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Encyclopedia > Joseph Beuys
Joseph Beuys

Offset poster for dialogue at the New School during Joseph Beuys` ' first visit to the United States 1974 - Courtesy Ronald Feldman Fine Arts, New York
Born May 12, 1921(1921-05-12)
Krefeld,Germany
Died January 23, 1986 (aged 64)
Nationality German
Field Performances, plastic arts, visual art, aesthetics, social philosophy
Training Staatliche Kunstakademie Düsseldorf

Joseph Beuys (IPA: [ˈjoːzɛf ˈbɔʏs]; May 12, 1921January 23, 1986) was an influential German artist who came to prominence in the 1960s. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 408 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (476 × 700 pixel, file size: 265 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Krefeld is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... A street musician with accordion in Bremen A performance comprises an event in which generally one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for the benefit of another group of people (the viewer or viewers, or audience). ... Plastic Arts are those visual arts that involve the use of materials that can be moulded or modulated in some way, often in three dimensions. ... Many times, the term art is used to refer to the visual arts. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... Social philosophy is the philosophical study of interesting questions about social behavior (typically, of humans). ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ...


He is most famous for his ritualistic public performances and his energetic championing of the healing potential of art and the power of a universal human creativity. As well as performances, Beuys produced sculptures, environments, vitrines, 450 prints and posters, and thousands of drawings. He was also a committed teacher and increasingly devoted much of his energy to German politics. A charismatic and controversial figure, the nature and value of Beuys’s contribution to Western art has elicited a hotly contested and often polarised debate. A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... “Sculptor” redirects here. ... A showcase, or vitrine, is a glassed-in cabinet or case for displaying delicate or valuable articles such as objects dart or merchandise in a shop, museum, or house. ... Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. ... For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ...

Contents

Early life

Although he took great pride in being native to Kleve, Joseph Beuys was born in Krefeld in 1921; Beuys was the son of the trader Josef Jakob Beuys and Johanna Maria Margarete Beuys. Kleve, traditionally known in English and French as Cleves (Dutch: Kleef) is a city in the north-west of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, near the Dutch border and the River Rhine, at . ... Krefeld is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The Beuys family soon moved to Kleve, an industrial town in the Lower Rhine region of Germany close to the Dutch border, and it was in this region that Beuys spent most of his childhood. An aspect of Beuys’s adolescence that has dominated much commentary on his practice is his involvement with the Hitler Youth (to which adherence was, it should be noted, obligatory).[1] From an early age Beuys displayed a keen interest in the natural sciences and had considered a career in medical studies before volunteering for the Luftwaffe in 1940. He began his military training as an aircraft radio operator in 1941, under the tutelage of Heinz Sielmann in Posen. During his leave, Beuys attended lectures in biology, botany, geography and philosophy. It is also during this time that he began to seriously consider a career as an artist. Kleve, traditionally known in English and French as Cleves (Dutch: Kleef) is a city in the north-west of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, near the Dutch border and the River Rhine, at . ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see; 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth (German:   , abbreviated HJ) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Heinz Sielmann (born June 2, 1917 in Rheydt [now Mönchengladbach], Germany ) is a world renowned wildlife photographer, zoologist and documentary filmmaker. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina PoznaÅ„ Established 8th century City Rights 1253 Government  - Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area  - City 261. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Pinguicula grandiflora Example of a Cross Section of a Stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


In 1942 Beuys was stationed in the Crimea and was a member of various combat bomber units. On 16 March 1944 Beuys’s JU87 plane crashed on the Crimean Front. The pilot was killed but Beuys was found by a German search commando and brought to a military hospital where he stayed from March 17 to April 7.[2] This incident, and Beuys’s subsequent embellishment of it, is perhaps the most controversial aspect of his artistic persona. Beuys later recounted how he had been rescued from the crash by Tartar tribesmen, who had wrapped his broken body in animal fat and felt and nursed him back to health. Beuys recounted the story in 1979: Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Animal fats are fats obtained from animal sources, including: blubber cod liver oil lard (pork fat) tallow (beef fat) schmaltz (chicken fat) In human nutrition—as far as regions where heart disease is a more common cause of death than starvation are concerned—animal fats are often claimed to be... A selection of 4 different felt cloths. ...

