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Encyclopedia > Joseon Dynasty
대조선국 (大朝鮮國)
조선왕조 (朝鮮王朝)
Kingdom of Joseon

1392 – 1897
Flag
Taegukgi (after 1883) Royal seal of Joseon
Territory of Joseon after Jurchen conquest of King Sejong
Capital Hanseong
Language(s) Korean
Religion Neo-Confucianism
Government Monarchy
Wang
 - 1392 - 1398 Taejo (first)
 - 1863 - 1897 Gojong (last)1
Yeong-uijeong
 - 1431 - 1449 Hwang Hui
 - 1466 - 1472 Han Myeonghoe
 - 1592 - 1598 Ryu Seongryong
 - 1894 Kim Hongjip
History
 - Coup of 1388 May 20, 1388
 - Coronation of Taejo 1392
 - Promulgation of Hangul October 9, 1446
 - Seven-Year War 1592 - 1598
 - Manchu invasions 1636 - 1637
 - Treaty of Ganghwa February 27, 1876
 - Elevation to empire October 12, 1897
1Became Emperor of Korea in 1897

Joseon (July 1392 - August 1910) (also Chosŏn, Choson, Chosun), was a sovereign state founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye in what is modern day Korea, and lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded in the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo Kingdom at what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul and the kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the Amnok and Duman rivers (through the subjugation of the Jurchens). Joseon was the last royal and later imperial dynasty of Korean history. It was the longest ruling Confucian dynasty. After declaring the Korean Empire in 1897, the dynasty ended with Japanese annexation in 1910. Today, Joseon is often called "Yi dynasty" but it is referred to as "Joseon dynasty" more often recently in Japan. Joseon, Chosŏn, Chōsen, or Chosun may refer to: // Korea called Chosŏn in North Korea. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Events December 16 - Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu, ending the nanboku-cho period of competing imperial courts James of Jülich is boiled alive for pretending to be a bishop and ordaining his own priests Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Joseon Dynasty ... Taegukgi and Taegeukgi redirects here. ... This map shows the location of the Korean peninsula. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... Neo-Confucianism (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang Dynasty. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Events December 16 - Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu, ending the nanboku-cho period of competing imperial courts James of Jülich is boiled alive for pretending to be a bishop and ordaining his own priests Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General... Events Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland destroyed. ... Taejo of Joseon (1335-1408; r. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Gojong, the Emperor Gwangmu (광무제 光武帝 gwang mu je) (8 September 1852–21 January 1919) was the twenty-sixth king and first emperor of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. ... // Yeon Gwang (Hangul : ì—°ê´‘ Hanja : 淵廣) Yeon Jayou (Hangul : 연자유 Hanja : 淵子遊) Yeon Taejo (Hangul : 연태조 Hanja : 淵太祚) Yeon Gaesomun (642-665) Yeon Namsaeng (665) Yeon Namgeon & Yeon Namsan (665-668) 고임무 Gang Jo Yi Ja-gyeom Yi Ui-bang (Hangul : 이의방 Hanja : 李義方) Jeong Jung-bu (Hangul : 정중부 Hanja : 鄭仲夫) (1170-1179) Gyeong Dae-seung (Hangul : 경대승) (1178-1183) Yi Ui... Year 1431 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 6 - Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor. ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ... Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Yu Seong-ryong (1542-1607), also often spelled Yu Songnyong, was a scholar-official of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Beginning of prosecution of Lollards in England The Battle of Otterburn between England and Scotland A Chinese army under Xu Da sacks Karakorum Births September 14 - Claudius Claussön Swart, Danish geographer September 29 - Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, second son of Henry IV of England (d. ... Taejo of Joseon (1335-1408; r. ... Events December 16 - Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu, ending the nanboku-cho period of competing imperial courts James of Jülich is boiled alive for pretending to be a bishop and ordaining his own priests Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General... Jamo redirects here. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... Combatants Joseon Dynasty Korea, Ming Dynasty China, Jurchen tribes Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea: King Seonjo Prince Gwanghae Yi Sun-sin†, Gwon Yul, Yu Seong-ryong, Yi Eok-gi†, Won Gyun†, Kim Myeong-won, Yi Il, Sin Rip†, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Shi-Min† China: Li Rusong† , Li Rubai... Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... The second Manchu invasion of Korea occurred in 1637, when the Manchu Qing Empire brought Koreas Joseon dynasty into submission. ... Year 1636 (MDCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... The Treaty of Ganghwa, also called Korea-Japanese Treaty of Amity, signed in 1876, was written by Kuroda Kiyotaka, Governor of Hokkaidō, and designed to open up Korea to Japanese trade. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Korea has been ruled by a number of kingdoms/empires and republics over the last several millennia. ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... Taejo of Joseon (1335-1408; r. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... Kaesong city centre Kaesŏng (Gaeseong) is a city in North Hwanghae Province, North Korea, a former Directly Governed City, and the capital of Korea during the Koryo Dynasty. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... The Amnok River, or the Yalu River, is a river on the border between China and North Korea. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Manchu name Manchu: (Tumen ula) Mongolian name Mongolian: Russian name Russian: The Tumen or Dumen River is a 521 km-long river that serves as part of the boundary between China, North Korea, and Russia, rising in the Changbai/Jangbaek Mountains and flowing into the Sea... The Jurchens (Traditional Chinese: 女眞; Simplified Chinese: 女真; pinyin: nÇšzhÄ“n) were a Tungus people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the 17th century, when they became the Manchus. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag of the Japanese Empire Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi  - 1916–1919 Yoshimichi...


An accomplished military strategist and renowned commander who originally distinguished himself by repelling the Wokou who were marauding on the peninsula, Yi Seong-gye, or King Taejo, of the Jeonju clan of Yi succeeded in a coup d'état against King U of the Goryeo Dynasty, whom he overthrew and, two years later, poisoned, KIng Gongyang of Goryeo. He subsequently ascended the throne. The capital was relocated to Hanseong (modern-day Seoul) from Gaegyeong (modern-day Gaeseong) in 1394 and the Gyeongbokgung palace was erected. From King Taejo descended an unbroken patrilineal succession of kings, a line of descent that continues to the modern era. The last ruling monarch was Sunjong, the Yungheui Emperor, who was demoted from his status as head of state in 1910. Surviving bloodlines of the Joseon Dynasty today primarily consist of the descendants of Yeongchinwang (Crown Prince Uimin) and Uichinwang (Prince Uihwa), Sunjong's younger brothers. Sixteenth century Japanese pirate raids. ... Lee is the second most common family name in Korea (after Kim). ... Coup redirects here. ... U was born in 1363, and ruled Goryeo (Korea) from 1374 until 1388. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... Seoul is the capital of South Korea and was, until 1945, the capital of all of Korea. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... Kaesong city centre Kaesŏng (Gaeseong) is a city in North Hwanghae Province, North Korea, a former Directly Governed City, and the capital of Korea during the Koryo Dynasty. ... Kaesŏng (Gaeseong) is a city in North Hwanghae Province, North Korea, a former Directly Governed City, and the capital of Korea during the Goryeo Dynasty. ... Gyeongbokgung (Gyeongbok Palace) is a palace located in northern Seoul, South Korea. ... Patrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones fathers lineage; it generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well. ... Sunjong, Crown Prince Cheok (hwangtaeja), crowned Emperor Yunghui (Korean hangul: 융희제; hanja: 隆熙帝; revised: yunghuije; McCune-Reischauer: yunghÅ­ije; March 25, 1874–April 24, 1926) was the last emperor of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea, ruling from 1907 until 1920. ...


During its reign, Joseon consolidated its absolute rule over Korea, encouraged the entrenchment of Confucian ideals and doctrines in Korean society, imported and adopted Chinese culture, and saw the height of classical Korean culture, trade, science, literature, and technology. However, the dynasty was severely weakened during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when successive invasions by neighboring Japan and Qing China virtually overran the peninsula, leading to an increasingly harsh isolationist policy for which the country became known as the Hermit Kingdom. However, whatever power the kingdom recovered during its isolation further waned as the 18th century came to a close, and faced with internal strife, power struggles, international pressure and rebellions at home, the Joseon Dynasty declined rapidly in the late 19th century. In 1895, The Joseon Dynasty was forced to write a document of independency from the Qing Dynasty after the Japanese victory in the First Sino-Japanese War and its peace treaty, the Treaty of Shimonoseki. From 1897 to 1910, the Korea was formally known as the Korean Empire to signify a sovereign nation no longer a tributary of the Qing Dynasty. The Joseon Dynasty came to an end in 1910, when the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty was enforced by the Empire of Japan. Invasion is a military action consisting of troops entering a foreign land (a nation or territory, or part of that), often resulting in the invading power occupying the area, whether briefly or for a long period. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of... Hermit kingdom is a term applied to any country or society which walls itself off (metaphorically or physically) from the rest of the world. ... Scene from the failed Québecois rebellion against British rule in 1837. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... The Shunpanrō hall where the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed The Treaty of Shimonoseki (Japanese: 下関条約, Shimonoseki Jōyaku), known as the Treaty of Maguan (T. Chinese: 馬關條約, S. Chinese: 马关条约;) in China, was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895 between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Treaty of Annexation of Korea by Japan, also called in Korea 경술국치(庚戌國恥), meaning Humiliation of the Nation in the Year of the Dog, was signed on August 22, 1910 by the representatives of the Korean and Japanese Imperial Governments. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi...


The Joseon's rule has left a substantial legacy on the modern face of Korea; much of modern Korean etiquette, cultural norms, societal attitudes towards current issues, and even the modern Korean language and its dialects stem from the traditional thought pattern that originated from this period.

