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Encyclopedia > Jorge Rafael Videla
Jorge Rafael Videla


In office
March 29, 1976 – March 29, 1981
Preceded by Isabel Perón
Succeeded by Roberto Viola

Born August 21, 1925
Mercedes, Buenos Aires
Profession Military

Jorge Rafael Videla Redondo (born August 21, 1925 in Mercedes, Buenos Aires) was the de facto President of Argentina from 1976 to 1981. He came to power in a coup d'état that deposed Isabel Martínez de Perón. After the return to democracy, he was prosecuted and now is placed under house arrest. [1] Image File history File links General_Jorge_Rafael_Videla_De_facto_Presidente_de_la_Argentina_(1976-1981). ... Current President Néstor Kirchner The President of Argentina (full title: President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the head of state of Argentina. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in leap years). ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in leap years). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... María Estela Martínez de Perón (born on February 4, 1931) better known as Isabel Martínez de Perón was the third wife of Argentine President Juan Perón and served as President of Argentina in her own right from July 1, 1974 to March 24, 1976. ... Roberto Eduardo Viola Prevedini (October 13, 1924 – September 30, 1994) was a military officer who briefly served as interim president of Argentina from March 29 to December 11, 1981 during a period of military rule. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Mercedes is a city in the Buenos Aires province, Argentina. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Mercedes is a city in the Buenos Aires province, Argentina. ... A coup d’État (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... María Estela Martínez de Perón (born on February 4, 1931) better known as Isabel Martínez de Perón was the third wife of Argentine President Juan Perón and served as President of Argentina in her own right from July 1, 1974 to March 24, 1976. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ...

Contents

The coup

Then, Brigade General Jorge Videla was named Commander-in-Chief by President Isabel Perón in 1974. Perón, former Vice-President to her husband Juan Perón, had come to the presidency following his death. Her authoritarian administration was unpopular and ineffectual. Videla headed a military coup which deposed her on 24 March 1976. A military junta was formed, made up of himself, representing the Army, Admiral Emilio Massera representing the Navy, and Brigadier General Orlando Ramón Agosti representing the Air Force. Two days after the coup, Videla formally assumed the post of President of Argentina. Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine soldier and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina and serving from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in leap years). ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... The Argentine Army (Ejército Argentino) is the land armed force branch of the Argentine military and the senior military service of the country. ... Emilio Eduardo Massera (born 1925 in Buenos Aires) is an Argentine military. ... Argentine Navy Jack The Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada de la República Argentina, ARA) is the navy of Argentina. ... The Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Argentina, FAA) is the national air force of Argentina. ... Current President Néstor Kirchner The President of Argentina (full title: President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the head of state of Argentina. ...


Human rights violations

Main article: Dirty War
President Videla in 1977
President Videla in 1977

The military junta took power during a period of extreme instability, with terrorist attacks from the Marxist groups ERP and the Montoneros, who had turned underground after Juan Perón's death in July 1974, from one side and violent right-wing kidnappings, tortures, and assassinations from the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance, led by José López Rega, Perón's Minister of Social Welfare, and other death squads on the other side. The members of the junta took advantage of this to justify the coup, by naming the administration "National Reorganization Process". The Argentine military was given power to arrest, detain, torture, and kill suspected terrorists and political opponents. As a result, human rights violations became commonplace. According to estimates, at least 8,960 and up to about 30,000 Argentinians were subject to forced disappearance (desaparecidos) and most probably killed; many were illegally detained and tortured, and others went into exile. [2] Politically, all legislative power was concentrated in the hands of Videla's nine-man junta, and every single important position in the national government was filled with loyal military officers. The junta banned labor unions and strikes, abolished the judiciary, and effectively suspended most civil liberties. Despite the abuses, Videla's regime received support from the Argentine Roman Catholic Church and local media, though the extent to which such support was given willingly remains the subject of much debate. Dirty War (in Spanish: Guerra Sucia) refers to a program of a state-sponsored war on domestic citizens in response to strikes, social unrest, violence or subversion that is claimed to threaten a countrys stability. ... Image File history File links Jorge_Rafael_Videla. ... Image File history File links Jorge_Rafael_Videla. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and to the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... The Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (ERP) was the military branch of the PRT (Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores, or Workers Revolutionary Party) in Argentina. ... Official logo of Montoneros The Movimiento Peronista Montonero was an Argentinian radical leftist nationalist-catholic guerrilla group, active during the 1970s. ... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine soldier and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina and serving from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply The Right, are terms that refer to the segment of the political spectrum often associated with any of several strains of conservatism, the religious right, and areas of classical liberalism, or simply the opposite of left-wing politics. ... The Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (in Spanish, Alianza Anticomunista Argentina, usually known as Triple A and written AAA) was a far-right death squad active in Argentina during the mid-1970s, linked to the military junta led by Jorge Rafael Videla. ... José López Rega (born 17 October 1916, died 9 June 1989, in Buenos Aires) was Argentinas Minister of Social Welfare during the Peronist government started in 1973 by Juan Perón and continued after Peróns death in 1974 by his third wife and vice-president, Isabel... A death squad is an armed group that carries out, usually in secrecy, extrajudicial assassinations and forced disappearances of activists, dissidents and others perceived as interfering with a social or political status quo. ... Jorge Rafael Videla, first president of the Proceso Proceso de Reorganización Nacional (Spanish, National Reorganization Process, often simply Proceso) was the name given by its leaders to the dictatorial regime that ruled Argentina from 1976 to 1983. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... A forced disappearance occurs when an organization forces a person to vanish from public view, either by murder or by simple sequestration. ... EXILE is a 6-member Japanese pop music band. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see Terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins and sees itself as the same Church founded by Jesus of Nazareth and maintained through Apostolic Succession from the Twelve...