“Had it not been for the Tartars I would not be alive today. They were the nomads of the Crimea, in what was then no man’s land between the Russian and German fronts, and favoured neither side. I had already struck up a good relationship with them, and often wandered off to sit with them. ‘Du nix njemcky’ they would say, ‘du Tartar,’ and try to persuade me to join their clan. Their nomadic ways attracted me of course, although by that time their movements had been restricted. Yet it was they who discovered me in the snow after the crash, when the German search parties had given up. I was still unconscious then and only came round completely after twelve days or so, and by then I was back in a German field hospital. So the memories I have of that time are images that penetrated my consciousness. The last thing I remember was that it was too late to jump, too late for the parachutes to open. That must have been a couple of seconds before hitting the ground. Luckily I was not strapped in – I always preferred free movement to safety belts… My friend was strapped in and he was atomized on impact – there was almost nothing to be found of him afterwards. But I must have shot through the windscreen as it flew back at the same speed as the plane hit the ground and that saved me, though I had bad skull and jaw injuries. Then the tail flipped over and I was completely buried in the snow. That’s how the Tartars found me days later. I remember voices saying ‘Voda’ (Water), then the felt of their tents, and the dense pungent smell of cheese, fat and milk. They covered my body in fat to help it regenerate warmth, and wrapped it in felt as an insulator to keep warmth in.” [3]

Although entering Beuys’s rhetoric somewhat later than some commentators have acknowledged,[4] this story has served as a powerful myth of origins for Beuys’s artistic identity, as well as providing an initial interpretive key to his use of unconventional materials (amongst which felt and fat were central).


After the war

After the war Beuys returned to his parents’ house in Rindern. In 1946, he met sculptor Walter Brüx and painter Hanns Lamers, who encouraged him to become an artist. He enrolled at Staatliche Kunstakademie Düsseldorf in 1947 and after switching classes, joined the class of Ewald Mataré. Beuys began to read widely, evolving ideas around science, art, literature, philosophy and spirituality. Key figures in Beuys’s intellectual formation include Rudolph Steiner, Carl Jung, Novalis, Schiller, Leonardo da Vinci, James Joyce and the 16th century Swiss alchemist Paracelsus. Beuys finished his education in 1951, graduating as master pupil from Mataré’s class. Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rudolf Steiner Rudolf Steiner (February 27, 1861–March 30, 1925) was an Austrian philosopher, literary scholar, architect, playwright, educator, and social thinker (see section below with heading social threefolding), who is best known as the founder of Anthroposophy and its practical applications, including Waldorf School, Biodynamic agriculture, the Camphill... “Jung” redirects here. ... For the German rock band, see Novalis (band). ... Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (November 10, 1759 - May 9, 1805), usually known as Friedrich Schiller, was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Presumed portrait of Paracelsus, attributed to the school of Quentin Matsys. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Throughout the 1950s, Beuys struggled with a dire financial situation and with the trauma of his wartime experiences. His output consisted mainly of thousands of drawings, but he also produced some sculptures. Through his drawing practice, Beuys explored a range of unconventional materials and developed his artistic agenda, exploring metaphorical and symbolic connections between natural phenomena and philosophical systems. Often difficult to interpret in themselves, these drawings constitute a speculative, contingent and rather hermetic exploration of the material world and how that world might be connected to the realm of myth and philosophy. In 1974, 327 drawings, the majority of which were made during the late 1940s and 1950s, were collected into a group entitled The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland (a reference to Joyce), and exhibited in Oxford, Edinburgh, Dublin and Belfast. the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ...


In 1956, artistic self-doubt and material impoverishment led to a physical and psychological crisis, and Beuys entered a period of serious depression. He recovered at the house of his most important early patrons, the van der Grinten brothers, in Kranenburg. In 1958, Beuys participated in an international competition for an Auschwitz-Birkenau memorial, but his proposal did not win and his design was never realised. Also in 1958, Beuys begins a cycle of drawings related to Joyce’s Ulysses. Completed in ca.1961, the six exercise books of drawings would constitute, Beuys declared, an extension of Joyce’s seminal novel. In 1959 Beuys married Eva Wurmbach. They had two children together, Boien Wenzel (born 1961) and Jessyka (born 1964). In 1961 he was appointed professor of 'monumental sculpture' at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf. Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Flyer for Beuys's 7,000 Oaks at Documenta 7 (1982)
Flyer for Beuys's 7,000 Oaks at Documenta 7 (1982)

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 424 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1785 × 2522 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 424 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1785 × 2522 pixel, file size: 3. ...