Contents

History

History of Korea

Prehistory
 Jeulmun period
 Mumun period
Gojoseon, Jin
Proto-Three Kingdoms:
 Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye
 Samhan: Ma, Byeon, Jin
Three Kingdoms:
 Goguryeo
  Sui wars
 Baekje
 Silla, Gaya
North-South States:
 Unified Silla
 Balhae
Later Three Kingdoms:
 Taebong, Hubaekje
Goryeo
 Khitan wars
 Mongol invasions
Joseon
 Japanese invasions
 Manchu invasions
Korean Empire
Japanese rule
 Provisional Gov't
Division of Korea
North, South Korea
 Korean War Image File history File links Korea_unified_vertical. ... This article is about the history of Korea, up to the division of Korea in the 1940s. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... The Prehistory of the Korean Peninsula is the era for which documentary evidence does not exist and that constitutes the greatest segment of the Korean past. ... The Jeulmun pottery period is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 8000-1500 B.C. (Bale 2001; Choe and Bale 2002; Crawford and Lee 2003; Lee 2001, 2006). ... The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ... Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. ... Jin was an early Iron Age state which occupied some portion of the southern Korean peninsula during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE, bordering the Korean kingdom Gojoseon to the north. ... Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea (원삼국시대, 原三國時代) refers to the period after the fall of Gojoseon and before the maturation of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla into full-fledged kingdoms. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Okjeo was a small tribal state which arose in the northern Korean peninsula from perhaps 2nd century BC to 5th century AD. Dong-okjeo (East Okjeo) occupied roughly the area of the Hamgyŏng provinces of North Korea, and Buk-okjeo (North Okjeo) occupied the Duman River region. ... Dongye was a state which occupied portions of the northeastern Korean peninsula from roughly 150 BCE to around 400 CE. It bordered Goguryeo and Okjeo to the north, Jinhan to the south, and Chinas Lelang Commandery to the west. ... During the Samhan period, the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan dominated the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... Mahan was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the 1st century BC to the 3rd century CE in the southern Korean peninsula in the Chungcheong Province. ... Byeonhan, also known as Byeonjin (변진, 弁辰), was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the beginning of the Common Era to the 4th century CE in the southern Korean peninsula, in the south and west of the Nakdong River valley. ... Jinhan was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the 1st century BC to the 4th century CE in the southern Korean peninsula, to the east of the Nakdong River valley, Gyeongsang Province. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... Combatants Goguryeo (Korea) Sui Dynasty (China) Commanders King Yeongyang Eulji Mundeok Gang I sik Go Geon Mu Sui Yangdi Yuwen Shu Yu Zhongwen Lai Huer Zhou Luohou Strength approximately 200,000 1,138,000 foot soldiers and total of more than 3,000,000 in invasion of 612 The... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms in the Nakdong River valley of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period. ... North South States Period(남북국시대, 南北國時代) refers to the period from the 7th century to the 10th century when Unified Silla and Balhae coexited at the south and the north[1], [2]. Hitherto, this period had been called the period of Unified Silla. ... Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla after 668. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese) was an ancient multiethnic kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ... The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892-936) consisted of Silla, Hubaekje (later Baekje), and Taebong (also known as Hugoguryeo, or Later Goguryeo). ... Taebong was a state established by Gung Ye(궁예, 弓裔) on the Korean peninsula in 901, during the Later Three Kingdoms period. ... Hubaekje, or Later Baekje, was one of the Later Three Kingdoms of Korea, along with Hugoguryeo and Silla. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... The Goryeo-Khitan Wars were a series of 10th- and 11th-century conflicts between the kingdom of Goryeo and Khitan forces near what is now the border between China and North Korea. ... The Mongol invasions of Korea consisted of a series of campaigns by the Mongol Empire against Korea, then known as Koryo, from 1231 to 1259. ... Combatants Korea under the Joseon Dynasty, China under the Ming Dynasty, Jianzhou Jurchens Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea King Seonjo Crown Prince Gwanghae Yi Sun-sin†, Gwon Yul, Yu Seong-ryong, Yi Eok-gi†, Won Gyun†, Kim Myeong-won, Yi Il, Sin Rip†, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Si-min... The First Manchu invasion of Korea occurred in 1627, when Hong Taiji led the Manchu army against Koreas Joseon dynasty. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag of the Japanese Empire Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi  - 1916–1919 Yoshimichi... The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a government in exile based in Shanghai, China and later in Chongqing, during the Japanese occupation of Korea. ... The Korean peninsula, first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line The division of Korea into North Korea and South Korea stems from the 1945 Allied victory in World War II, ending Japans 35-year occupation of Korea. ... For the history of Korea before its division, see History of Korea. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders...

Korea Portal

Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their ruling era. ... This is a timeline of Korean history. ... Korea has a long military history going back several thousand years, with an extensive series of wars that involved invasions, civil discord, counter-piracy actions against medieval Japan, the first use of armoured battleships in seabattles, and the devastation of rebellions against the Joseon era Japanese invasions, the forced peace... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Rise to prominence

By the late 14th century, the 400 year-old Goryeo Dynasty established by Wang Geon in 918 was tottering, its foundations collapsing from years of war and de facto occupation from the disintegrating Mongol Empire. The legitimacy of Goryeo itself was also becoming an increasingly disputed issue within the court, as the ruling house failed to not only govern the kingdom effectively, but was also supposedly tarnished by generations of forced intermarriage with the Yuan Dynasty and rivalry amongst the various family branches (even King U's mother was a known commoner, thus leading to rumors disputing his descent from King Gongmin). Within the kingdom, influential aristocrats, generals, and even prime ministers struggled for royal favor and domination of the court, resulting in deep division among various factors. With the ever-increasing number of raids conducted by Wokou and the invasions of the Red Turbans, those who came to dominate the royal court were the reformed-minded Sinjin aristocracy and the opposing Gwonmun aristocracy, as well as generals who could actually fight off the foreign threats; namely a talented general named Yi Seong-gye and his rival Choe Yeong. Taejo of Goryeo, born Wang Geon, (877-943, r. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Gongmin ruled Goryeo (Korea) from 1351 until 1374. ... Sixteenth century Japanese pirate raids. ... The Red Turban Rebellion (Chinese: ) was an uprising by the White Lotus Chinese that targeted the ruling Yuan Dynasty. ... General Choe Yeong Choi Yong (1316-1388) was born in Cheorwon, Gangwon Province, in Goryeo (modern-day Korea). ...


Following the wake of the Ming Dynasty under the charismatic Zhu Yuanzhang (the Hongwu Emperor), the royal court in Goryeo split into two conflicting factions: the group led by General Yi (supporting the Ming Dynasty) and the camp led by General Choe (standing by the Yuan Dynasty). When a Ming messenger came to Goryeo in 1388 (the 14th year of King U) to demand the return of a significant portion of Goryeo’s northern territory, General Choe seized the chance to argue for the invasion of the Liaodong Peninsula (Goryeo claimed to be the successor of the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo; as such, restoring Manchuria as part of Korean territory was part of its foreign policy throughout its history). A staunchly opposed Yi was chosen to lead the invasion; however, at Wuihwa Island on the Yalu River, he revolted and swept back to Gaegyeong (modern-day Gaeseong and the capital of Goryeo), proceeding to eliminate General Choe and his followers and initiating a coup d'état, overthrowing King U in favor of his son, King Chang (1388). He later killed King U and his son after a failed restoration and forcibly placed a royal named Yo on the throne (he became King Gongyang). After indirectly enforcing his grasp on the royal court through the puppet king, Yi then proceeded to ally himself with the Sinjin aristocracy such as Jeong Do-jeon and Jo Jun. One of his first acts as the de facto generalissimo of Goryeo was to pass the Gwajeon Law, which effectively confiscated land from the land-wealthy and generally conservative Gwonmun aristocrats and redistributed it among Yi's supporters in the Sinjin camp. In 1392 (the 4th year of King Gongyang), Yi's fifth son, Yi Bang-won, after failing to win over a noteworthy aristocrat named Jeong Mong-ju, a supporter of the old dynasty, to swear allegiance to the new reign, had the noble killed by the five assassins including Jo Yeong-gyu at Seonjuk Bridge near Gaegyeong, eliminating a key figure in the opposition to Yi Seonggye's rule. That same year, Yi dethroned King Gongyang, exiled him to Wonju, and ascended the throne. The Goryeo Dynasty had come to an end after almost 500 years of rule. For other uses, see Ming. ... izzy lewis loves the weewee in her pooter. ... U was born in 1363, and ruled Goryeo (Korea) from 1374 until 1388. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Amnok River, or the Yalu River, is a river on the border between China and North Korea. ... Kaesŏng (Gaeseong) is a city in North Hwanghae Province, North Korea, a former Directly Governed City, and the capital of Korea during the Goryeo Dynasty. ... Coup redirects here. ... Chang of Goryeo (1381-1389, r. ... Gongyang of Goryeo (1345-1394, r. ... Jeong Dojeon (1342-1398), also known by the pen name Sambong, was a medieval Korean scholar and politician. ... Generalissimo Francisco de Miranda Generalissimo or Generalissimus is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to a Field Marshal or Grand Admiral. ... Taejong was the third king of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea and the father of King Sejong the Great. ... Wonju is a city in Gangwon province, South Korea. ...


Elimination of the Vestiges of Goryeo

In the beginning of his reign, Yi Seonggye, now King Taejo, intended to continue use of the name Goryeo for the country he ruled and simply change the royal line of descent to his own, thus maintaining the facade of continuing the 500 year-old Goryeo tradition. However, after numerous threats of mutiny from the drastically weakened but still influential Gwonmun nobles, who continued to swear allegiance to the remnants of the Goryeo Dynasty, now the demoted Wang clan, and the overall atmosphere in the reformed court that a new dynastic title was needed to signify the change, he declared a new dynasty in 1393 under the name of Joseon (meaning to revive an older dynasty also known as Joseon, founded nearly four thousand years previously) and renamed the country the "Kingdom of Great Joseon", although it came to be simply referred to, even by historians today, by the title of its ruling house. Taejo, meaning great ancestor, is a name often applied to the founders of Korean dynasties. ... Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. ...

King Taejo's portrait.
King Taejo's portrait.

