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Encyclopedia > Joseph Black

Portrait Joseph Black Portrait of Joseph Black (1728-1799) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ...

Joseph Black (April 16, 1728 - December 6, 1799) was a Scottish physicist and chemist. April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... Events Astronomical aberration discovered by the astronomer James Bradley Swedish academy of sciences founded at Uppsala The founding of the University of Havana (Universidad de la Habana), Cubas most well-established university. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity(English) Wha daur meddle wi me? (Scots)[1] Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots[2] Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ...

In 1744, he entered the University of Glasgow. Also, Black studied at Edinburgh University and then thoroughly studied properties of carbon dioxide. One of these studies was placing a flame and mice into the carbon dioxide. Because both entities died he concluded that the air was not breathable and named it `fixed airĀ“ in 1754. In 1756 he described how carbonates become more alkaline when they lose carbon dioxide, whereas the taking-up of carbon dioxide reconverts them. He was the first person to isolate carbon dioxide in a perfectly pure state. This was an important step in the history of chemistry as it helped people to realize that air was not an element and was actually comprised of many different things. His work also aided in the discrediting of the belief in the actions of the fiery principle called phlogiston. The University of Glasgow was founded in 1451, in Glasgow, Scotland. ... The University of Edinburgh was founded in 1583 as a renowned centre for teaching in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... In organic chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid. ... The phlogiston theory is a now discredited 17th century hypothesis regarding combustion. ...

In the late 1750's he made an apparently innocuous experiment. He heated during the same time in an oven the same quantity of water and mercury and measured their respective temperatures. Surprisingly, the mercury was hotter than the water. He concluded that heat was a weightless fluid, invisible and indestructible and, according to his experiment, different materials had different capacities of absorbing and keeping heat. This theory was called the caloric theory and made possible to explain many observed phenomena. The interpretation of this experiment had disastrous consequences on the use of thermometers because its measurement may not be reproducible if the materials used in different thermometers were different. In other words, the measurement of the thermometers made with different materials (different glass, mercury with different purity...) coincide in the melting. However, the values do not necessarily coincide in the intermediate points as the materials behave differently when they are heated or cooled. This conclusion eventually led to the introduction of the absolute temperature that didn't depend on the properties of any material. General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Atomic mass 200. ... Indestructible is the sixth album by Rancid, released on August 19, 2003 (see 2003 in music). ... The caloric theory is an obsolete scientific theory that heat consists of a fluid called caloric that flows from hotter to colder bodies. ... A thermometer is a device used to measure temperatures or temperature changes. ... Absolute zero is the lowest temperature that can be obtained in any macroscopic system. ...

In 1757 he was appointed Regius Professor of the Practice of Medicine at the University of Glasgow. 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... University of Glasgow The Regius Chair of Medicine and Theraputics is technically the oldest chair at the University of Glasgow. ... The University of Glasgow was founded in 1451, in Glasgow, Scotland. ...

In 1761 he discovered that ice absorbs heat without changing temperature when melting. From this he concluded that the heat must have combined with the ice particles and become latent. 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902 Ice is the name given to any one of the 14 known solid phases of water. ... In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is defined as transfer of thermal energy [1] Generally, heat is a form of energy transfer associated with the different motions of atoms, molecules and other particles that comprise matter when it is hot and when it is cold. ... Fig. ... In physics, melting is the process of heating a solid substance to a point (called the melting point) where it turns into a liquid. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Between 1759 and 1763 he evolved that theory of "latent heat" on which his scientific fame chiefly rests, and also showed that different substances have different specific heats. James Watt was his pupil and assistant. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... James Watt James Watt (19 January 1736 – 19 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor and engineer whose improvements to the steam engine were fundamental to the changes wrought by the Industrial Revolution. ...

In 1755 he discovered that magnesium was a chemical element. 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element for short, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ...

He was a member of the Poker Club and associated with David Hume, Adam Smith and the literati of the Scottish Enlightenment. The Poker Club was one of several clubs at the heart of the Scottish Enlightenment where many associated with that movement met and exchanged views in a convivial atmosphere. ... David Hume (April 26, 1711 – August 25, 1776)[1] was a Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian. ... Adam Smith (baptised June 5, 1723 O.S. / June 16 N.S. – July 17, 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneering political economist. ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ...

Headline text

The chemistry buildings at both Edinburgh and Glasgow universities are named after Joseph Black.

External link

  • Joseph Black - LoveToKnow Classic Encyclopedia

  Results from FactBites:
Joseph Black - LoveToKnow 1911 (665 words)
JOSEPH BLACK (1728-1799), Scottish chemist and physicist, was born in 1728 at Bordeaux, where his father - a native of Belfast but of Scottish descent - was engaged in the wine trade.
The action of lithontriptic medicines,, especially lime-water, was one of the questions of the day, and through his investigations of this subject Black was led to the chemical discoveries associated with his name.
As a scientific investigator, Black was conspicuous for the carefulness of his work and his caution in drawing conclusions.
Hon. Joseph A. Black (422 words)
Joseph Black, of the Big Piney section of the country, has been a potential force in the settlement and development of his portion of the state, and has exhibited in his work here the self-reliance, strength of mind, courage and general resourcefulness he acquired in a varied and eventful experience elsewhere.
Joseph A. Black was educated in the public schools of Indiana and at a reputable private school in Iowa whither his parents had removed before he was of age.
Black is one of the leading citizens of the state and takes an active and intelligent interest in all her affairs.
  More results at FactBites »



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