Artistic development and recognition

In 1962 Beuys befriended his Düsseldorf colleague Nam June Paik, a member of the Fluxus movement. This was the beginning of what was to be a brief formal involvement with Fluxus, a loose international group of artists who championed a radical erosion of the boundaries of art, bringing aspects of creative practice outside of the institution and into the everyday. Although Beuys participated in a number of Fluxus events, it soon became clear that he viewed the implications of art’s economic and institutional framework differently. Indeed, whereas Fluxus was directly inspired by the radical Dada activities emerging during the First World War, Beuys in 1964 broadcast (from Second German Television Studio) a rather different message: ‘Das Schweigen von Marcel Duchamp wird überbewertet’ (‘The Silence of Marcel Duchamp is Overrated’). Beuys’s relationship with the legacy of Duchamp and the Readymade is a central (if often unacknowledged) aspect of the controversy surrounding his practice. Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pre-Bell-Man, statue in front of the Museum für Kommunikation, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ... Fluxus – a name taken from a Latin word meaning to flow – is an international network of artists, composers and designers noted for blending different artistic media and disciplines in the 1960s. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Marcel Duchamp (pronounced ) (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French artist (he became an American citizen in 1955) whose work and ideas had considerable influence on the development of post-World War II Western art, and whose advice to modern art collectors helped shape the tastes of the...


What served to launch Beuys into the public consciousness was that which transpired following his performance at the Technical College Aachen in 1964. As part of a festival of new art coinciding with the 20th anniversary of an assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler, Beuys created a performance or Aktion. The performance was interrupted by a group of students, one of whom attacked Beuys, punching him in the face. A photograph of the artist, nose bloodied and arm raised, was circulated in the media. It was for this 1964 festival that Beuys produced an idiosyncratic CV, which he titled Lebenslauf/Werklauf (Life Course/Work Course). The document was a self-consciously fictionalised account of the artist’s life, in which historical events mingle with metaphorical and mythical speech (he refers to his birth as the ‘Exhibition of a wound;’ he claims his Ulysses Extension to have been carried out ‘at James Joyce’s request’ – impossible, given that the writer was by 1961 long-dead). This document marks a blurring of fact and fiction that was to be characteristic of Beuys’s self-created persona, as well as the source of much controversy (although, significantly, there is no mention here of the famous plane crash). Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...


Beuys’s first solo exhibition in a private gallery was opened on November 26, 1965 with one of the artist’s most famous and compelling performances: How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare. The artist could be viewed through the glass of the gallery’s window. His face was covered in honey and gold leaf, an iron slab was attached to his boot. In his arms he cradled a dead hare, into whose ear he mumbled muffled noises as well as explanations of the drawings that lined the walls. Such materials and actions had specific symbolic value for Beuys. For example, honey was the product of bees who, for Beuys (following Rudolf Steiner), represented as ideal society of warmth and brotherhood. Gold had its importance within alchemical enquiry, and iron, the metal of Mars, stood for a masculine principle of strength and connection to the earth. Beuys produced many such spectacular, ritualistic performances, and he developed a compelling persona whereby he took on a liminal, shamanistic role, as if to enable passage between different physical and spiritual states. Further examples of such performances include: EURASIA (1965), Celtic (Kinloch Rannoch) Scottish Symphony (1970), and I Like America and America Likes Me (1974). is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...


Politics

It was during the 1960s that Beuys formulated his central theoretical concepts concerning the social, cultural and political function and potential of art. Indebted to Romantic writers such as Novalis and Schiller, Beuys was motivated by a utopian belief in the power of universal human creativity and was confident in the potential for art to bring about revolutionary change. This translated into Beuys’s formulation of the concept of Social Sculpture, in which society as a whole was to be regarded as one great work of art (the Wagnerian Gesamtkunstwerk) to which each person can contribute creatively (perhaps Beuys’s most famous phrase, borrowed from Novalis, is ‘Everyone is an artist’). In 1973, Beuys wrote: The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ...