With the declaration of the new royal house were voiced concerns of what solution to apply to the remaining descendants of the deposed Wang family. King Taejo and his officials especially felt that if the legitimacy of their rule was ever questioned by the remaining members of the Goryeo Dynasty, they might have to suppress a mass rebellion or even risk the loss of the recently gained throne. In the end, Taejo had his prime minister Jeong Do-jeon summon all of the Wang family members to the coast of the Yellow Sea and instruct them to board a ship bound for Ganghwa Island, where they were to supposedly live quietly out of the sight of the government. However, the entire ploy was a trap, and a pre-instructed crew member onboard smashed a hole in the hull as soon as the ship had entered sufficiently deep waters. The ship sank, and the last of the Goryeo Dynasty were lost by drowning. According to an urban legend, after the fate of the Wang family members gullible enough to board the doomed ship reached their relatives on the mainland, most of them changed their surnames from Wang (王) to Ok (玉) by adding an extra brush stroke and thus hiding their true descent. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Jeong Dojeon (1342-1398), also known by the pen name Sambong, was a medieval Korean scholar and politician. ... ...


After the demise of the last portions of the Goryeo Dynasty came calls for a new capital. Although Gaegyeong had served well as the seat of government for over 400 years, it was already something of a tradition for new dynasties in Korea to move their capitals to a new location considered fortuitous according the Chinese feng-shui philosophy of geomancy. Gaegyeong had also long since considered to have lost its share of energy to maintain any kind of permanent capital. As a result, three sites were officially brought into consideration: the foot of Mt. Gyeryong and the cities of Muak and Hanyang. The location near Mt. Gyeryong was quickly rejected after some time due to its relatively rough terrain and lack of convenient communication, while the site at Muak was seriously considered before it was decided by King Taejo that Hanyang was the most fitting candidate for the new capital. Hanyang outranked its rivals in various aspects; not only was it was easily accessible from sea and land, and geographically the center of the Korean Peninsula, but the fertile Han River valley on which the ancient city was situated historically had been the most contested region between the Three Kingdoms of Korea. For centuries, Hanyang had also been argued to be blessed, and Korean geomancers claimed the city was occupying a sacrosanct place flowing with geomantic energy. Hanyang was also conformed to Sino-Korean tradition; it had a larger mountains in the north and a smaller mountains in the south for defense, while in between there was a large plain, and thus the city would fit the customary north-south axis. In 1394, Hanyang was declared the new capital and formally renamed "Hanseong". That year, the foot of Mt. Bugak was chosen for the foundation of the main palace. Development and construction of the entire city and its complicated system of avenues, gates, walls, civilian residences, educational facilities, government buildings, and five main palace complexes began in 1394 as well. The official royal residence Gyeongbok Palace was completed in 1395, while the less important Changdeok Palace was completed in 1405. Other royal palaces followed suit, and by the end of the first half of the 15th century all of the capital had been completed and was in working order. Filipino name Tagalog: punsoy Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Thai name Thai: Vietnamese name Vietnamese: For other uses, see Feng shui (disambiguation). ... Geomancy (from Old French geomancie <Late Latin geōmantia <Late Greek geōmanteia< geo, earth + manteia, divination) from the eponymous ilm al-raml (the science of sand), is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground, or how handfuls of dirt land when someone tosses them. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... Gyeongbokgung is a palace located in Seoul, South Korea. ...


Early strife

King Taejo had two wives, both of which he had sons by. His first wife, Queen Sinui, had predeceased him sometime previously to the overthrow of Goryeo but had given birth to six sons. Taejo's wife upon ascension to the throne, Queen Sindeok, had two sons as well. When the new dynasty was promulgated and officially brought into existence, Taejo brought up the issue of which son would be his successor. Although Taejo's fifth son by Queen Sineui, Yi Bang-won, had contributed most to assisting his father's rise to power, he harbored a profound hatred against two of his fathers key allies in the court, the prime minister Jeong Do-jeon and Nam Eun. Both sides were fully aware of the mutual animosity that existed between each other and constantly felt threatened. When it became clear that Yi Bang-won was the most worthy successor to the throne, Jeong Do-jeon used his influence on the king to convince him that the wisest choice would be in the son that Taejo loved most, not the son that Taejo felt was best for the kingdom. In 1392, the eighth son of King Taejo (and the second son of Queen Sindeok), Grand Prince Uian (Yi Bang-seok) was appointed Prince Royal, Successor. After the sudden death of the queen, and while King Taejo was still in mourning for his second wife, Jeong Do-jeon conspired to preliminately kill Yi Bang-won and his brothers to secure his position in court. In 1398, upon hearing of this plan, Yi Bang-won immediately revolted and raided the palace, killing Jeong Do-jeon, his followers, and the two sons of the late Queen Sindeok. This incident became known as the First Strife of Princes. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 1350 pixel, file size: 220 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Joseon Dynasty Gyeonghuigung ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 1350 pixel, file size: 220 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Joseon Dynasty Gyeonghuigung ... Gyeonghuigung was a palace located in Seoul, South Korea. ...


Aghast at the fact that his sons were willing to kill each other for the crown, and psychologically exhausted from the death of his second wife, King Taejo immediately crowned his second son Yi Bang-gwa, later King Jeongjong, as the new ruler. Soon after, he departed to the northern city of Hamhung. King Jeongjong of Joseon(1357~1419) was the second king of Joseon(or Chosun) Dynasty(1399~1400). ...


One of King Jeongjong's first acts as monarch was to revert the capital to Gaeseong, where he is believed to have been considerably more comfortable. Meanwhile, Yi Bang-won, not in the least discouraged by the fact that his elder brother held the throne, began plotting to be invested as Royal Prince Successor Brother, the traditional title for brothers appointed as heir-presumptives to the throne when the incumbent had no issue. However, Yi Bang-won's plans were opposed by Taejo's fourth son Yi Bang-gan, who too yearned for power. In 1400, the tensions between Yi Bang-won's faction and Yi Bang-gan's camp escalated into an all-out conflict that came to be known as the Second Strife of Princes. In the aftermath of the struggle, the defeated Yi Bang-gan was exiled to Tosan, while those who urged him to battle against Yi Bang-won were executed. Thoroughly intimidated, King Jeongjong immediately invested Yi Bang-won as heir presumptive and voluntarily abdicated. That same year, Yi Bang-won assumed the throne of Joseon at long last as King Taejong. In 1401, Joseon Dynasty had officially been admitted to enter into the tribute relationship with Ming Dynasty of China. For other uses, see Tribute (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ming. ...


In the beginning of Taejong's reign, the Grand King Former, Taejo, refused to relinquish the royal seal that signified the legitimacy of any king's rule. Uncomfortable at the fact that his father did not recognize him as a de jure ruler for the family deaths he caused, Taejong sent several messengers, among them his childhood friend Bak Sun, to recover the royal seal. However, Taejo assassinated every messenger that came into sight of his guards as a sign of his fury at Taejong, who continued to remain unaware of their fates. This episode became known as the Case of the Hamhung Envoys, and the term "Hamhung envoy" is still used to refer to a person who has gone on an assignment from whom there is no reply concerning their whereabouts.


Initial Consolidation of Power

With his father unwilling to pass over the royal seal he needed for recognition, Taejong began to initiate policies he believed would prove his intelligence and right to rule. One of his first acts as king was to abolish the privilege enjoyed by the upper echelons of government and the aristocracy to maintain private armies. His revoking of such rights to field independent forces effectively severed their ability to muster large-scale revolts, and drastically increased the number of men employed in the national military. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 420 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (810 × 1155 pixel, file size: 154 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to fr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 420 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (810 × 1155 pixel, file size: 154 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to fr. ... Birth name Sejong the Great (May 6, 1397 – May 18, 1450, r. ...


Taejong's next act as king was to revise the existing legislation concerning the taxation of land ownership and the recording of state of subjects. Although many aristocrats who benefited from King Taejo's laws redistributing property from the Gwonmun aristocrats to the members of the Sinjin faction managed to avoid taxation by deliberately hiding land they acquired, King Taejong's re-investigation of land ownership in 1405 put an end to such practices. With the discovery of previously hidden land, national income increased twofold. In addition, King Taejong initiated the first population survey in 1413 and ordered the documentation of family names/clans, places of birth/death, and the dates of birth/death for all Korean male subjects. All males over the legal age of sixteen, whichever class in society they occupied, were also required by law to carry wooden tablets on which their name, birth date, and other information was engraved. Many historians regard this legislation as the predecessor of the Korean resident identification and social security system. Taejong's new law regarding the documentation of males was also effective in preventing men from evading the mandatory military draft service. Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... // March 21 - Henry V becomes King of England. ...

Throne Hall
Throne Hall

In 1399 (the 2nd year of King Jeonjong), Taejong had played an influential role in scrapping the Dopyeong Assembly, a council of the old government administration that held a monopoly in court power during the waning years of the Goryeo Dynasty, in favor of the Uijeong Department, a new branch of central administration that revolved around the king and his edicts. After passing the subject documentation and taxation legislation, King Taejong issued a new decree in which all decisions passed by the Euijeong Department could only come into effect with the approval of the king. This ended the custom of court ministers and advisors in making decisions through debate and negotiations amongst themselves and with the king only as an onlooker, and thus, through the implication of the king in the actual administration of Korea, brought royal power to new heights. Shortly afterward, Taejong also installed a branch of the government, known as the Sinmun Office, to receive cases in which aggrieved subjects felt that they had been exploited or unfair actions had been taken against them by government officials or aristocrats. Image File history File links Joseon_throne_hall. ... Image File history File links Joseon_throne_hall. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and...


