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Encyclopedia > Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges

Born August 24, 1899(1899-08-24)
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Died June 14, 1986 (aged 86)
Geneva, Switzerland
Occupation writer, poet, critic, librarian
Influences Homer, Dante, Cervantes, Kabbalah, Swift, Berkeley, David Hume, Søren Kierkegaard, Arthur Schopenhauer, Heinrich Heine, Edgar Allan Poe, Walt Whitman, Thomas De Quincey, Robert Louis Stevenson, Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Carlyle, James Joyce, Léon Bloy, Paul Valéry, H.G. Wells, Franz Kafka, G.K. Chesterton, Alfonso Reyes, Macedonio Fernández
Influenced Gabriel García Márquez, Carlos Fuentes, Julio Cortázar, Paul Auster, Stanisław Lem, Danilo Kiš, Georges Perec, Thomas Pynchon, Umberto Eco, Italo Calvino, Orhan Pamuk, César Aira, Roberto Bolaño, Ricardo Piglia, Adolfo Bioy Casares, Richard Hell, Philip K. Dick, Jean Baudrillard, Paulo Coelho, Mark Z. Danielewski, W.G. Sebald

Jorge Luis Borges (24 August 189914 June 1986) was an Argentine writer. Borges is a common surname of Spanish and Portuguese language. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 558 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (575 × 618 pixel, file size: 124 KB, MIME type: image/png) A stippled drawing of Jorge Luis Borges File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... This article is about work. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Librarian, a 1556 painting by Giuseppe Arcimboldo A librarian is an information professional trained in library science and information science: the organization and management of information and service to people with information needs. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Cervantes can refer to: Miguel de Cervantes, author of Don Quixote Francisco Cervantes de Salazar, 16th-century man of letters Cervantes, Ilocos Sur, a municipality in the Philippines Cervantes, a town in Western Australia Cervantes de Leon, a character in the Soul Calibur series of fighting games This is a... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... George Berkeley (IPA: , Bark-Lee) (12 March 1685 – 14 January 1753), also known as Bishop Berkeley, was an influential Irish philosopher whose primary philosophical achievement is the advancement of a theory he called immaterialism (later referred to as subjective idealism by others). ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher who believed that the will to live is the fundamental reality and that this will, being a constant striving, is insatiable and ultimately yields only suffering. ... Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a journalist, an essayist, and one of the most significant German romantic poets. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ... Thomas de Quincey from the frontispiece of Revolt of the Tartars, Thomas de Quincey (August 15, 1785 – December 8, 1859) was an English author and intellectual. ... Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850 – December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet, and travel writer, and a leading representative of Neo-romanticism in English literature. ... This article is about the British author. ... The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Léon Bloy, 1887 Léon Bloy (Périgueux, July 11, 1846 - Bourg-la-Reine, November 2, 1917) was a French novelist, essayist, and poet. ... For other people of the same name, see Valery. ... H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... “Kafka” redirects here. ... For the town of Chesterton in Cambridgeshire, see Chesterton (Cambridge). ... Alfonso Reyes El regiomontano universal was born in Monterrey, Mexico, in 1889, and died in Mexico City in 1959. ... Macedonio Fernández (1 June 1874 - 10 February 1952) was an Argentine writer, humorist, and philosopher. ... Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez, also known as Gabo (born March 6, 1927 in Aracataca, Magdalena) is a Colombian novelist, journalist, editor, publisher, political activist, and recipient of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Carlos Fuentes Carlos Fuentes Macías (born November 11, 1928) is a Mexican writer and one of the best-known living novelists and essayists in the Spanish-speaking world. ... Julio Cortázar. ... Paul Auster Paul Benjamin Auster (born February 3, 1947, Newark, New Jersey) is a Brooklyn-based author. ... StanisÅ‚aw Lem ( , September 12, 1921 – March 27, 2006) was a Polish science fiction, philosophical and satirical writer. ... Danilo KiÅ¡ (Serbian Cyrillic: Данило Киш) (February 22, 1935 – October 15, 1989) was a Serbian writer of Hungarian/Jewish-Serbian/Montenegrin origin. ... Image of artist Georges Perec (March 7, 1936 - March 3, 1982) was a 20th century French novelist, filmmaker and essayist, a member of the Oulipo group and considered by many to be one of the most important post-WWII authors. ... Thomas Ruggles Pynchon, Jr. ... Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... Italo Calvino, on the cover of Lezioni americane: Sei proposte per il prossimo millennio Italo Calvino (October 15, 1923 – September 19, 1985) (pronounced ) was an Italian writer and novelist. ... Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Roberto Bolaño (April 28, 1953 — July 15, 2003) was a Chilean novelist and poet, winner of the prestigious Rómulo Gallegos Prize for his novel Los detectives salvajes (The Savage Detectives) in 1999. ... Ricardo Piglia (born on November 24, 1941 in Adrogué) is an Argentine writer best known for his 1992 novel The Absent City. Heavely influenced by countryman Jorge Luis Borges, Piglias stories contain elements of the occult, while still heavily grounded in the reality of their metafictional narratives. ... Adolfo Bioy Casares (September 15, 1914 - March 18, 1999) was an Argentine fiction writer. ... Richard Hell (born October 2, 1949) is the stage name of Richard Meyers, an American singer, songwriter, bass guitarist and writer. ... Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer, mostly known for his works of science fiction. ... Jean Baudrillard (July 29, 1929 – March 6, 2007) (IPA pronunciation: [1]) was a French cultural theorist, philosopher, political commentator, and photographer. ... Paulo Coelho (IPA: ) (born August 24, 1947) is a Brazilian lyricist and novelist. ... Mark Danielewski Mark Z. Danielewski is an American author, born in March 5, 1966. ... W. G. (Winifried Georg Maximilian) Sebald (18 May 1944, Wertach im Allgäu–14 December 2001, Norfolk, United Kingdom) was a German writer and academic. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ...


