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Encyclopedia > José Martí

José Julián Martí y Pérez (January 28, 1853May 19, 1895) was a leader of the Cuban independence movement as well as an esteemed poet and writer. He is often considered Cuba's greatest hero. January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... 1895 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Bust of Homer, one of the earliest European poets, in the British Museum Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-04-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... The term writer can apply to anyone who creates a written work, but the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Sir Galahad, a hero of Arthurian legend In many myths and folk tales, a hero is a man or woman (the latter often called a heroine), traditionally the protagonist of a story, legend or saga, who commonly possesses abilities or character far greater than that of a typical person, which...

José Martí
José Martí

Jose Marti was born in Havana when Cuba was still a colony of Spain, to Spanish parents Mariano Martí and Leonor Pérez Cabrera, and was the oldest brother to seven sisters. When he was only four years old, his family moved from Cuba to Valencia, Spain, but two years later they returned to the island where they enrolled José at a local public school. Download high resolution version (500x789, 35 KB)19th century photograph This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (500x789, 35 KB)19th century photograph This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Valencia from space, June 1996 The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències by Santiago Calatrava, Valencia, Spain. ...


Aside from being a grand writer, poet, and journalist, José Martí was also a painter. In 1867, he enrolled at the Professional School for Painting and Sculpting of Havana to take drawing classes. A journalist is a person who practices journalism, the gathering and dissemination of information about current events, trends, issues and people. ... For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ...


In 1869 he published his first political writings in the only edition of the newspaper El Diablo Cojuelo. That same year he published "Abdala," a patriotic drama in verse form in the one-volume La Patria Libre. His famous sonnet "10 de octubre" was also written during that year, which was published later in his school newspaper. Verse is a writing that uses meter as its primary organisational mode, as opposed to prose, which uses grammatical and discoursal units like sentences and paragraphs. ...


Despite this success, in March of that year, colonial authorities shut down the school, interrupting Martí's studies. He came to resent Spanish rule of his homeland at a young age; likewise, he developed a hatred of slavery, which was still practiced in Cuba. A monument celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, erected in Victoria Tower Gardens, Millbank, Westminster, London Look up Slavery in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Slavery is a condition of control over a person against their will, enforced by violence or other forms of coercion. ...


In October 1869, he was arrested, then incarcerated in the national jail following an accusation of treason from the Spanish government. More than four months later, Martí assumed responsibility of the charges and was condemned to six years in prison. His mother tried arduously to to free her son (who was still a minor at the time, at 16 years old) by writing letters to the government; his father went to a lawyer friend for legal support, but all efforts failed. Eventually Martí fell ill; his legs were severely lacerated due to the chains attached to him. Therefore, he was transferred by the General to another part of Cuba known as Isla de Pinos instead of further imprisonment. Following that, they decided to repatriate him to Spain. In Spain, he studied law and wrote articles on the wrongs of Spanish rule in Cuba. 1869 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation. ... The Isle of Youth (Spanish: Isla de la Juventud) is the largest island of Cuba after Cuba proper. ...


After spending some time in Spain, Martí completed his studies, graduated with a bachelor of arts, and obtained his license in civil rights. He then traveled to France, where he spent some time before secretly returning to Cuba under an assumed name in 1877. He was unable to obtain any employment and accepted a job as a professor of history and literature in Guatemala City. Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... National Palace National Post Office Building Guatemala City (in full, La Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción; locally known as Guatemala or, informally, Guate) is the capital and largest city of Guatemala. ...

Statue of José Martí, Central Park, Havana
Statue of José Martí, Central Park, Havana

In 1880, Martí moved to New York City serving as a joint consul there for Uruguay, Paraguay, and Argentina. He mobilized the Cuban exile community, especially in Tampa and Key West, Florida, to revolution and independence from Spain, while lobbying to oppose U.S. annexation of Cuba, which some American politicians desired. statue of Jose Marti, Central Park, Havana, Cuba, c. ... statue of Jose Marti, Central Park, Havana, Cuba, c. ... 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the United States, and is at the center of international finance, politics, communications, music, fashion, and culture. ... Tampas skyline For alternate meanings, see Tampa (disambiguation) Tampa is a city located in Hillsborough County on the west coast of Florida. ... Map of Key West Key West is a city located in Monroe County, Florida. ... State nickname: Sunshine State, Everglade State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush Official languages English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  - Land 137,374 km²  - Water 30,486 km² (17. ... A revolution is a relatively sudden and absolutely drastic change. ...


In 1894, he left planning to land in Cuba and fight for revolution, but was intercepted in Florida. On March 25, 1895, José Marti published the Manifesto of Montecristi, proclaiming Cuban independence, an end to all legal distinctions between the races, friendship with Spaniards who did not oppose the independence, and war with all who stood in the way of independence. 1894 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1895 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


On April 11, 1895, Martí landed in Cuba with a force of rebel exiles, who joined the rebel General Máximo Gómez y Báez. José Martí was killed in battle with Spanish troops at the Battle of Dos Ríos on May 19, 1895. He is buried in Cementerio Santa Efigenia in Santiago de Cuba. April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... 1895 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Máximo Gómez Máximo Gómez y Báez was a general in the Ten Years War and Cubas military commander in that countrys War of Independence (late 19th century. ... Dos Ríos was a battle in Cubas war for independence from Spain. ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... 1895 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Santiago de Cuba is the capital city of Santiago de Cuba Province in eastern Cuba. ...


José Martí strongly opposed U.S. involvement in the Cuban War for Independence. The Spanish-American War ended approximately three years after his death. His best and most revered works were his books for children; La Edad de Oro ("The Golden Age") being the most widely read. One of the poems from his collection Versos Sencillos was later put to music as "Guantanamera," which has become Cuba's most famous patriotic song. José Martí International Airport in Havana is named after this leader of Cuban independence. The Spanish-American War took place in 1898, and resulted in the United States of America gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and Pacific. ... Guantanamera (The girl from Guantánamo) is perhaps the best known Cuban song and that countrys most noted patriotic song. ... José Martí International Airport in Havana, Cuba, is Cubas main international and domestic getaway. ...


See also

  • ΦΙΑ – A U.S. university fraternity that takes José Martí as one of its "five pillars"

ΦΙΑ (Phi Iota Alpha), The Oldest Latino Fraternity in Existence orig. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: United States Wikinews has news related to this article: United States United States government Official website of the United States government - Gateway to governmental sites White House - Official site of the US President Senate. ...

Further reading

No author. José Martí Obra y Vida. Madrid: Ediciones Siruela, 1995.


 
 

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