During the course of Taejong's rule, the growing animosity between the Buddhists and Confucian scholars was also a concern, so the new government readily decided to adopt Confucianism as the state ideology. A strict status system, dominated by the scholarly nobility class known as the yangban, was in place keeping order during this period. Hangeul (the Korean alphabet) was created by King Sejong in 1443. Prior to Hangeul, all of the Korean literati used the Hanja writing system, which were traditional Chinese characters with Korean pronunciation and meaning, and used a written language known as Hanmun, which was basically Classical Chinese, for official court documents. However, even with the advent of the Korean alphabet, use of Hanja and Hanmun in daily correspondence was not discontinued, with the Korean aristocracy, educated in Classical Chinese for the transcription of the Korean language, assumed condescending attitudes toward Hangeul and any kind of usage of it (as displayed by the number of pejoratives used to refer to it). Hangeul was officially re-recognized in the late 19th century, and everyday written use of Hanja and Hanmun eventually came to end slowly in the latter half of the 20th century. A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Yangban were a well educated scholarly class of male Confucian scholars who were part of the ruling elite within Korea prior to 1945 and the republics period of Korean history. ... Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language (as opposed to the Hanja system borrowed from China). ... King Sejong the Great (May 6, 1397 - May 18, 1450), born I Do, was the fourth ruler of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1418 to 1450. ... Events Albanians, under Skanderbeg, defeat the Turks John Hunyadi defeats Turks at the Battle of Nis Vlad II Dracul begins his second term as ruler of Wallachia, succeeding Basarab II. Births January 27 - Albert, Duke of Saxony (died 1500) February 23 - Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (died 1490) May 17 - Edmund... Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language (as opposed to the Hanja system borrowed from China). ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... Hanja (lit. ... Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language. ...


Early Japanese invasions

Main article: Japanese invasions of Korea (1592-1598)
The Turtle ship, world's first ironclad warship
The Turtle ship, world's first ironclad warship

Throughout Korean history, there were frequent pirates attacks on both the sea and land. The only purpose for the Koreans running a navy was to secure the maritime trade against the Wokou pirates. The Korean navy maintained superiority[citation needed] over the pirates by using an advanced form of gunpowder technologies (i.e. cannons, fire arrows in form of Singijeon deployed by Hwacha, etc.) from China. Combatants Korea under the Joseon Dynasty, China under the Ming Dynasty, Jianzhou Jurchens Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea King Seonjo Crown Prince Gwanghae Yi Sun-sin†, Gwon Yul, Yu Seong-ryong, Yi Eok-gi†, Won Gyun†, Kim Myeong-won, Yi Il, Sin Rip†, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Si-min... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 3263 KB) Rebuilt Korean turtle boat. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 3263 KB) Rebuilt Korean turtle boat. ... The turtle ship (also known as Geobukseon or Kobukson by its Korean name) was a large warship belonging to the Panokseon class in Korea that was used under the Joseon Dynasty between the 15th century and 18th century. ... Pirates may refer to: A group of people committing any of these activities: Piracy at sea or on a river/lake. ... Sixteenth century Japanese pirate raids. ... Fire Arrows may refer to: A weapon used in The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time weapons and items The Chinese Fire Arrow ... Singijeon is a Korean gunpowder artillery weapon, first built in 1448 A.D. and used during the Joseon period. ... Hwacha or Hwacha [1] was an anti-personnel saltpeter weapon used in Korea, inspired by Chinese fire arrows. ...


During Japanese invasions of Korea (1592-1598), Japanese warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi, with the ambition of conquer Ming China with the Portuguese guns, invaded Korea with his daimyō and their troops in 1592 and 1597. Factional division in the Joseon court, inability to assess Japanese military capability, and failed attempts at diplomacy led to poor preparation on Joseon's part. The use of European firearms by the Japanese left most of the southern peninsula occupied within months, with both Pyongyang and Hanseong (present-day Seoul) captured. According to the Annals of Joseon Dynasty, the Japanese were joined by rebelling Korean slaves, who burned down the palace of Gyeongbokgung and its storehouse of slave records.[1] Combatants Korea under the Joseon Dynasty, China under the Ming Dynasty, Jianzhou Jurchens Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea King Seonjo Crown Prince Gwanghae Yi Sun-sin†, Gwon Yul, Yu Seong-ryong, Yi Eok-gi†, Won Gyun†, Kim Myeong-won, Yi Il, Sin Rip†, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Si-min... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Toyotomi Toyotomi Hideyoshi ) February 2, 1536 or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598) was a sengoku daimyo who unified Japan. ... Ming is a common personal name in China, It may also mean: Ming Dynasty, the ruling dynasty in China from 1368 to 1644 Ming class submarine, a class of diesel-electric submarines built by China Motorola MING, a smartphone released by Motorola Ming library, a C library with PHP bindings... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... The Annals of Joseon Dynasty are the annual records of the Joseon Dynasty, who ruled Korea, and were written from 1413 (year 13 of the reign of Taejong) to 1865 (year 2 of the reign of Gojong). ... Slave redirects here. ... Gyeongbokgung (Gyeongbok Palace) is a palace located in northern Seoul, South Korea. ...

Admiral Yi Sunsin
Admiral Yi Sunsin

Local resistance, however, slowed down the Japanese advance and decisive naval victories by Admiral Yi Sun-sin left control over sea routes in Korean hands, severely hampering Japanese supply lines. Furthermore, Ming China intervened on the side of the Koreans, sending a large force in 1593 which pushed back the Japanese together with the Koreans. During the war, Koreans developed powerful firearms and high-quality gunpowder and the Turtle ships, the first cannon-bearing ironclad warships in world history. The Joseon and Ming forces defeated the Japanese, who retreated back to their homeland, but victory came at a deep price. Farmlands were devastated, irrigation dikes were destroyed, villages and towns were burned down; the population was first plundered and then dispersed, and tens of thousands of skilled workers (celadon ware makers, craftsmen, artisans, etc) were either killed during the war or kidnapped to Japan as captives to help Japanese develop their crafts. The Japanese also pilfered many thousands of Joseon historical and royal artifacts, many of which are preserved in Japanese museums. In 1598 alone, the Japanese took some ears and noses of 38,000 Korean as trophies (a common samurai practice) and built the monument Mimizuka in Kyōto. The long war reduced the productive capacity of farmlands from 1,708,000 kyol to 541,000 kyol. Following the war, relations between Korea and Japan had been completely suspended. Japan was cut off from the technology of continental Asia[citation needed]. After the death of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, however, negotiations between the Korean court and the Tokugawa shogunate were carried out via the Japanese lord on Tsushima. In 1604, Tokugawa Ieyasu, needing to restore commercial relations with Korea in order to have access to the technology of the mainland again, met Korea's demands and released some 3000 captive Koreans. As a result, in 1607, a Korean mission visited Edo, and diplomatic and trade relations were restored on a limited basis. Image File history File links Yi-Sun-sin. ... Image File history File links Yi-Sun-sin. ... Yi Sunsin (April 28, 1545 – December 16, 1598), also commonly transliterated Yi Sun-shin or Yi Soon-shin, was a Korean naval leader noted for his victories against the Japanese navy during the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592-1598) during the Joseon Dynasty. ... This is a Korean name; the family name is Yi Pen name Yi Sun-sin (April 28, 1545 – December 16, 1598), also commonly transliterated Yi Soon-shin, was a Korean naval leader noted for his victories against the Japanese navy during the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592-1598) during the... Ming is a common personal name in China, It may also mean: Ming Dynasty, the ruling dynasty in China from 1368 to 1644 Ming class submarine, a class of diesel-electric submarines built by China Motorola MING, a smartphone released by Motorola Ming library, a C library with PHP bindings... The turtle ship (also known as Geobukseon or Kobukson by its Korean name) was a large warship belonging to the Panokseon class in Korea that was used under the Joseon Dynasty between the 15th century and 18th century. ... Ironclad (and broadside ironclad) redirects here. ... The Mimizuka (耳塚) is a monument in Kyoto, Japan, dedicated to the Seven-Year War fought against Korea from 1592 to 1598. ... This page is about the city Kyoto. ... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu The Tokugawa clan crest This is a Japanese name; the family name is Tokugawa Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu) January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until... Edo (Japanese: , literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ...

Buddhist temple Buryeongsa
Buddhist temple Buryeongsa

Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1017 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1017 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Manchu invasions

Following these events the Korean Kingdom became increasingly isolationist. Its rulers sought to limit contact with foreign countries. In addition, the Ming Dynasty was weakened, partly because of the war in Korea against Japan, which led to the establishment of the new Qing Dynasty. The Koreans decided to build tighter borders, exert more controls over inter-border traffic, and wait out the initial turbulence of the Manchu overthrow of the Ming. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Hwaseong (Brilliant Fortress) is located in Suwon, South Korea, 30 kilometers from Seoul. ... Suwon (Suwon-si) is the provincial capital of Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. ... Isolationism is a diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


Despite these limits, Korea had extensive trade with Mongolia, Northern Asia, China, and Japan. However, at times trade with Japan was limited to missions appointed by the king in order to prevent piracy and conduct orderly trade, which had been a problem even in the Goryeo Period. Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian...


Korea suffered from two invasions by the Manchus, in 1627 (see the First Manchu invasion of Korea) and 1637 (see the Second Manchu invasion of Korea). Korea surrendered to the Manchus and agreed to pay tribute to the new Qing dynasty emperors as a Qing dynasty's protectorate, which at this time involved two way trade missions with China. The Qing rulers adopted a foreign policy to avoid the creation of foreign trading enclaves on Chinese soil. This policy limited the presence of the traditional entrepot of the foreign hongs to Macau. These entrepot handled the significant trade of Chinese silks for foreign silver. This arrangement relegated foreign trade to the southern provinces of China, leaving the more unstable northern region under careful regulation and limiting the influence of foreigners. This decision affected Korea since China was Korea's main trading partner. Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... The First Manchu invasion of Korea occurred in 1627, when Hong Taiji led the Manchu army against Koreas Joseon dynasty. ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... The second Manchu invasion of Korea occurred in 1637, when the Manchu Qing Empire brought Koreas Joseon dynasty into submission. ... An entrepôt is a trading centre, or simply a warehouse, where merchandise can be imported and re-exported without paying import duties. ... Hong is a transliterated word in English with multiple meanings in Chinese. ...


Foreign trade restrictions except China helped strengthen Korea: the wealth of Korean natural resources, sophisticated technology, ceramics innovations and the key medicinal trade in ginseng was fostered by trading with the most technologically advanced nation at that time which was China. At this time a relatively sophisticated economy developed and the first western visitor, Hendrick Hamel, a Dutchman, arrived in 1653. Hamel taught arquebus technology to Korea. // Hendrick Hamel Hendrick Hamel was the first Westerner to write about the Joseon Dynasty era in Korea (1666). ...