Best known in the English-speaking world for his short stories and fictional essays, Borges was also a poet, critic, translator, and man of wisdom. He was influenced by authors such as: Dante Alighieri, Miguel de Cervantes, Franz Kafka, H.G. Wells, Rudyard Kipling, H.P. Lovecraft, Arthur Schopenhauer, G. K. Chesterton, Leopoldo Lugones, and R. L. Stevenson. This article is in need of attention. ... Essay, a short work that treats of a topic from an authors personal point of view, often taking into account subjective experiences and personal reflections upon them. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... Cervantes redirects here. ... “Kafka” redirects here. ... H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... This article is about the British author. ... Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction, noted for combining these three genres within single narratives. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher who believed that the will to live is the fundamental reality and that this will, being a constant striving, is insatiable and ultimately yields only suffering. ... Gilbert Keith Chesterton (May 29, 1874–June 14, 1936) was an influential English writer of the early 20th century. ... Leopoldo Lugones (13 June 1874 - 1938) was an Argentine writer and journalist. ... Robert Louis Stevenson Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850-December 3, 1894), was a novelist, poet, and travel writer. ...

Contents

Life

Youth

Borges was born in 1899 in Buenos Aires. His full name was Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo. In accordance with Argentine custom, he never used his entire name. For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ...


Borges' mother, Leonor Acevedo Suárez, came from an old Uruguayan family. His 1929 book Cuaderno San Martín included a poem "Isidoro Acevedo," commemorating his maternal grandfather, Isidoro de Acevedo Laprida, a soldier of the Buenos Aires Army, fighting against Juan Manuel de Rosas. A descendant of the Argentine lawyer and politician Francisco Narciso de Laprida, Acevedo fought in the battles of Cepeda (1859), Pavón (1861) and Los Corrales (1880). He died in 1905 of pulmonary congestion in the same house in Serrano Street, Buenos Aires, where his grandson Borges was born. General de Rosas Juan Manuel de Rosas (born Juan Manuel José Domingo Ortiz de Rozas y López de Osornio, 1793-1877) was a conservative Argentine politician who ruled Argentina from 1829 to 1852. ... Francisco Narciso de Laprida (October 28, 1786 in San Juan – September 22, 1829) was an Argentine lawyer and politician. ... The Battle of Cepeda of 1859 took place on October 23 of that year in Cañada de Cepeda, Santa Fe, Argentina, and in which Federal Justo José de Urquiza defeated Unitarian Bartolomé Mitre. ... The Battle of Pavón was fought in Pavón, in the province of Santa Fé, Argentina, on September 17, 1861, between the Army of Buenos Aires, commanded by Bartolomé Mitre, and the National Army, commanded by Justo José de Urquiza. ... The Battle of Los Corrales took place in Parque Patricios, Buenos Aires, Argentina, on June 21, 1880, and confronted the side leaded by Carlos Tejedor, governor of Buenos Aires, against the National Army leaded by president Nicolás Avellaneda. ... Serrano is a street that runs through Villa Crespo and Palermo neighborhoods of Buenos Aires, Argentina and goes from southwest to northeast, parallel Scalabrini Ortiz Ave. ...


