of the Grand River Branch, United Empire Loyalists' Association of Canada. Toronto, Pro Familia Publishing, 1991. ISBN 0-9692514-5-9.
  • Merrell, James H. Into the American Woods: Negotiators on the Pennsylvania Frontier. New York, W.W. Norton, 1999. ISBN 0-393-31976-8.
  • Nash, Gary B. The Unknown American Revolution: The Unruly Birth of Democracy and the Struggle to Create America. New York, Viking, 2005. ISBN 0-670-03420-7.
  • O'Donnell, James. "Joseph Brant" in R. David Edmunds, ed., American Indian Leaders: Studies in Diversity."" University of Nebraska Press, 1980, pp.21-40. ISBN 0-8032-6705-3.
  • Prevost, Toni Jollay. Indians From New York in Ontario and Quebec, Canada: A Genealogy Reference, Volume Two. Bowie, MD, Heritage Books, 1995. ISBN 0-7884-0257-9.
  • Stone, William L. Life of Joseph Brant - Thayendanegea: Including the Border Wars of the American Revolution, and Sketches of the Indian Campaigns of Generals Harmar, St. Clair, and Wayne, and Other Matters Connected with the Indian Relations of the United States and Great Britain, From the Peace of 1783 to the Indian Peace of 1795. New York, Alexander V. Blake, 1838. Volumes I-II.
  • Taylor, Alan. The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 2006. ISBN 0-679-45471-3.
  • Volwiler, Albert T. George Croghan and the Westward Movement, 1741-1782. Lewisburg, PA, Wennawoods Publishing, 2000. Originally published 1926. ISBN 1-889037-22-2.
  • Watt, Gavin, Rebellion in the Mohawk Valley, 2002, ISBN 1550023764
  • Williams, Glenn F. Year of the Hangman: George Washington's Campaign Against the Iroquois. Yardley: Westholme Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-59416-013-9.

AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea), Mohawk (1814 words)
Brant was born in 1742 on the banks of the Ohio River and given the Indian name of Thayendanegea, meaning "he places two bets." He inherited the status of Mohawk chief from his father.
Joseph was able to prove this in court and the trading company's license was revoked.
The settlement was abandoned and the event came to be known as the "Cherry Valley Massacre." Brant won a formidable reputation after this raid and in cooperation with loyalists and British regulars, he brought fear and destruction to the entire Mohawk Valley, southern New York, and northern Pennsylvania.
Joseph Brant at AllExperts (1564 words)
Brant was born of undistinguished parents in the Ohio Country on the banks of the Cuyahoga River, near present-day Akron, Ohio, and was named Thayendanegea.
His father died while Brant was an infant, and his mother (Margaret, or Owandah) took Joseph and his older sister Mary (known as Molly) to Canajoharie, on the Mohawk River in east-central New York, where she had lived before her family moved to the Ohio River.
Jacob, the second eldest son from the marriage of Joseph Brant and Catherine Adonwentishon Croghan, was born in 1786 and died in 1847.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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