Faction politics

Main article: Political factions in Joseon Dynasty

Throughout the Dynasty, various regional and ideological factions struggled for dominance of the political system. The factions evolved and shifted with the generations. In the earliest years of Joseon, tension between the capital faction and the Yeongnam-based Sarim faction predominated. Village Seowon, which combined the function of Confucian shrines with educational institutions, often reflected the factional alignment of the local elites. In areas where the Western faction predominated, key figures of Westerner thought such as were enshrined. In the 16th century, a nationwide split occurred between the Eastern faction (Dong-in) and Western factions (Seo-in). The Eastern faction in turn split under the reign of Seonjo between the hard-line Northern faction (Buk-in) and the moderate Southern faction (Nam-in).[2] The Western faction later split in its turn, between the Old Learning (Noron) and the Young Learning (Soron). // Greater Yun faction (in power 1544-1545) Yun Im (1487 - 1545) Lesser / Smaller Yun faction (1545-1575) Yun Won-Hyung (Prime-Minister : 1563-1565) Sim Ui-Gyeom (1535 - 1587) Hwang Yoon-gil Pak Sun Yun Pang (1563-1640) Kim Ja-jeom Kim Ryu Yi Gwi Noron faction (로론 or 노론;老論) : Old Doctrine... Yeongnam is the name of a region that coincides with the former Gyeongsang Province in what is now South Korea. ... The Sarim, or forest of scholars, was a powerful faction of literati in the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. ... Seowon were the dominant educational institution of Korea during the mid- to late Joseon Dynasty. ... King Seonjo ruled in Korea between 1567 and 1608. ...


These factional splits were often driven by questions of royal succession or appropriate royal conduct. For example, the split between the Northerners and Southerners was driven by questions involving the proper successor to Seonjo, who had no legitimate son. The Northerners came to support the Gwanghaegun; accordingly, they flourished under his reign (1608-1623) but were swept from power by the Westerners after the succession of Injo. Gwanghaegun or Prince Gwanghae (1574–1641; reigned 1608–1623) was the fifteenth king of the Joseon Dynasty. ... Injo of Joseon (1595-1649, r. ...


Under the reigns of Yeongjo and Jeongjo in the 18th century, the kings pursued a strict politcy of equality, favoring no faction over another.[3] However, in Jeongjo's reign strife re-emerged between the Byeokpa and Sipa, two groups which cut across the earlier factions and differed in their attitudes towards Yeongjo's murder of his son, who was also Jeongjo's father. In the 19th century, the playing field shifted once more, and in-law families rather than scholarly factions came to dominate the throne. For most of the 19th century, the Jangdong branch of the Andong Kim clan was in control of the government; however, there was a brief interlude in which control shifted to the Pungyang Jo clan. Yeongjo (1694-1776, r. ... Jeongjo of Joseon was King of Joseon (1776-1800) during the Joseon Dynasty dynasty in Korea. ... Kim is the most common family name in Korea. ...


When Daewon-gun's reign ended, Faction politics started declining and completely disappeared in the 19th century. The Daewon-gun, or formally Heungseon Heonui Daewon-wang also known to the western diplomats as Prince Kung, (1820–1898) was the title of Lee Ha-eung, who was the regent of Joseon during much of the later 19th century. ...


Imperialism power infiltration

See also: French Campaign against Korea, 1866
See also: United States expedition to Korea (1871)
See also: Treaty of Ganghwa

The French campaign against Korea of 1866 is also known as Byeonginyangyo (Korean: 병인양요, Western disturbance of the byeong-in year [1866]). It refers to the French occupation of Ganghwa Island in Korea in retaliation for the earlier execution by Korea of French Jesuit priests prosletyzing illicitly in that country. The encounter, which lasted nearly six weeks, was the first armed encounter between Korea and a western power. The overall result was a French retreat and a check on its influence in the region. The violent encounter also confirmed Korea in its isolationism for another decade. Combatants Joseon Dynasty Korea France Commanders Korea: King Gojong Daewon-gun France: Pierre-Gustave Roze Strength Korea: unknown France: 800 Casualties Korea: Unknown France: 40+ The French campaign against Korea of 1866 is also known as Byeonginyangyo (Western disturbance of the byeong-in year [1866]). It refers to the French... The United States expedition to Korea in 1871 also known as Sinmiyangyo (Korean: 신미양요 ,Western Disturbance of the Year Sinmi) was the first American military action in Korea. ... The Treaty of Ganghwa, also called Korea-Japanese Treaty of Amity, signed in 1876, was written by Kuroda Kiyotaka, Governor of Hokkaidō, and designed to open up Korea to Japanese trade. ... Combatants Joseon Dynasty Korea France Commanders Korea: King Gojong Daewon-gun France: Pierre-Gustave Roze Strength Korea: unknown France: 800 Casualties Korea: Unknown France: 40+ The French campaign against Korea of 1866 is also known as Byeonginyangyo (Western disturbance of the byeong-in year [1866]). It refers to the French... -1... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ...


The United States expedition to Korea in 1871 also known as Sinmiyangyo (Korean: 신미양요 ,Western Disturbance of the Year Sinmi) was the first American military action in Korea. It took place predominantly on and around the Korean island of Ganghwa. The reason for the presence of the American military expeditionary force in Korea was to support an American diplomatic delegation sent to establish trade and diplomatic relations with Korea, to ascertain the fate of the General Sherman merchant ship, and to establish a treaty assuring aid for shipwrecked sailors. The conservative nature of the Joseon Dynasty government and the assertiveness of the Americans led to a misunderstanding between the two parties that changed a diplomatic expedition into an armed conflict. The United States won a minor military victory, but as the Koreans refused to open up the country to them (and the U.S. forces in Korea did not have the authority or strength to press the issue) the United States failed to secure their diplomatic objectives. The United States expedition to Korea in 1871 also known as Sinmiyangyo (Korean: 신미양요 ,Western Disturbance of the Year Sinmi) was the first American military action in Korea. ... Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 &#8211; February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, and author. ...


In 1875, the Unyo, a small Japanese warship was dispatched to survey coastal waters without Korean permission. also then it attacked Korean port and withdrew back to Japan. Taking this opportunity, Japanese demanded treaty. The Treaty of Ganghwa became the first unequal treaty signed by Korea; it gave extraterritorial rights to Japanese citizens in Korea, the Korean government was to open 3 ports to Japanese and foreign trade, specifically Busan, Incheon and Wonsan and was to establish its independence in foreign relations from China (although it still paid tribute to China). 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Japanese gunboat Unyo. ... The Treaty of Ganghwa, also called Korea-Japanese Treaty of Amity, signed in 1876, was written by Kuroda Kiyotaka, Governor of Hokkaidō, and designed to open up Korea to Japanese trade. ... ... Busan Metropolitan City, also known as Pusan[1] is the largest port city in the Republic of Korea. ... Inchon redirects here. ... Wonsan is a port city and naval base in southeastern North Korea. ...


Decline

Early versions of the Korean flag
Early versions of the Korean flag

In the 19th century tensions mounted between Qing China and Japan, culminating in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895). Much of this war was fought on the Korean peninsula. Japan, after the Meiji Restoration, acquired Western military technology, had forced Joseon to sign the Treaty of Ganghwa in 1876. Japan encroached upon Korean territory in search of fish, iron ore, and natural resources. It also established a strong economic presence in the peninsula, heralding the beginning of Japanese imperial expansion in East Asia. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Taegukgi. ... Image File history File links Taegukgi. ... Please see: North Korea: Flag of North Korea South Korea: Flag of South Korea Unification Flag This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: &#28165;&#26397;; pinyin: q&#299;ng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of... Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... The Treaty of Ganghwa, also called Korea-Japanese Treaty of Amity, signed in 1876, was written by Kuroda Kiyotaka, Governor of Hokkaidō, and designed to open up Korea to Japanese trade. ...


Imo Rebellion and Gapsin Coup

As the dynasty declined, the king began to rely on newer, rifle-using armies. They were treated well and the old army who usd spears and old matchlocks began to become treated less well. The anger of the old army exploded when they were given their long-waited wages. Sand and stones were added to the rice they received. The old army revolted and after a short time, got control of the dynasty for a short while. The Matchlock was the first mechanism or lock invented to facilitate the firing of a hand-held firearm. ... RICE is a treatment method for soft tissue injury which is an abbreviation for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. ...


In 1884, 5 revolutionaries led a small anti-government army to Empress Myeongseong's brother's house and initiated a coup d'etat. It failed in 3 days. Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Her Imperial Majesty Empress Myeongseong of Korea (October 19, 1851 – October 8, 1895), more commonly known as Queen Min (明成皇后), was the last empress of Korea. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ...


Donghak Peasant Revolution

The Donghak Peasant Revolution was an anti-government, anti-yangban and anti-foreign campaign. It has been suggested that Donghak Rebellion be merged into this article or section. ... The Yangban were a well educated scholarly class of male Confucian scholars who were part of the ruling elite within Korea prior to 1945 and the republics period of Korean history. ...


The peasants demanded land distribution, tax reduction, democracy, and human rights. Taxes were so high that most farmers were forced to sell their ancestral homesteads to rich landowners at bargain prices. As a result, the peasant class developed intense anti-Japanese and anti-yangban sentiments. The rebellions' immediate cause was Jo Byong-gap, a government official whose rule was viewed by some as tyrannical and corrupt. On January 11, 1894, by peasant leader Jeon Bong-jun defeated the government forces at the battle of Go-bu, after the battle Jo's properties were handed out to the peasants. Meantime, the Joseon government army attacked Jeonju and both the Joseon government and the peasant army concluded an agreement. However the urgent Joseon government asked the Chinese Qing dynasty government for assistance in ending the revolt. After notifying the Japanese in accordance with the Convention of Tientsin Qing sent troops into Korea. It was the catalyst for the First Sino-Japanese War. Jeongeup (Jeongeup-si) is a city in North Jeolla Province, South Korea. ...


