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Encyclopedia > José Ortega y Gasset
José Ortega y Gasset

José Ortega y Gasset (May 9, 1883 - October 18, 1955) was a Spanish philosopher. José Ortega y Gasset source: http://www. ... José Ortega y Gasset source: http://www. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... 1883 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in Leap years). ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Philosophy derives from a combination of the Greek words philos meaning love and sophia meaning wisdom. ...

Contents

Biography

Born in Madrid, he was first schooled by the Jesuit Fathers of San Estanislao in Miraflores del Palo, Málaga (1891-1897). He attended the University of Deusto, Bilbao (1897-98) and the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters at the Central University of Madrid (1898-1904), receiving a doctorate in Philosophy. From 1905 to 1907, he continued his studies in Germany at Leipzig, Nuremberg, Cologne, Berlin and, above all Marburg. At Marburg, he was influenced by the neo-Kantianism of Hermann Cohen and Paul Natorp, among others. Coat of arms Plaza de España (Spain square) Madrid, the capital of Spain, is located in the center of the country at 40°25′ N 3°45′ W. Population of the city of Madrid proper was 3,093,000 (Madrilenes, madrileños) as of 2003 estimates. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Málaga is a port city in Andalucia, southern Spain, on the Costa del Sol coast of the Mediterranean. ... 1891 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1897 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The University of Deusto is one of the most distinguished academic institutions in Spain, with campuses in Bilbao and San Sebastian. ... Geography > Europe > Spain > Basque Country > Biscay Cityscape of Bilbao, with the Guggenheim Museum on the bottom right Bilbao from satellite (NASA World Wind Landsat) Bilbao (Basque: Bilbo) is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the Pais Vasco and the capital of the province of Vizcaya (Basque: Bizkaia). ... 1897 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1898 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1898 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1907 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Map of Germany showing Leipzig Leipzig [ˈlaiptsɪç] (Polish; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... Nuremberg coat of arms Location of Nuremberg Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... Cologne skyline at night. ... Berlin (pronounced: , German ) is the capital of Germany and its largest city, with 3,426,000 inhabitants (as of January 2005); down from 4. ... Marburg is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the Lahn river. ... Neo-Kantianism means a revived or modified type of philosophy along the lines of that laid down by Immanuel Kant in the eighteenth century. ... Hermann Cohen by Karl Doerbecker Hermann Cohen (4 July 1842 - 4 April 1918) was a German-Jewish philosopher, one of the founders of the Marburg School of Neo-Kantianism, and he is often held to be probably the most important Jewish philosopher of the nineteenth century (Jewish Virtual Library). ...


Upon his return to Spain (1909) he was named numerary professor of Psychology, Logic and Ethics at the Escuela Superior del Magisterio de Madrid; in October 1910 he was granted the Chair (Cátedra) in Metaphysics of the Central University, empty since the death of Nicolás Salmerón. 1909 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of behaviour, mind and thought. ... Logic (from ancient Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy amongst philosophers (see below). ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... 1910 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ...


In 1917 he became a contributor to the newspaper El Sol, where he published as a series of essays his two principal works: España invertebrada (Invertebrate Spain) and La rebelión de las masas (The Revolt of the Masses); the latter made him internationally famous. He founded the Revista de Occidente in 1923, remaining its director until 1936. This publication promoted translation of (and commentary upon) the most important figures and tendencies in philosophy, including Oswald Spengler, Johan Huizinga, Edmund Husserl, Georg Simmel, Jakob von Uexküll, Heinz Heimsoeth, Franz Brentano, Hans Driesch, Ernst Müller, Alexander Pfänder, and Bertrand Russell. 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (Blankenburg am Harz May 29, 1880 – May 8, 1936, Munich) was a German historian and philosopher, although his studies ranged throughout mathematics, science, philosophy, history, and art. ... Johan Huizinga (December 7, 1872 - February 1, 1945), a Dutch historian, one of the founders of modern cultural history. ... Edmund Husserl Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl, (April 8, 1859 - April 26, 1938), philosopher, was born into a Jewish family in Prostějov (Prossnitz), Moravia, Czech Republic (then part of the Austrian Empire). ... Georg Simmel (March 1, 1858 - September 28, 1918) was one of the first generation of German sociologists. ... Jakob von Uexküll (September 8, 1864 - July 25, 1944) was an Estonian biologist who had important achievements in the fields of muscular physiology and the cybernetics of life. ... Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (January 16, 1838 Marienberg am Rhein (near Boppard) - March 17, 1917 Zürich) was an influential figure in both philosophy and psychology. ... Hans Adolf Eduard Driesch (October 28, 1867 - April 16, 1941) was a German biologist and philosopher. ... Bertrand Russell Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM (18 May 1872–2 February 1970) was an influential mathematician, philosopher, and logician of the modern age, working mostly in the 20th century. ...