Borges' father, Jorge Guillermo Borges Haslam, was a lawyer and psychology teacher with literary aspirations. ("…he tried to become a writer and failed in the attempt," Borges once said, "…[but] composed some very good sonnets"). His father was part Spanish, part Portuguese, and half British; his father's mother was British and maintained a strong spirit of English culture in Borges' home. In this home, both Spanish and English were spoken and from earliest childhood Borges was bilingual, reading Shakespeare, in English, at the age of 12. He grew up in the then somewhat poor neighborhood of Palermo, in a large house equipped with an extensive English library. For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Francesco Petrarca, or Petrarch, one of the best-known early Italian sonnet writers. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ... Palermo is a neighborhood, or barrio of the Argentine capital, Buenos Aires. ...


Jorge Guillermo Borges was forced into early retirement from the legal profession owing to the same failing eyesight that would eventually afflict his son, and in 1914, the family moved to Geneva. Borges senior was treated by a Geneva eye specialist, while his son and daughter Norah attended school. There Borges junior learned French, initially with some difficulties, and taught himself German. He received his baccalauréat from the Collège de Genève in 1918. Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... Norah Borges (1901-1998) was an artist and is the sister of the writer Jorge Luis Borges. ... For other uses of Baccalaureate, see Baccalaureate (disambiguation). ... Collège Calvin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


After World War I ended, the Borges family spent three years living in various cities: Lugano (Switzerland), Barcelona, Majorca, Seville, and Madrid. In Spain, Borges became a member of the avant-garde Ultraist literary movement. His first poem, "Hymn to the Sea," written in the style of Walt Whitman, was published in the magazine Grecia ("Greece", in Spanish). There he frequented such notable Spanish writers as Rafael Cansinos Assens and Ramón Gómez de la Serna. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Lake Lugano Lugano (Latin language: Luganum) is a town (130. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Location Location of Majorca in Balearic Islands Coordinates : 39° 30’N , 3°0E Time Zone : CET (UTC+1) - summer: CEST (UTC+2) General information Native name Mallorca (Catalan) Spanish name Mallorca Postal code 07001-07691 Area code 34 (Spain) + 971 (Illes Balears) Website http://www. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... This article is about the poetic genre. ... Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ... Rafael Cansinos Assens (November 24, 1882 - July 6, 1964) was a Spanish poet, essayist, literary critic and translator. ... Ramón Gómez de la Serna (1888-1963), Spanish writer, dramatist and avant-garde agitator. ...


Early writing career

In 1921, Borges returned with his family to Buenos Aires where he imported the doctrine of Ultraism and launched his career as a writer by publishing poems and essays in literary journals. Borges' first collection of poetry was Fervor de Buenos Aires (1923). He contributed to the avant-garde review Martín Fierro (whose "art for art's sake" approach contrasted to that of the more politically-involved Boedo group); co-founded the journals Prisma (1921–1922, a broadsheet distributed largely by pasting copies to walls in Buenos Aires), and Proa (1922–1926). He was, from the first issue, a regular contributor to Sur, founded in 1931 by Victoria Ocampo, then Argentina's most important literary journal. Ocampo herself introduced Borges to Adolfo Bioy Casares, another well-known figure of Argentine literature, who was to become a frequent collaborator. Together they wrote a number of works, some using pseudonyms, including a parody detective series and fantasy stories. The Ultraist movement (in Spanish, ultraísmo) was a literary movement, born in Spain in 1918, with the declared intention of opposing modernism, which had dominated Spanish poetry since the end of the 19th century. ... Martín Fierro was an Argentine literary magazine which appeared from February 1924 to 1927. ... Art for arts sake is the usual English rendition of a French slogan, lart pour lart, which is credited to Théophile Gautier (1811–1872). ... Boedo is a working class neighbourhood in Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... Sur was a literary journal published in Buenos Aires. ... Victoria Ocampo (April 7, 1890? - January 27, 1979) was an Argentine intellectual, described by Jorge Luis Borges as la mujer más argentina (the most Argentine woman). Best known as an advocate for others and as publisher of the magazine Sur, she was also a writer and critic in her... Adolfo Bioy Casares (September 15, 1914 - March 18, 1999) was an Argentine fiction writer. ...