In late June of 1894, the pro-Japanese forces hatched a plan to wipe out the Peasant Army in co-operation with the Japanese troops stationed in Incheon and Seoul. On October 16, the Peasant Army moved toward Gongju for the final battle, which was a trap. The Japanese and the pro-Japanese government troops were in fact waiting for them inside. Inchon redirects here. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... Gongju (Gongju-si) is a city in South Chungcheong province, South Korea. ...


The Donghak Army was defeated in the Battle of Ugeumchi. The Japanese had cannons and other modern weapons, whereas the Korean peasants were armed only with bows and arrows, spears, swords, and some flintlock muskets. A few months later, Jeon was captured and executed. Flintlock of an 18th Century hunting rifle, with piece of flint missing. ...


The revolution failed, but many grievances of the peasants would later be addressed through the Gabo Reform. The Gabo Reform or Gabo Gyeongjang (&#44049;&#50724; &#44221;&#51109;; &#30002;&#21320;&#26356;&#24373;) describes a series of sweeping reforms introduced into Korea (at that time called Joseon) in 1894, during the reign of King Gojong. ...


Assassination of Empress Myeongseong

Main article: Empress Myeongseong

In 1895, Empress Myeongseong was assassinated by Japanese agents. The Japanese minister to Korea, Miura Goro orchestrated the plot against her. A group of Japanese agents entered the Imperial palace in Seoul, which was under Japanese guard, and Empress Myeongseong (referred to as "Queen Min" by the Japanese) was killed and her body desecrated in the North wing of the palace. The empress had attempted to counter Japanese interference in Korea and was considering turning to Russia or China for support. After the assassination of his consort, Emperor Gojong refused to talk with his father, the Daewon-gun, believing him complicit in the assassination. Empress Myeongseong (October 19, 1851 – October 8, 1895), also known as Queen Min, was one of the wives of King Gojong, the 26th king of the Joseon dynasty of Korea. ... Her Imperial Majesty Empress Myeongseong of Korea (October 19, 1851 – October 8, 1895), more commonly known as Queen Min (明成皇后), was the last empress of Korea. ... Miura Goro (1846-1926) Born in Yamaguchi, Japan in 1846, he was appointed foriegn minister to Korea in 1895, where he as involve in the murder of Empress Min of Korea. ... Gojong, the Emperor Gwangmu (광무제 光武帝 gwang mu je) (8 September 1852–21 January 1919) was the twenty-sixth king and first emperor of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. ... The Daewon-gun, or formally Heungseon Heonui Daewon-wang also known to the western diplomats as Prince Kung, (1820–1898) was the title of Lee Ha-eung, who was the regent of Joseon during much of the later 19th century. ...


Korean Empire

Main article: Korean Empire

The Chinese defeat in the 1894 war led to the Treaty of Shimonoseki between China and Japan, which officially guaranteed Korea's independence from China. It was a step for Japan to hold regional hegemony in Korea. After that, Korea built the Independence Gate and stopped paying tributes to the Qing Dynasty. The Joseon court, pressured by encroachment from larger powers, felt the need to reinforce national integrity and declared the Korean Empire in 1897. King Gojong assumed the title of Emperor in order to assert Korea's independence. In addition, other foreign powers were sought for military technology, especially Russia, to fend off the Japanese. Technically, 1897 marks the end of the Joseon period, as the official name of the empire was changed; however the Joseon Dynasty would still reign, albeit perturbed by Japanese interventions such as in 1895, when the Japanese murdered Empress Myeongseong of Korea. The murder was apparently orchestrated by Miura Gorō because the Korean Empress was effective in keeping Japan at bay. In 1910 Japan annexed the Korean peninsula which effectively ended the Joseon Dynasty rule. This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Shunpanrō hall where the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed The Treaty of Shimonoseki (Japanese: 下関条約, Shimonoseki Jōyaku), known as the Treaty of Maguan (T. Chinese: 馬關條約, S. Chinese: 马关条约;) in China, was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895 between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire. ... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... The Independence Gate is a memorial gate located in Seoul, South Korea. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Gojong, the Emperor Gwangmu (&#44305;&#47924;&#51228; &#20809;&#27494;&#24093; gwang mu je) (8 September 1852&#8211;21 January 1919) was the twenty-sixth king and first emperor of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. ... Her Imperial Majesty Empress Myeongseong of Korea (October 19, 1851 – October 8, 1895), more commonly known as Queen Min (明成皇后), was the last empress of Korea. ... Miura Gorō ) (1846-1926), born in Yamaguchi, Japan to a samurai of the Hagi clan, was the Japanese foreign minister to Korea. ...


The collapse of Russia's navy in the historic Battle of Port Arthur (in which Russia's imperial navy was destroyed in a decisive surprise attack), led to a great weakening of Korea's umbrella of protection. Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Admiral Heihachiro Togo Vice Admiral Shigeto Dewa Oskar Victorovich Stark Strength 15 battleships and cruisers with escorts 12 battleships and cruisers with escorts Casualties 90 men and slight damage 150 men and seven ships damaged The Battle of Port Arthur (Japanese: 旅順港閉塞作戦, Ryojunkō Heisoku...


The combined effect on China of the opium wars to the south and Japanese naval strikes in the north increasingly led the Japanese to see Korea as a strategic foothold into north China, just as Macau and Hong Kong were Portuguese and British trade enclaves into south China.


Japanese occupation

In a complicated series of manoeuvres and counter-manoeuvres, Japan pushed back the Russian fleet at the Battle of Port Arthur in 1905. Both the fleets of China and Russia had given Korea sufficient protection to prevent a direct invasion, but this ambuscade of the Russian fleet gave Japan free reign over north China, and Korea was left at the mercy of the new regional naval power: Japan.


With the conclusion of the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War with the Treaty of Portsmouth, the way was open for Japan to take control of Korea. After the signing of the Protectorate Treaty in 1905, Korea became a protectorate of Japan. Itō Hirobumi was the first Resident-General of Korea, although he was assassinated in 1909 at the train station at Harbin. This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Itō Hirobumi , 16 October 1841–26 October 1909, also called Hirofumi/Hakubun and Shunsuke in his youth) was a Japanese statesman, Resident-General of Korea, four times Prime Minister of Japan (the 1st, 5th, 7th and 10th) and genrō. Itō was assassinated by An Jung-geun, a Korean anti-Japanese...


Japan annexed Korea in 1910. The Treaty of Annexation of Korea by Japan, also called in Korea 경술국치(庚戌國恥), meaning Humiliation of the Nation in the Year of the Dog, was signed on August 22, 1910 by the representatives of the Korean and Japanese Imperial Governments. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Social hierarchy system

A junk with fishermen in 1871. This is the oldest surviving photograph known to show Koreans, taken by Felice Beato during the U.S. military campaign.
A junk with fishermen in 1871. This is the oldest surviving photograph known to show Koreans, taken by Felice Beato during the U.S. military campaign.

During the Joseon Dynasty, a centralized administrative system was installed based on Confucian scholars who were called Yangban. Yangban were composed of military and bureaucrat parts. The entire country was organized with a status system, with the king at the top of the pyramid, the yangban forming the upper class, a small middle class of government employees known as chungin, and the bulk of the population — peasants, laborers and fishermen — classified as sangmin. Sangmin men were taxed for Jo(租)·Po(布)·Yeok(役). Sometimes heavy tax and corruption of local bureaucrats caused riots. Image File history File links First_known_photo_of_Koreans_1871. ... Image File history File links First_known_photo_of_Koreans_1871. ... Felice Beato, unknown photographer, c. ... Shinmiyangyo (lit. ...


At the bottom of the pyramid were the cheonmin or low-born and slaves. Slavery was hereditary, as well as a form of legal punishment. There was a slave class with both government and privately owned slaves, and the government occasionally gave slaves to citizens of higher rank. Privately owned slaves could be inherited as personal property. During poor harvests, many Sangmin people would voluntarily become slaves in order to survive. In the case of private slaves they could buy their freedom. During the Joseon Dynasty about 30% to 40% of the Korean population consisted of slaves.[4][5] The Lower classes had specialties such as butchery and shoe-making which were regarded as unclean jobs. Cheonmin, or vulgar commoners, were the lowest class during the Goryeo and Joseon periods of Korean history. ... Slave redirects here. ...


The social hierarchy of the Joseon Dynasty was developed based on the social hierarchy of the Koryo era. In the 14th-17th centuries, this hierarchy became more strict and stable. But in the 18-19th centuries, a new upper class emerged and the old class system was somewhat diminished. The status system of Joseon was officially ended in 1894. In modern Korean society, it is not apparent, but some Yangban families still honor their bloodline. The Goryeo kingdom ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ...


Culture

The Joseon Dynasty presided over two periods of great cultural growth, during which Joseon culture created the first Korean tea ceremony, Korean gardens, and extensive historic works. The royal dynasty also built several fortresses, trading harbors, and palaces. A typical setting for a Korean tea ceremony disregarding a contemporary tiled rather than paper covered floor The Korean tea ceremony is a unique form of tea ceremony practiced in Korea for more than a thousand years. ... Korean gardens have a history that go back a thousand years, but are little known in the west. ...


Science

See also: Kangnido map

Many Korean inventions are from this period, such as the first Asian sundial and the world's first water-powered clock. Also, King Sejong saw the development of the world's first rain gauge, made by court scientist Jang Yeong-sil. [1] During the Joseon period, the metal movable type, invented during the Goryeo dynasty in 1232, supplanted the wood-block printing in China. The Kangnido map (Integrated Historical Map of Countries and Cities), was made in Korea from Chinese source material in 1402, by Kim Sa-hyeong (김사형:金士衡), Yi Mu (이무:李茂) and Yi Hoe (이회). The map depicts the totality of the Old World, from Europe and Africa in the west, to Korea and Japan in... For other uses, see Sundial (disambiguation). ... King Sejong the Great (May 6, 1397 - May 18, 1450), born I Do, was the fourth ruler of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1418 to 1450. ... Standard Rain Gauge Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Recorder Close up of a Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Recorder chart A rain gauge (also known as an udometer or a pluviometer) is a type of instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation (as opposed... Jang Yeong-sil was a Korean scientist and astronomer during the Joseon Dynasty under King Sejong. ... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ...