Philosophy

Circunstancia

For Ortega y Gasset, philosophy has a critical duty to siege beliefs in order to promote new ideas and to explain reality. In order to accomplish such task the philosopher must, as Husserl proposed, leave behind prejudices and previously existing beliefs and investigate the essential reality of the universe. Ortega proposes that philosophy must, as Hegel proposed, overcome the lacks of both idealism (in which reality gravitated around the ego) and ancient-medieval realism (which is for him an undeveloped point of view in which the subject is located outside the world) in order to focus in the only truthful reality (i.e. life), in which there is no me without things and things are nothing without me, no me (human being) detached from my circumstances (world). This led Ortega to pronounce his famous maxim "Yo soy yo y mi circunstancia" ("I am myself and my circumstance") which he always situated in the core of his philosophy. For Ortega, as for Husserl, the Cartesian cogito is insufficient to explain reality—therefore the Spanish philosopher proposes a system where life is the sum of the ego and circumstance. This circunstancia is oppressive and, therefore, there is a continual dialectical exchange of forces between the person and his or hers circumstance and, as a result, life is a drama that exists between necessity and freedom. In this sense Ortega wrote that life is at the same time fate and freedom, “is being free inside of a given fate. Fate gives us an inexorable repertory of determinate possibilities, that is, it gives us different destinies. We accept fate and within it we choose one destiny.” In this tied down fate we must therefore be active, decide and create a “project of life”—thus not being like those who live a conventional life of customs and given structures who prefer an unconcerned and imperturbable life just because they are afraid of the duty of choosing a project. Edmund Husserl Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (April 8, 1859 - April 26, 1938), philosopher, was born into a Jewish family in Prossnitz, Moravia (Prostejov, Czech Republic), Empire of Austria-Hungary. ...


Raciovitalismo

With a philosophical system that centered around life, Ortega y Gasset also stepped out of Descartes' cogito ergo sum and asserted "I live therefore I think". This stood at the root of his Nietzsche-inspired perspectivism, which he developed by adding a non-relativistic character in which absolute truth does exist and would be obtained by the sum of all perspectives of all lives, since for each human being, life takes a concrete form and life itself is a true radical reality from which any philosophical system must derive. In this sense, Ortega coined the terms "razón vital" ("vital reason" or "reason with life as its foundation") to refer to a new type of reason that constantly defends the life from which it has surged and "raciovitalismo", a theory that based knowledge in the radical reality of life, one of whose essential components is reason itself. This system of thought, which he introduces in History as system, escaped from Nietzsche's vitalism in which life responded to impulses; for Ortega, reason is crucial to life to create and develop the above-mentioned project of life. René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... René Descartes (1596-1650) The Latin phrase cogito, ergo sum (I think, therefore I am) is possibly the single best-known philosophical statement and is attributed to René Descartes. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Perspectivism is the philosophical view that all perception takes place from a specific perspective. ...


Razón Histórica

For Ortega y Gasset, vital reason is also “historical reason”, for individuals and societies are not detached from their past. In order to understand a reality we must understand, as Dilthey pointed out, its history. In Ortega’s words humans have “no nature, but history” and reason should not focus in what is (static) but what becomes (dynamic).


Influence

Ortega y Gasset had not only a grand influence through the philosophical themes of his works, but also because his literary style made him accessible to the general public.