In addition to direct abuses by the military, far-right paramilitary groups, particularly the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (AAA), carried out widespread atrocities, given free reign by the new military government. Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, or radical right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or relative position a group or person occupies within a political spectrum. ... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... The Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (in Spanish, Alianza Anticomunista Argentina, usually known as Triple A and written AAA) was a far-right death squad active in Argentina during the mid-1970s, linked to the military junta led by Jorge Rafael Videla. ...


Conflict with Chile

Videla with the Chilean President Augusto Pinochet met next to Mendoza in 1978, trying to resolve the conflict
Videla with the Chilean President Augusto Pinochet met next to Mendoza in 1978, trying to resolve the conflict

During Videla's regime, a dispute arose with Chile over three islands in the Beagle Channel at the southern tip of South America, Picton, Lennox and Nueva. By 1977 Pinochet's Chile and Videla's Argentina were on the brink of open war. Image File history File links Pinochet_y_Videla_2. ... Image File history File links Pinochet_y_Videla_2. ... Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was a general and President of Chile. ... Gates of General San Martín Park Mendoza is a city in the west of Argentina, and the capital of the Mendoza Province. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Sea lions on La Isla de Los Lobos in the Beagle Channel Glacier on the north shore of the Beagle Channel Beagle Channel is a strait separating islands of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago, in extreme southern South America. ... Map of Picton, Lennox and Nueva Picton, Lennox and Nueva is a group of three uninhabited islands (and their islets) located on the extreme south of South America, in the Chilean region Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena, near Navarino island and the southern coast of Isla Grande de Tierra... Map of Picton, Lennox and Nueva Picton, Lennox and Nueva is a group of three uninhabited islands (and their islets) located on the extreme south of South America, in the Chilean region Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena, near Navarino island and the southern coast of Isla Grande de Tierra... Map of Picton, Lennox and Nueva Picton, Lennox and Nueva is a group of three uninhabited islands (and their islets) located on the extreme south of South America, in the Chilean region Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena, near Navarino island and the southern coast of Isla Grande de Tierra... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was a general and President of Chile. ...


In 1978, however, Pope John Paul II opened a new mediation process. His representative, Antonio Samoré, successfully prevented full-scale war. Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), (Italian: Giovanni Paolo II), born   (May 18, 1920 – April 2, 2005) reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from October... Antonio Samoré was a Catholic Cardinal. ...


The conflict was not completely resolved until 1984 with the Treaty of Peace and Friendship (Tratado de Paz y Amistad). Chilean sovereignty over the islands is now undisputed. The 1984 Argentina and Chile Peace and Friendship Treaty (Spanish: Tratado de Paz y Amistad) was a agreement signed in 1984 between Argentina and Chile over the possession of the Picton, Lennox and Nueva islands and sea located south of Tierra del Fuego resolving a serious border conflict between the...


Economic policy

Videla largely left economic policies in the hands of Minister José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz. Although he attempted to introduce neoliberal economic policies designed to curb inflation and increase the role of markets, he was blocked by the military regime's support for public works and welfare spending and opposition to privatization of state enterprises. Meanwhile, the foreign debt increased fourfold, and disparities between the upper and lower classes became much more pronounced as compared to the populist days of Perón. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ). External debt is the part of a countrys debt owed to creditors outside the country. ...