During these years Macedonio Fernández became a major influence on Borges, who inherited the friendship from his father. The two would hold court in cafés, country retreats, or Macedonio's tiny apartment in the Balvanera district. Macedonio Fernández (1 June 1874 - 10 February 1952) was an Argentine writer, humorist, and philosopher. ... Balvanera is a barrio (neighborhood) of Buenos Aires, Argentina. ...


In 1933 Borges gained an editorial appointment at the literary supplement of the newspaper Crítica, where he first published the pieces later collected as the Historia universal de la infamia (A Universal History of Infamy). This involved two types of pieces. The first lay somewhere between non-fictional essays and short stories, using fictional techniques to tell essentially true stories. The second consisted of literary forgeries, which Borges initially passed off as translations of passages from famous but seldom-read works. In the following years, he served as a literary adviser for the publishing house Emecé Editores and wrote weekly columns for El Hogar, which appeared from 1936 to 1939. A Universal History of Infamy by Jorge Luis Borges. ... Emecé Editores is an Argentine publishing house, currently a subsidiary of Grupo Planeta. ...


In 1937, friends of Borges found him working at the Miguel Cané branch of the Buenos Aires Municipal Library as a first assistant. His fellow employees forbade Borges from cataloging more than 100 books per day, a task which would take him about one hour. The rest of his time he spent in the basement of the library, writing articles and short stories. When Juan Perón came to power in 1946, Borges was fired, and "promoted" to the position of poultry inspector for the Buenos Aires municipal market (he immediately resigned; he always referred to the title of the post he never filled as "Poultry and Rabbit Inspector"). His offenses against the Peronistas up to that time had apparently consisted of little more than adding his signature to pro-democratic petitions, but shortly after his resignation he addressed the Argentine Society of Letters saying, in his characteristic style, "Dictatorships foster oppression, dictatorships foster servitude, dictatorships foster cruelty; more abominable is the fact that they foster idiocy." Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine general and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina and serving from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ...


Borges' father died in 1938, a great blow: father and son were very close. On Christmas Eve 1938, Borges suffered a severe head wound in an accident; during treatment, he nearly died of septicemia. (He based his 1944 short story "El Sur" [The South] on this event.) While recovering from the accident, he began writing in a style he became famous for. The first story that he completed was Pierre Menard, Author of The Quixote in May 1939, in this story he explored the relationship between father and son and the nature of authorship. His first collection of short stories, El jardín de senderos que se bifurcan (The Garden of Forking Paths) appeared in 1941. The book included "El sur," a piece that incorporated some autobiographical elements—notably the accident—and which Borges later called "perhaps my best story." Though generally well received, El jardín de senderos que se bifurcan failed to garner for him the literary prizes many in his circle expected. Ocampo dedicated a large portion of the July 1941 issue of Sur to a "Reparation for Borges"; numerous leading writers and critics from Argentina and throughout the Spanish-speaking world contributed writings to the "reparation" project. Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ... Pierre Menard is a fictional 20th century writer, created by Jorge Luis Borges. ... The Garden of Forking Paths (Spanish: El Jardín de senderos que se bifurcan) is a short story by Argentine writer and poet Jorge Luis Borges. ...


Maturity

Left without a job, his vision beginning to fade due to glaucoma, and unable to fully support himself as a writer, Borges began a new career as a public lecturer. Despite a certain degree of political persecution, he was reasonably successful, and became an increasingly public figure, obtaining appointments as President of the Argentine Society of Writers (1950–1953), and as Professor of English and American Literature (1950–1955) at the Argentine Association of English Culture. His short story Emma Zunz was turned into a film (under the name of Días de odio (English title: Days of Wrath), directed in 1954, by the Argentine director Leopoldo Torre Nilsson). Around this time, Borges also began writing screenplays. Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Leopoldo Torre Nilsson (5 May 1924 – 8 September 1978), also known by his nickname Babsy, was an Argentine film director, producer and screenwriter. ...


In 1955, and after the initiative of Ocampo, the new anti-Peronist military government appointed him head of the National Library.[1] By that time, he had become fully blind, like one of his best known predecessors, Paul Groussac (for whom Borges wrote an obituary). Neither coincidence nor the irony escaped Borges and he commented on them in his work: Victoria Ocampo (April 7, 1890? - January 27, 1979) was an Argentine intellectual, described by Jorge Luis Borges as la mujer más argentina (the most Argentine woman). Best known as an advocate for others and as publisher of the magazine Sur, she was also a writer and critic in her... The Revolución Libertadora (Spanish, Liberating Revolution) was a military uprising that ended the second presidential term of Juan Domingo Perón in Argentina, in 1955. ... The Biblioteca Nacional de la República Argentina (Spanish, National Library of the Argentine Republic) is the largest library of Argentina and one of the most important in the Americas. ... Paul Groussac as a young man Paul-François Groussac (February 15, 1848 - June 27, 1929) was a French-born Argentine writer, literary critic, historian, and librarian. ...