Among the philosophers strongly influenced by Ortega y Gasset were Manuel García Morente, Joaquín Xirau, Xavier Zubiri, José Gaos, Luis Recaséns Siches, Manuel Granell, Francisco Ayala, María Zambrano, Pedro Laín Entralgo, José Luis López-Aranguren, Julián Marías, and Paulino Garagorri. Xavier Zubiri Xavier Zubiri (1889–1983) was a Spanish philosopher noted for his intellectual rigor. ...


Ortega y Gassett was extremely influential on existentialism, especially the work of Martin Heidegger as he was at pains to point out. Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) was a German philosopher. ...


Works

Much of Ortega y Gasset's work consists of courses lectures published years after the fact, often posthumously. This list attempts to list works in chronological order by when they were written, rather than when they were published.

  • Meditaciones del Quijote (Meditations on Quixote, 1914)
  • Vieja y nueva política (Old and new politics, 1914)
  • Investigaciones psicológicas (Psychological Investigations, course given 1915-16 and published in 1982)
  • Personas, Obras, Cosas (People, Works, Things, articles and essays written 1904-1912: "Renan", "Adán en el Paraíso" -- "Adam in Paradise", "La pedagogía social como programa político" -- "Pedagogy as a political program", "Problemas culturales" -- "Cultural problems", etc., published 1916)
  • El Espectador (The Spectator, 8 volumes published 1916-1934)
  • España Invertebrada (Invertebrate Spain, 1921)
  • El tema de nuestro tiempo (The theme of our time, 1923)
  • Las Atlántidas (The Atlantides, 1924)
  • La deshumanización del Arte e Ideas sobre la novela (The Dehumanization of art and Ideas about the Novel, 1925)
  • Espíritu de la letra (The spirit of the letter 1927)
  • Mirabeau o el político (Mirabeau or politics, 1928-1929)
  • ¿Qué es filosofía? (What is philosophy? 1928-1929, course published posthumously in 1957)
  • Kant (1929-31)
  • ¿Qué es conocimiento? (What is knowledge? Published in 1984, covering three courses taught in 1929, 1930, and 1931, entitled, respectively: "Vida como ejecución (El ser ejecutivo)" -- "Life as execution (The Executive Being)", "Sobre la realidad radical" -- "On radical reality" and "¿Qué es la vida?" -- "What is life?")
  • La rebelión de las masas (The Revolt of the Masses, 1930)
  • Rectificación de la República; La redención de las provincias y la decencia nacional (Rectification of the Republic: Retention of the provinces and national decency, 1931)
  • Goethe desde dentro (Goethe from within, 1932)
  • Unas lecciones de metafísica (Some lessons in metaphysics, course given 1932-33, published 1966)
  • En torno a Galileo (About Galileo, course given 1933-34; portions were published in 1942 under the title "Esquema de las crisis" -- "Scheme of the Crisis")
  • Prólogo para alemanes (Prolog for Germans, prologue to the third German edition of El tema de nuestro tiempo. Ortega himself prevented its publication "because of the events of Munich in 1934". It was finally published, in Spanish, in 1958.)
  • History as a system (First published in English in 1935. the Spanish version, Historia como sistema, 1941, adds an essay "El Imperio romano" -- "The Roman Empire").
  • Ensimismamiento y alteración. Meditación de la técnica. (This title is not easily translate, because the title uses a neologism and there is a play on words. Literally, it is "Sameness-making and alteration", but it could also be read as "The making of sameness and difference." In either case, the subtitle means "A meditation on technique." 1939)
  • Ideas y Crencias (Ideas and Beliefs: on historical reason, a course taught in 1940 Buenos Aires, published 1979 along with Sobre la razón histórica)
  • Teoría de Andalucía y otros ensayos • Guillermo Dilthey y la Idea de vida (The theory of Andalucia and other essays: Wilhelm Dilthey and the idea of life, 1942)
  • Sobre la razón histórica (On historical reason, course given in Lisbon, 1944, published 1979 along with Ideas y Crencias)
  • Idea del Teatro. Una abreviatura (The idea of theater, a shortened version, lecture given in Lisbon April 1946, and in Madrid, May 1946; published in 1958, La Revista Nacional de educación num. 62 contained the version given in Madrid.)
  • La Idea de principio en Leibniz y la evolución de la teoría deductiva (The Idea of the Beginning in Leibniz and the evolution of deductive theory, 1947, published 1958)
  • Una interpretación de la Historia Universal. En torno a Toynbee (An interpretation of Universal History. On Arnold Toynbee, 1948, published in 1960)
  • Meditación de Europa (Meditation on Europe), lecture given in Berlin in 1949 with the Latin-language title De Europa meditatio quaedam. Published 1960 together with other previously unpublished works.
  • El hombre y la gente (Man and the populace, course given 1949-1950 at the Institute of the Humanities, published 1957)
  • Papeles sobre Velázquez y Goya (Papers on Velázquez and Goya, 1950)
  • Pasado y porvenir para el hombre actual (Past and future for the man of today, published 1962, brings together a series of lectures given in Germany, Switzerland, and England in the period 1951-1954, published together with a commentary on Plato's Symposium.)
  • Goya (1958)
  • Velázquez (1959)
  • Origen y epílogo de la Filosofía (Origin and epilog to Philosophy, 1960),
  • La caza y los toros (The hunt and the bulls, 1960)