Videla's image abroad

One of Videla's greatest challenges was his image abroad. He attributed criticism over human rights to an anti-Argentine campaign.


On 30 April 1977, Azucena Villaflor, along with 13 other women, started demonstrations on the Plaza de Mayo, in front of the Casa Rosada presidential palace, demanding the whereabouts of their disappeared children; they would become known as las madres de la Plaza de Mayo. During a human rights investigation in September 1979, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights denounced his government, citing many disappearances and instances of abuse. Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, leader of the Peace and Justice Service (Servicio Paz y Justicia) organization, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1980 for exposing much of Argentina's human rights violations to the world at large. Azucena Villaflor (7 April 1924 â€“ December 1977?) was an Argentine social activist, one of the founders of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo human rights association, who look for desaparecidos (victims of forced disappearance during the Dirty War). ... The white shawl of the Mothers, painted on the floor in May Square, Buenos Aires. ... The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (the IACHR or, in Spanish, CIDH) is one of the two bodies that comprise the inter-American system for the promotion and protection of human rights. ... Adolfo Pérez Esquivel at World Social Forum 2003 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel (born November 26, 1931 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) was the recipient of the 1980 Nobel Peace Prize. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


Relationship with the United States

At first, the United States government was willing to maintain normal diplomatic relations with Argentina, though transcripts show U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and the U.S. ambassador to Argentina in conflict over how the new regime should be treated, with Kissinger preferring to remain friendly based on anti-Communist interests despite talk of human rights abuses. This changed in 1977 with the inauguration of President Jimmy Carter, who implemented a strict stance against human rights abuses even when dealing with friendly governments. U.S.-Argentine relations remained lukewarm at best until Ronald Reagan became president in 1981. His administration sought the assistance of the Argentinean intelligence services in training the Contras for guerrilla warfare against the new Sandinista government in Nicaragua. Because of this, Videla maintained a relatively friendly relationship with the U.S. under the Reagan administration, though the junta later fell out of favor with the U.S. over the Falklands War after Videla had stepped down. Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat, Nobel laureate and statesman. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... The Contras (from the Spanish term La Contra, short for movement of the contrarrevolucionarios) were the armed opponents of Nicaraguas Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction following the July 1979 overthrow of Anastasio Somoza Debayle (which ended the Somoza dynasty), and continuing throughout the following decade. ... The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Spanish: ) is a Nicaraguan political party founded on broad socialist principles. ... President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981) Headed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989, the Reagan Administration was conservative, steadfastly anti-Communist and in favor of tax cuts and smaller government. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Casualties 258 killed [1] 777 wounded 59 taken prisoner 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner The Falklands War (Spanish: ) was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. ...


Later years

Videla relinquished power to Roberto Eduardo Viola on March 29, 1981. Roberto Eduardo Viola Prevedini (October 13, 1924 – September 30, 1994) was a military officer who briefly served as interim president of Argentina from March 29 to December 11, 1981 during a period of military rule. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in leap years). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Democracy was restored in 1983, and Videla was put on trial and found guilty. He was sentenced to life imprisonment and was discharged from the military in 1985. The tribunal found Videla guilty of numerous homicides, kidnapping, torture, and many other crimes.


Videla was imprisoned for only five years. In 1990, President Carlos Menem pardoned Videla together with many other former members of the military regime. Menem cited the need to get over past conflicts as his main reason. Carlos Saúl Menem (born July 2, 1930) was President of Argentina from July 8, 1989 to December 10, 1999 for the Justicialist Party (Peronist). ... A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ...


Videla briefly returned to prison in 1998 when a judge found him guilty of kidnapping of minors during the Dirty War. Videla spent 38 days in the old part of the Caseros Prison, and was later transferred to house arrest due to health issues. [3] [4] Dirty War (in Spanish: Guerra Sucia) refers to a program of a state-sponsored war on domestic citizens in response to strikes, social unrest, violence or subversion that is claimed to threaten a countrys stability. ... Northeastern view of Caseros, March 2006 Western semi-opaque window grids of Caseros, reflecting the sun, March, 2006 The Caseros Prison (in Spanish, Cárcel de Caseros) is a prison in Parque Patricios, a neighborhood in the southern part of Buenos Aires, Argentina. ...