“Only on condition of a radical widening of definitions will it be possible for art and activities related to art [to] provide evidence that art is now the only evolutionary-revolutionary power. Only art is capable of dismantling the repressive effects of a senile social system that continues to totter along the deathline: to dismantle in order to build ‘A SOCIAL ORGANISM AS A WORK OF ART’… EVERY HUMAN BEING IS AN ARTIST who – from his state of freedom – the position of freedom that he experiences at first-hand – learns to determine the other positions of the TOTAL ART WORK OF THE FUTURE SOCIAL ORDER.” [5]

Beuys manifested these ideas most notoriously in abolishing entry requirements to his Düsseldorf class. Throughout the late 1960s this renegade policy caused great institutional friction, which came to a head in October 1972, when Beuys was eventually dismissed from his post. The dismissal, which Beuys would not accept, produced a wave of protests from students, artists and critics. Although now bereft of an institutional position, Beuys continued a voracious schedule of public lectures and discussions, as well as becoming increasingly active in German politics. Amongst other things, Beuys founded (or co-founded) the following political organisations: German Student Party (1967), Organization for Direct Democracy Through Referendum (1971), and Free International University for Creativity and Interdisciplinary Research (1974). Beuys became a pacifist, was a vocal opponent of nuclear weapons and campaigned strenuously for environmental causes (indeed, he was elected a Green Party candidate for the European Parliament). Beuys also continued to make sculptures, installations, drawings and performances until his death in 1986. In 1982, for example, he planted 7,000 oak trees in Kassel, Germany, for Documenta 7 (7,000 Oaks). The first and only major retrospective of Beuys work to be organised in Beuys’s lifetime opened at the Guggenheim Museum in New York in 1979. The exhibition has been described as a “lightning rod for American criticism,” eliciting as it did some powerful and polemical responses.[6] Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Alliance 90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), the German Green party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ... from documenta 6 documenta is one of the world‘s most important exhibitions of modern and contemporary art which now takes place every five years in Kassel, Germany. ... The front of the Guggenheim Museum from 5th Avenue This article refers to the Guggenheim Museum in the upper east side of Manhattan (New York). ...


Critiques of Beuys

One thing that the Guggenheim retrospective and its catalogue did was to afford an American critical audience a comprehensive view of Beuys’s practice and rhetoric. Whereas Beuys had been a central figure in the post-war European artistic consciousness for some time, American audiences had previously only had partial and fleeting access to his work. In 1980, and building on the scepticism voiced by Belgian artist Marcel Broodthaers, who in 1972 Open Letter had compared Beuys to Wagner,[7] art historian Benjamin Buchloh launched a polemically forceful attack on Beuys.[8] The essay was (and remains) the most vitriolic and thoroughgoing critique of both Beuys’s rhetoric (referred to as “simple-minded utopian drivel”) and persona (Buchloh regards Beuys as both infantile and messianic).[9] Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Marcel Broodthaers (born January 28, 1924 in Brussels, Belgium - died January 28, 1976 in Cologne, Germany), was a Belgian poet, filmmaker and artist with a highly literate and often witty approach to creating art works. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Benjamin H. D. Buchloh is the Franklin D. and Florence Rosenblatt Professor of Modern Art at Harvard University. ...


Firstly, Buchloh draws attention to Beuys’s falsification of his own biography, which he sees as symptomatic of a dangerous cultural tendency of dis-avowing a traumatic past and a retreat into the realms of myth and esoteric symbolism. Buchloh attacks Beuys for his failure to acknowledge and engage with Nazism, the Holocaust, and their implications. Secondly, Buchloh criticizes Beuys for displaying an inability or reluctance to engage with the consequences of the work of Marcel Duchamp. That is, a failure to acknowledge the framing function of the art institution and the inevitable dependence upon such institutions to create meaning for art objects. If Beuys championed art’s power to foster political transformation, he nevertheless failed to acknowledge the limits imposed upon such aspirations by the art museum and dealership networks that served somewhat less utopian ambitions. For Buchloh, rather than acknowledging the collective and contextual formation of meaning, Beuys instead attempted to prescribe and control the meanings of his art, and often in the form of dubious esoteric or symbolic codings. Buchloh’s critique has been developed by a number of commentators such as Stefan Germer and Rosalind Krauss.[10]