Economy

Trade and commerce

During the Goryeo Dynasty, Korea had a healthy trade relationship with the Arabians, Japanese, Chinese, and Manchurians. An example of prosperous, international trade port is Pyongnam. Koreans offered brocades, jewelries, ginseng, silk, and porcelain, renowned famous worldwide. But, during the Joseon Dynasty, Confucianism was adopted as the national philosophy, and, in process of eliminating certain Buddhist beliefs, Goryeo Cheongja porcelains were replaced by white Baekja, which lost favour of the Chinese and the Arabians. Additionally, commerce became more restricted during this time in order to promote agriculture. Additionally, constant Chinese request for tribute pushed the Korean policy of ceasing to produce various luxury item elements (i.e. gold, silver), and importing only the necessary amounts from Japan. Because silver was used as currency in China, it played important role in Korea-China trade. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... South Pyŏngan (Pyŏngan-namdo) is a province of North Korea. ... Not to be confused with ginger. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


The family today

After the invasion and de facto annexation of Korea by Japanese in 1910, the Princes and Princesses of the Imperial Family were forced to leave for Japan to be re-educated and married. The Korean Imperial Household The Korean Imperial Household consists of the descendants of the Joseon Dynasty royal family. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

This photo, taken about 1915 (is actually a compilation of individual photographs taken since the Japanese did not allow them to all be in the same room at the same time, and some were forced to leave Korea), shows the following royal family members, from left: Prince Uichin, the sixth son of Gojong; King Sunjong, the second son and the last monarch of Joseon; Prince Yeongchin, the seventh son; then former King Gojong; Queen Yundaebi, wife of Sunjong; Deogindang Gimbi, wife of Uichin; and Yi Geon, the eldest son of Uichin. The seated child in the front row is Princess Deokhye, Gojong's last child.)
This photo, taken about 1915 (is actually a compilation of individual photographs taken since the Japanese did not allow them to all be in the same room at the same time, and some were forced to leave Korea), shows the following royal family members, from left: Prince Uichin, the sixth son of Gojong; King Sunjong, the second son and the last monarch of Joseon; Prince Yeongchin, the seventh son; then former King Gojong; Queen Yundaebi, wife of Sunjong; Deogindang Gimbi, wife of Uichin; and Yi Geon, the eldest son of Uichin. The seated child in the front row is Princess Deokhye, Gojong's last child.)

The Heir to the Throne, Imperial Crown Prince Uimin, married Princess Yi Bang-ja nee Nashimoto, and had two sons, Princes Yi Jin and Yi Gu. His elder brother, Imperial Prince Ui had twelve sons and nine daughters from various wives and concubines. Image File history File links Choseon_Imperial_family. ... Image File history File links Choseon_Imperial_family. ... His Imperial Highness the Crown Prince Eun (&#63969;&#22432; &#51060;&#51008;), hwang tae ja yeong chin wang jeon ha (&#30343;&#22826;&#23376;&#33521;&#35242;&#29579;&#27583;&#19979; &#54889;&#53468;&#51088; &#50689;&#52828;&#50773; &#51204;&#54616;), (born 20 October 1897 - 1 May 1970) is the 28th Head of Korean Imperial Household... Her Imperial Highness Crown Princess Bang-ja of Korea (&#33521;&#35242;&#29579;&#22915;&#63969;&#26041;&#23376;&#27583;&#19979; &#50689;&#52828;&#50773;&#48708; &#51060;&#48169;&#51088; &#51204;&#54616; ; 4 November 1901-30 April 1989) was the consort of Crown Prince Eun of Korea. ... Their Imperial Highnesses Prince and Princess His Imperial Highness Prince Gu (&#63969;&#29590; &#51060;&#44396;, born 29 December 1931, in Tokyo, Japan) is the 29th head of the Korean Imperial Household and grandson of Emperor Gojong of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Gang (李堈 이강 i gang) of Korea, (대한제국 의친왕 이강 전하 dae han je guk eui chin wang i gang jeon ha), (born 30 March 1877 - ? August 1955) was the fifth son of Emperor Gwangmu of Korea and his concubine, Lady Jang who was a courts lady-in-waiting. ...


The Crown Prince lost his status in Japan at the end of World War II and returned to Korea in 1963 after an invitation by the Republican Government. He suffered a stroke as his plane landed in Seoul and was rushed to a hospital. He never recovered and died in 1970. His brother, Imperial Prince Ui died in 1955 and the Korean people officially considered this to be the end of the Royal line. [citation needed] Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Presently His Highness Prince Yi Seok is one of two pretenders[citation needed] to the throne of Korea. He is a son of Prince Gang of Korea, a fifth son of Gojong of Korea and currently a professor of history lecturing at Jeonju University in the Republic of Korea. His Highness Yi Seok (born 1941) a descendant of the Joseon Dynasty is one of two pretenders to the throne of Korea. ... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Gang (李堈 이강 i gang) of Korea, (대한제국 의친왕 이강 전하 dae han je guk eui chin wang i gang jeon ha), (born 30 March 1877 - ? August 1955) was the fifth son of Emperor Gwangmu of Korea and his concubine, Lady Jang who was a courts lady-in-waiting. ...


Furthermore, many descendants live throughout the United States and Brazil, having settled elsewhere, outside of Korea.


Today, many tombs of the descendants still exist on top of the mountain in Yangju. According to the pedigree written on the tombstone, it is believed that these descendants are from the great king of Joseon, Seongjeong(The 9th ruler of Joseon Dynasty). It was discovered that this mountain belongs to the member of the royal family named Yi Won (Born in 1958). More details of current descendants of the House of Yi. King Seongjong of Joseon (1457-1494) was the 9th Ruler of Korea of the Joseon Dynasty. ... The Joseon Dynasty (alternatively, Choson or Chosun) was the final ruling dynasty of Korea, lasting from 1392 until 1910. ...


The Imperial Family

Gojong, the Emperor Gwangmu (&#44305;&#47924;&#51228; &#20809;&#27494;&#24093; gwang mu je) (8 September 1852&#8211;21 January 1919) was the twenty-sixth king and first emperor of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... King Yeongjo was the 21st king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. ... Sunjong, Crown Prince Cheok (hwangtaeja), crowned Emperor Yunghui (Korean hangul: 융희제; hanja: 隆熙帝; revised: yunghuije; McCune-Reischauer: yunghÅ­ije; March 25, 1874–April 24, 1926) was the last emperor of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea, ruling from 1907 until 1920. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Imperial Ui (also Eui), the Prince Imperial Uihwa (also Euihwa), (born 30 March 1877 - ? August 1955) was the fifth son of Emperor Gwangmu of Korea and his concubine, Lady Yang who was a court lady-in-waiting. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Prince Wu of Korea (1912-1945), was the 4th head of Unhyeon Palace and a member of the Imperial family of Korea. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Lord Yi Chung (1936-), is a member of the former Imperial Family of Korea. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yi Won (born 1962) is the general manager of Hyundai Home Shopping, a branch of the Hyundai chaebol. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... Her Highness Princess Yi Haewon of Korea (born 1919) a descendant of the Joseon Dynasty is the pretender to the throne of Korea. ... His Highness Yi Seok (born 1941) a descendant of the Joseon Dynasty is one of two pretenders to the throne of Korea. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Yi Hong (born 1976) is a descendant of the Joseon Dynasty rulers, who works as a model and entertainer. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... His Imperial Highness the Crown Prince Eun (&#63969;&#22432; &#51060;&#51008;), hwang tae ja yeong chin wang jeon ha (&#30343;&#22826;&#23376;&#33521;&#35242;&#29579;&#27583;&#19979; &#54889;&#53468;&#51088; &#50689;&#52828;&#50773; &#51204;&#54616;), (born 20 October 1897 - 1 May 1970) is the 28th Head of Korean Imperial Household... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gu, Prince of Korea (aka Yi Ku, I Gu, Lee Gu) (29 December 1931 – 16 July 2005) was a claimant to the throne of Korea, contested twenty-ninth head of the Korean Imperial Household, and the grandson of Gojong of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Princess Deokhye of Korea (25 May 1912 - 21 April 1989) was the last Princess of Korea. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...