Following the election of President Néstor Kirchner in 2003, there has been a widespread effort in Argentina to show the illegality of Videla's rule. The government no longer recognizes Videla as having been a legal president of the country, and his portrait has been removed from the military school. There have also been many legal prosecutions of officials associated with the crimes of the regime.  , full name Néstor Carlos Kirchner Ostoic (born 25 February 1950), was sworn in as President of Argentina on May 25, 2003. ...


On September 6, 2006, Judge Norberto Oyarbide ruled that the pardon granted by Menem was unconstitutional, opening up the possibility of a trial. [5] September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Trivia

Dutch football legend Johan Cruyff famously refused to travel to Argentina for the 1978 FIFA World Cup in protest against the human rights abuses perpetrated by Videla's junta. Coincidentally, the Netherlands lost 3–1 to Argentina in the final. [citation needed] Johan Cruijff Johan Cruijff (born April 25, 1947 in Amsterdam) is a Dutch football trainer/coach and former star player. ... Qualifying countries The 1978 Football World Cup was held in Argentina between June 1 and 25, 1978. ...

Preceded by
Isabel Perón
President of Argentina
1976–1981
Succeeded by
Roberto Eduardo Viola

President Perón giving a speech María Estela Martínez de Perón (born on February 4, 1931, in La Rioja, Argentina) better known as Isabel Martínez de Perón would become the third wife of Argentine President Juan Perón and serve as President of Argentina in... Current President Néstor Kirchner The President of Argentina (full title: President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the head of state of Argentina. ... Roberto Eduardo Viola Prevedini (October 13, 1924 – September 30, 1994) was a military officer who briefly served as interim president of Argentina from March 29 to December 11, 1981 during a period of military rule. ...

See also

Roberto Eduardo Viola Prevedini (October 13, 1924 – September 30, 1994) was a military officer who briefly served as interim president of Argentina from March 29 to December 11, 1981 during a period of military rule. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Albano Harguindeguy (born 1927) was a general of the Argentine Army, and the interior minister of Argentina under dictator Jorge Rafael Videla, during the National Reorganization Process (1976–1983). ... Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri Castelli (July 15, 1926 - January 12, 2003) was an Argentinian general and the de facto President of Argentina from 22 December 1981 to 18 June 1982, during the last military dictatorship. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Casualties 258 killed [1] 777 wounded 59 taken prisoner 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner The Falklands War (Spanish: ) was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. ... Dirty War (in Spanish: Guerra Sucia) refers to a program of a state-sponsored war on domestic citizens in response to strikes, social unrest, violence or subversion that is claimed to threaten a countrys stability. ... The Comisión Nacional sobre la Desaparición de Personas (National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons, CONADEP) was an Argentine organism created by President Raúl Alfonsín on December 15, 1983, shortly after his inauguration to investigate the fate of the desaparecidos and other human rights violations (see...

References

  1. ^ Argentina military junta members, top officers, and ministers. The Vanished Gallery.
  2. ^ The Victims: Abducted, Tortured, Vanished. The Vanished Gallery.
  3. ^ "'Dirty War' arrest", BBC News, 10 Jun 1998.
  4. ^ "Argentine junta head has 'stroke'", BBC News, 17 Dec 2004.
  5. ^ "Argentine junta pardons revoked", BBC News, 6 Sep 2006.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jorge Rafael Videla Summary (1976 words)
Jorge Rafaél Videla was born on August 2, 1925, in Mercedes, Argentina, a large provincial city 75 miles from the capital of Buenos Aires.
Videla's supporters, on the other hand, maintain that he only reluctantly became involved in politics and that his relatively moderate policies were increasingly undercut by right-wing military hard-liners, who operated with almost complete independence, carrying out repressive measures against the Argentine populace as they saw fit.
Videla spent 38 days in the old part of the Caseros Prison, and was later transferred to house arrest due to health issues.
Argentina's Dapper State-Terrorist - Rafael Videla, US support for human rights violators (1882 words)
Former Argentine president Jorge Rafael Videla, the 73-year-old dapper dictator who launched the so-called Dirty War in 1976, was arrested on June 9 for a particularly bizarre crime of state, one that rips at the heart of human relations.
Videla, known for his English-tailored suits and his ruthless counterinsurgency theories, stands accused of permitting -- and concealing -- a scheme to harvest infants from pregnant women who were kept alive in military prisons only long enough to give birth.
Marquevich found that Videla was aware of the kidnappings and took part in a cover-up of the crimes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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