Recuperations

Despite its theoretical richness and rhetorical power, Buchloh’s critique has been in need of extensive revision. His attention is given to dismantling a mythologized artistic persona and utopian rhetoric, which he regarded to be irresponsible and even (it is implied) proto-fascist. Since Buchloh’s essay was written, however, a great deal of new archival material has come to light. Most significantly, Beuys’s proposal for an Auschwitz-Birkenau memorial, submitted in 1958. The existence of such a project invalidates Buchloh’s claim that Beuys retreated from engaging with the Nazi legacy, a point that Buchloh himself has recently acknowledged.[11] Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Beuys’s charisma and eclecticism have rather polarised his audience. Beuys has attracted a huge number of admirers and devotees, the tendency of whom has been to uncritically accept Beuys’s own explanations as interpretive solutions to his work. In contrast, there are those who, following Buchloh, are relentlessly critical of Beuys’s rhetoric and use weaknesses in his argumentation to dismiss his work as bogus. Relatively few accounts have been concerned with an encounter with the works themselves, with exceptions arriving in the scholarship of art historians such as Gene Ray, Christa-Maria Lerm Hayes, Briony Fer, Alex Potts, and others. The drive here has been to wrest the potential of Beuys’s work away from the artist’s own rhetoric, and to further explore both the wider discursive formations within which Beuys operated (this time, productively), and the specific material properties of the works themselves.[12]


Examples of contemporary artists who have drawn from the legacy of Beuys include AA Bronson, former member of the artists' collaborative General Idea, who, not without certain irony, adopts the subject position of the shaman to reclaim art's restorative, healing powers; and Peter Gallo, whose drawing cycle "I wish I could draw like Joseph Beuys" features stretches of Beuys's writings combined with images traced from vintage gay pornography onto found pieces of paper. General Idea, Playing Doctor General Idea was a collective of three Canadian artists, Felix Partz, Jorge Zontal and AA Bronson, who were active from 1969 to 1994. ... General Idea, Playing Doctor General Idea was a collective of three Canadian artists, Felix Partz, Jorge Zontal and AA Bronson, who were active from 1969 to 1994, initially in Toronto; from 1986 through 1993 they divided their time between Toronto and New York before returning to Toronto for the last... Peter Gallo (b. ...


Exhibitions

from documenta 6 documenta is one of the world‘s most important exhibitions of modern and contemporary art which now takes place every five years in Kassel, Germany. ... This article is about the city of Kassel in Hessen, Germany. ... from documenta 6 documenta is one of the world‘s most important exhibitions of modern and contemporary art which now takes place every five years in Kassel, Germany. ... This article is about the city of Kassel in Hessen, Germany. ... Detail of exhibition. ... The front of the Guggenheim Museum from 5th Avenue This article refers to the Guggenheim Museum in the upper east side of Manhattan (New York). ... This article is about the state. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Location of Perugia in Italy Coordinates: , Country Region Province Province of Perugia Government  - Mayor Renato Locchi Area  - City 449 km²  (1,165 sq mi) Elevation 493 m (1,617 ft) Population (July 2006)[1]  - City 161,390  - Density 359/km² (929. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Duesseldorf. ... Historic Town Hall of Bonn (view from the market square). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Notes