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1912 is a leap year starting on Monday. ... Ernest Renan (February 27, 1823 - October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1927 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Mirabeau can refer to: Honoré Mirabeau Mirabeau, a commune of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département, in southeastern France Mirabeau, a commune of the Vaucluse département, in southern France Les Pennes-Mirabeau, a commune of the Bouches-du-Rhône département, in southern France the Cours Mirabeau is a famous street... 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A painting of Immanuel Kant in his middle age Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 in Königsberg – February 12, 1804) was a German philosopher from Prussia, generally regarded as one of Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Galileo Galilei (Pisa, February 15, 1564 – Arcetri, January 8, 1642), was a Tuscan astronomer, philosopher, and physicist who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München (pronounced listen) is the state capital of the German Bundesland of Bavaria. ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Caesar Augustus. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Buenos Aires (Good Air in Spanish, originally meaning Fair Winds) is the capital of Argentina and its largest city and port, as well as one of the largest cities in South America. ... 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ... Motto: Dominator Hercules Fundator Andaluc a por s , para Espa a y la humanidad (Andalusia for herself, for Spain, and for humanity) Capital Seville Area  - total  - % of Spain Ranked 2nd 87 268 km 17,2% Population  - Total (2003)  - % of Spain  - Density Ranked 1st 7 478 432 17,9% 85,70... Wilhelm Dilthey Wilhelm Dilthey (November 19, 1833–October 1, 1911) was a German historian, psychologist, sociologist, student of Hermeneutics, the study of interpretations and meanings, and a philosopher. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Lisbon (in Portuguese, Lisboa) is the capital and largest city of Portugal. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (July 1, 1646 in Leipzig - November 14, 1716 in Hannover) was a German philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian, and lawyer of Sorb descent. ... Deductive reasoning is the process of reaching a conclusion that is guaranteed to follow, if the evidence provided is true and the reasoning used to reach the conclusion is correct. ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arnold Toynbee (1852-1883) was an economic historian, the uncle of Arnold J. Toynbee with whom he is sometimes confused. ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Berlin (pronounced: , German ) is the capital of Germany and its largest city, with 3,426,000 inhabitants (as of January 2005); down from 4. ... 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Velázquezs 1643 self-portrait This article pertains to the artist. ... Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (March 30, 1746 – April 16, 1828) was a Spanish painter and engraver. ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion... 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Statue of a philosopher, presumely Plato, in Delphi. ... Originally, the term symposium referred to a drinking party; the Greek verb sympotein means to drink together. The term has since come to refer to any academic conference, irrespective of drinking. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Bibliography

to be added


See also

Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. ... This is an (partial) overview of individuals that contributed to the development of liberal theory on a worldwide scale and therefore are strongly associated with the liberal tradition and instrumental in the exposition of political liberalism as a philosophy. ...

External links

to be added


Online English Edition: Revolt of the Masses by Jose Ortega y Gasset http://www.4literature.net/Jose_Ortega_y_Gasset/Revolt_of_the_Masses/


 
 

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