Titles and styles

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

During the Kingdom

  • King (王 왕 wang), the King, with the style of His Majesty (殿下 전하 jeonha) or, not as correct but yet still quite commonly, His Royal Highness (媽媽 마마 mama). Before the style of "jeon ha" were used a variety of titles for the king. For references to late monarchs the title was Great Predecessor King (先大王 선대왕 seondaewang) or Great King (大王 대왕 daewang); for foreign envoys the title used was State King (國王 국왕 gugwang); and for those in the court who needed to mention the king outside his presence, and thus more formality was required in addressing the monarch, the title was Current King (今上 금상 geum-sang),Sovereign (主上 주상 jusang or 上監 상감 sanggam), or Grand Palace (大殿 대전 daejeon). The style remained the same for all titles with the exception of queen dowagers and the relatively few kings who abdicated, who simply addressed or mentioned the king without using his style.
  • Queen Consort (王妃 왕비 wangbi), the Queen Consort, with the style of Her Royal Highness (媽媽 마마 mama). The title used in the court language was Center Palace (中宮殿 중궁전 junggungjeon or 中殿 중전 jungjeon). Queen consorts that remained married to the king until their death were generally given a title consisting of two Hanja in the front and the customary suffix Queen (王后 왕후 wanghu) in the back.
  • King Former (上王 상왕 sangwang), a king who has voluntarily abdicated for his son to take his place. They usually remained influential or even powerful through the remaining years of their lives. The style of His Majesty (殿下 전하 jeonha) or, less frequently but yet still quite commonly, His Royal Highness (媽媽 마마 mama) was used.
  • Queen Dowager (大妃 대비 daebi), the current incumbent of the throne's mother, with the style of Her Royal Highness (媽媽 마마 mama). Queen dowagers often exercised a great deal of influence on the king's influence through their regencies, which took place when the king was too young to rule in his own name, or simply through their role as the mother or even a senior female relative of the monarch.
  • Grand King Former (太上王 태상왕 taesangwang), an abdicated king whose relinquishment of power precedes that of another former king. The style of His Majesty (殿下 전하 jeonha) or, less frequently but yet still quite commonly, His Royal Highness (媽媽 마마 m-ma) was used.
  • Royal Queen Dowager (王大妃 왕대비 wangdaebi), a former consort preceding the least senior queen dowager or current King's aunt or grandmother, with the style of Her Royal Highness (媽媽 마마 mama).
  • Grand Royal Queen Dowager (大王大妃 대왕대비 daewangdaebi), a former consort senior to two other queend dowagers or the current King's great-grandmother, with the style of Her Royal Highness (媽媽 마마 mama).
  • Grand Internal Prince (大阮君 대원군 daewongun), the father of a king who was unable to take the throne himself as he was not part of the generation following that of the last incumbent of the throne (kings who are honored at the royal Jongmyo Shrine must be senior generation-wise for the current incumbent to pay homage there). There have been cases when grand chief princes acted as regents for their sons, the last person to do so having been the Regent Heungseon.
  • Grand Internal Princess Consort (府大夫人 부대부인 budaebuin), the mother of a king whose father himself never reigned.
  • Internal Prince (府院君 부원군 buwongun), the queen consort's father.
  • Internal Princess Consort (府夫人 부부인 bubuin), the queen consort's mother.
  • Prince (君 군 gun), a son born to the match between the king and a concubine or a descendant of a grand prince. The style used is His Young Highness (아기씨 agissi) before marriage and the style His Excellency (大監 대감 daegam) afterward.
  • Princess Consort (郡夫人 군부인 gunbuin), the consort of a prince.
  • Grand Prince (大君 대군 daegun), a prince born to the official match between the king and queen with the style of His Young Highness (아기씨 agissi) before marriage and the style His Excellency (大監 대감 daegam) afterward. The title of a grand prince is not inherited and his sons are generally referred to as mere princes.
  • Grand Princess Consort (府夫人 부부인 bubuin), the consort of a grand prince.
  • Prince Royal (元子 원자 wonja), the firstborn son of the king before being formally invested as heir apparent, with the style of His Royal Highness (媽媽 마마 mama). Generally, Prince Royals were the son who was born first between the king and his official wife, but there were exceptions when the title of Prince Royal was given to the firstborn son of the king through a concubine, the most notable case having occurred in the reign of King Sukjong.
  • Royal Prince Successor (王世子 왕세자 wangseja) the heir apparent to the throne, with the eldest son of the king given precedence over his brothers given that there were no major problems with his conduct, with the simplified title Prince Successor (世子 세자 seja) being frequently used instead of the full name with the style of His Royal Highness (邸下 저하 jeoha). In less formal but still official court language, the title Eastern Palace (東宮 동궁 donggung) or Spring Palace (春宮 춘궁 chungung) and the style His Royal Highness (媽媽 마마 mama) was used intermittently with "Prince Successor," although the style was frequently dropped by more senior members of the royal family.
  • Royal Princess Successor Consort (王世子嬪 왕세자빈 wangsaejabin), the consort of the heir apparent, or simply Princess Successor Consort (世子嬪 세자빈 saejabin), with the style of Her Royal Consort Highness (마노라 manora or 마누라 manura). Later, as the distinction between "Her Royal Highness" and "Her Royal Consort Highness" became unclear due to the influence of the Andong Kim clan, the style Her Royal Highness (媽媽 마마 mama) also came to apply to the consort of the heir apparent. The style ~ Royal Highness also came to apply to grand princes, princes, and princess as well for the same reason.
  • Princess (公主 공주 gongju), the daughter of the official match between the king and his official wife, with the style of Her Young Highness (아기씨 agissi) before marriage and Her Excellency (자가 jaga) afterward.
  • Princess (翁主 옹주 ongju), the daughter of the king and one of his concubines, with the style of Her Young Highness (아기씨 agissi) before marriage and Her Excellency (자가 jaga) afterward.
  • Royal Prince Successor Brother (王世弟 왕세제 wangseje), the younger brother of the king who has been formally invested as heir presumptive as the king has no offspring.
  • Royal Prince Successor Descendant (王世孫 왕세손 wangseson), the son of the Prince Successor and the Princess Successor Consort, and the grandson of the king, with the style of His Highness (閤下 합하 hap-a).

Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... Sukjong of Joseon ruled Korea from 1674 to 1720, the nineteenth ruler of the Joseon Dynasty. ...

During the Empire

  • Hwangje (皇帝 황제), the Emperor, with the style of His Imperial Majesty (陛下 폐하 pyeha)
  • Hwanghu (皇后 황후), the Empress (consort), with the style of Her Imperial Majesty
  • Hwangtaehu (皇太后 황태후), the Empress Dowager
  • Taehwangtaehu (太皇太后 태황태후), the Empress Dowager, current Emperor's living grandmother
  • Hwangtaeja (皇太子 황태자), the Crown Prince of the Empire, the eldest son of Emperor, with the style of His Imperial Highness (殿下 전하 jeonha)
  • Hwangtaeja-bi (皇太子妃 황태자비), the Crown Princess (consort) of Empire, with the style of Her Imperial Highness
  • Chinwang (親王 친왕), the Prince (Imperial), son of Emperor, with the style of His Imperial Highness
  • Chinwangbi (親王妃 친왕비), the Princess (Imperial) (consort), with the style of Her Imperial Highness
  • Gongju (公主 공주), the Princess of Empire, the daughter of Emperor and his Empress consort, with the style of Her Imperial Highness
  • Ongju (翁主 옹주), the Princess of Empire, the daughter of Emperor and one of his concubines, with the style of Her Imperial Highness

References

The Joseon Dynasty recorded its history in the Annals of Joseon Dynasty. The Annals of Joseon Dynasty are the annual records of the Joseon Dynasty, who ruled Korea, and were written from 1413 (year 13 of the reign of Taejong) to 1865 (year 2 of the reign of Gojong). ...


There is presently no official historian of the Korean royal family, and in Korea, the annals of the last two emperors edited with help of Japanese are not included in the Annals of Joseon Dynasty. Occasional references to the Korean Royal Family and its present charities and activities in the arts or in cultural preservation are found on websites on world royalty.

  1. ^ 宣祖實錄二十五年 (1592) 五月壬戌 (May 3) “危亡迫至, 君臣之間, 何可有隱? 大抵收拾人心爲上。 近來宮人作弊。 內需司人, 假稱宮物, 而積怨於民。 今日生變之由, 皆緣王子宮人作弊, 故人心怨叛, 與倭同心矣。 聞賊之來也, 言: ‘我不殺汝輩, 汝君虐民, 故如此。’ 云我民亦曰: ‘倭亦人也, 吾等何必棄家而避也?’ 請誅內需司作弊人, 且免平安道積年逋欠。” “慶尙道人皆叛云, 然耶?”-The annals of the Choson Dynasty-National Institute of Korean History
  2. ^ Lee (1984), p. 221.
  3. ^ Lee (1984), p. 223.
  4. ^ Korean Nobi
  5. ^ Nobi: Rescuing the Nation from Slavery
  • A Cultural History of Modern Korea, Wannae Joe, ed. with intro. by Hongkyu A. Choe, Elizabeth NY, and Seoul Korea: Hollym, 2000.
  • An Introduction to Korean Culture, ed. Koo & Nahm, Elizabeth NJ, and Seoul Korea: Hollym, 1998. 2nd edition.
  • Noon Eu Ro Bo Neun Han Gook Yuk Sa #7 by Jang Pyung Soon. Copyright 1998 Joong Ang Gyo Yook Yun Goo Won, Ltd. Pg. 46-47.

The Annals of Joseon Dynasty are the annual records of the Joseon Dynasty, who ruled Korea, and were written from 1413 (year 13 of the reign of Taejong) to 1865 (year 2 of the reign of Gojong). ...

See also

This is a list of Wikipedia articles on Korea-related people, places, things, and concepts. ... Jamo redirects here. ... From 1392 to 1910, Korea was ruled by the Yi dynasty, also known as the Joseon dynasty. ... Combatants Joseon Dynasty Korea, Ming Dynasty China, Jurchen tribes Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea: King Seonjo Prince Gwanghae Yi Sun-sin†, Gwon Yul, Yu Seong-ryong, Yi Eok-gi†, Won Gyun†, Kim Myeong-won, Yi Il, Sin Rip†, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Shi-Min† China: Li Rusong† , Li Rubai... Hwaseong (Brilliant Fortress) is located in Suwon, South Korea, 30 kilometers from Seoul. ... The Independence Gate is a memorial gate located in Seoul, South Korea. ... Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their ruling era. ... This article is about the history of Korea, up to the division of Korea in the 1940s. ...

External links

  • Cultural Values of the Choson Dynasty - from the award-winning website Instrok.org, created by East Rock Institute
  • "Click into the Hermit Kingdom" - 100 articles in English on the Joseon Dynasty
  • Korean royal family website - currently available only in Korean.
  • Choson dynasty
  • "Japanese Document Sheds New Light on Korean Queen's Murder" - Ohmynews.com's uncovered document about murder of Queen Minbi
  • "E-Annals Bring Chosun History to Everyman", The Chosun Ilbo, January 27, 2006.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Joseon Dynasty | Definition | Information | Explanation | Review | WikiCity.com - Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia, Free ... (437 words)
The Joseon Dynasty was founded in 1392 by Korean general Yi Seonggye (Taejo), who overthrew the former kingdom of Goryeo and established the kingdom of Joseon in a coup d'etat, simultaneously ending the period of Mongol domination that had begun in 1259.
During the Joseon Dynasty, a centralized administrative system was installed and Confucianism adopted.
Joseon Dynasty recorded its history as Annals of Joseon Dynasty.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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