  1. ^ See Claudia Schmuckli: ‘Chronology and Selected Exhibition History,’ in Joseph Beuys: Actions, Vitrines, Environments (Tate, 2005).This account of Beuys’s biography is indebted to Schmuckli’s chronology.
  2. ^ Ibid. p.153.
  3. ^ Beuys in Caroline Tisdall: Joseph Beuys (Guggenheim, 1979), p.16-7.
  4. ^ One example is Benjamin Buchloh’s discussion of Beuys in the ambitious Art Since 1900: Modernism, Antimodernism, Postmodernism, by Buchloh, Roaslind Krauss, Hal Foster and Yve-Alain Bois (Thames and Hudson, 2004, pp.480-485). Buchloh mistakenly identifies the plane crash as recounted in Beuys’s 1964 Lebenslauf/Werklauf. For a detailed account of the complex emergence of this powerful story, see Peter Nisbet: ‘Crash Course – Remarks on a Beuys Story,’ in Gene Ray (ed.): Joseph Beuys, Mapping the Legacy (D.A.P., 2001).
  5. ^ Beuys statement dated 1973, first published in English in Caroline Tisdall: Art into Society, Society into Art (ICA, London, 1974), p.48. Capitals in original.
  6. ^ Schmuckli, op.cit. p.188.
  7. ^ Published in Reinische Post on October 3, 1972, written by Broodthaers on September 25, 1972.
  8. ^ Benjamin H.D. Buchloh: ‘Beuys: The Twilight of the Idol,’ Artforum, vol.5, no.18 (January 1980), pp.35-43.
  9. ^ Ibid. p.51.
  10. ^ Germer: ‘Haacke, Broodthaers, Beuys,’ October 45, Summer 1988, pp.63-75. Krauss: ‘No to… Joseph Beuys,’ in Krauss and Bois: Formless: A User’s Guide (Zone, 1997), 143-146.
  11. ^ Buchloh: ‘Reconsidering Joseph Beuys, Once Again,’ in Ray op.cit. pp.75-90.
  12. ^ See, amongst other relevant publications: Ray: ‘Joseph Beuys and the After-Auschwitz Sublime,’ in Ray, op.cit., pp.55-74; Lerm Hayes: Joyce in Art, Visual Art Inspired by James Joyce (Lilliput Press, 2004); Fer: The Infinite Line: Remaking Art After Modernism (Yale, 2004); Potts: ‘Tactility: The Interrogation of Medium in the Art of the 1960s,’ Art History, Vol.27, No.2 April 2004. 282-304.

is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Further reading

  • Adriani, Götz, Winfried Konnertz, and Karin Thomas: Joseph Beuys: Life and Works. Trans. Patricia Lech. Woodbury, N.Y.: Barron’s Educational Series, 1979.
  • Bastian, Heiner: Joseph Beuys: The secret block for a secret person in Ireland. Text by Dieter Koepplin. Munich: Scirmer/Mosel, 1988.
  • Borer, Alain. The Essential Joseph Beuys. London: Thames and Hudson, 1996.
  • Buchloh, Benjamin H.D.: ‘Beuys: The Twilight of the Idol,’ Artforum, vol.5, no.18 (January 1980), pp.35-43.
  • Buchloh, Benjamin H.D., Krauss, Rosalind, Michelson, Annette: ‘Joseph Beuys at the Guggenheim,’ in: October, 12 (Spring 1980), pp 3-21
  • De Duve, Thierry: Kant After Duchamp, Cambridge (Mass.): MIT Press, 1996.
  • Oman Hiltrud: "Joseph Beuys. Die Kunst auf dem Weg zum Leben." München, Heyne (1998) ISBN 3-453-14135-0
  • Potts, Alex: ‘Tactility: The Interrogation of Medium in the Art of the 1960s,’ Art History, Vol.27, No.2 April 2004. 282-304.
  • Ray, Gene (ed.): Joseph Beuys, Mapping the Legacy. New York and Sarasota: D.A.P. 2001.
  • Rosenthal, Mark: Joseph Beuys: Actions, Vitrines, Environments, London: Tate, 2005.
  • Stachelhaus, Heiner. Joseph Beuys. New York: Abbeville Press, 1991.
  • Temkin, Ann, and Bernice Rose. Thinking is Form: The Drawings of Joseph Beuys (exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art). New York: Thames and Hudson, 1993.
  • Tisdall, Caroline: Joseph Beuys, New York: Guggenheim Museum, 1979.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Beuys Raum 20 Kunstakademie Düsseldorf (560 words)
Joseph Beuys was appointed in 1961 with unanimous decision of the academy board to the " Chair of Monumental Sculpture of the National Academy of Arts Duesseldorf " and started as a successor to Sepp Mages at his officeon the 1st November.
Beuys stayed professor at the academy of arts from 1961 until 10th October, 1972, the day on which he was discharged by the education minister Johannes Rau, for political reasons.
The sacking of Beuys is the beginning of a long legally and ideological dispute which is finally settled in favour of Beuys, with a judgement handed down at the highest legally level.
Joseph Beuys - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1186 words)
Joseph Beuys (pronounced "boyce") (May 12, 1921 – January 23, 1986) was a German Conceptual artist who produced work in a number of forms including sculpture, performance art, video art and installations.
Beuys said the work was concerned with issues such as human and animal consciousness, and the problems of thought and language.
Beuys was a particularly prominent protester against new nuclear weapons (Pershing II-missiles) in Western Germany in 1983, following the SALT IItreaty from 1979.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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