Nadie rebaje a lágrima o reproche
esta declaración de la maestría
de Dios, que con magnífica ironía
me dio a la vez los libros y la noche.
Let neither tear nor reproach
besmirch this declaration
of the mastery of God
who, with magnificent irony,
granted me both the gift of books
and the night.

The following year he received the National Prize for Literature from the University of Cuyo, the first of many honorary doctorates. From 1956 to 1970, Borges also held a position as a professor of literature at the University of Buenos Aires, while frequently holding temporary appointments at other universities. The Universidad Nacional de Cuyo (National University of Cuyo, UNCuyo) it is the largest center of high education in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. ... The Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA) is the largest university in Argentina, founded on August 12, 1821 in the city of Buenos Aires. ...


His eyesight deteriorating, he increasingly relied on his mother's help. When he was no longer able to read and write (he never learned the Braille system), his mother, to whom he had always been close, became his personal secretary. Braille code where the word (, French for first) can be read. ...


International recognition

Borges in the Hotel Beaux, Paris, 1969
Borges in the Hotel Beaux, Paris, 1969

Borges first appeared in English translation in the August 1948 issue of Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine; the story was "The Garden of Forking Paths," the translator Anthony Boucher.[2] Though several other Borges translations appeared in literary magazines and anthologies during the 1950s,[3] his international fame dates from the early 1960s. In 1961, he received the first International Publishers' Prize Prix Formentor, which he shared with Samuel Beckett. While Beckett was well-known and respected in the English-speaking world, and Borges at this time remained unknown and untranslated, English-speaking readers became curious about the other recipient of the prize. The Italian government named Borges Commendatore; and the University of Texas at Austin appointed him for one year to the Tinker chair. This led to his first lecture tour in the United States. The first translations of his work into English followed in 1962, with lecture tours in Europe, and in subsequent years the Andean region of South America. In 1965, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom appointed him O.B.E.[citation needed] In 1980 he was awarded the Prix mondial Cino Del Duca; numerous other honors were to accumulate over the years, such as the French Legion of Honour in 1983, the Cervantes Prize, and even a Special Edgar Allan Poe Award from the Mystery Writers of America, "for distinguished contribution to the mystery genre".[4] Image File history File linksMetadata Jorge_Luis_Borges_Hotel. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jorge_Luis_Borges_Hotel. ... Ellery Queens Mystery Magazine is a monthly digest size fiction magazine specializing in crime fiction, particularly detective fiction. ... The Garden of Forking Paths (Spanish: El Jardín de senderos que se bifurcan) is a short story by Argentine writer and poet Jorge Luis Borges. ... Anthony Boucher (August 21, 1911 - April 29, 1968) [1] was an American science fiction editor and writer of mystery novels and short stories. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... University of Texas redirects here. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... The Prix mondial Cino Del Duca (Cino Del Duca World Prize) is a major international literary award established in 1969 in France by Simone Del Duca (1912-2004) to continue the work of her late husband, publishing magnate Cino Del Duca (1899-1967). ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... Premio Miguel de Cervantes (the Miguel de Cervantes Prize) is awarded annually to honor the whole career of an outstanding writer in the Spanish language. ... The Edgar Allan Poe Awards (popularly called the Edgars), named after Edgar Allan Poe, are presented every year by the Mystery Writers of America. ... Mystery Writers of America is an organization for mystery writers, based in New York. ...


In 1967, Borges began a five-year period of collaboration with the American translator Norman Thomas di Giovanni, thanks to whom he became better known in the English-speaking world. He also continued to publish books, among them El libro de los seres imaginarios (The Book of Imaginary Beings, (1967, co-written with Margarita Guerrero), El informe de Brodie (Dr. Brodie's Report, 1970), and El libro de arena (The Book of Sand, 1975). He also lectured prolifically. Many of these lectures were anthologized in volumes such as Siete noches (Seven Nights) and Nueve ensayos dantescos (Nine Dantesque Essays). Norman Thomas di Giovanni (born 1933 in Newton, Massachusetts) was an American-born editor and translator known for his collaboration with Argentine author Jorge Luis Borges. ... Jorge Luis Borges wrote and edited the Book of Imaginary Beings in 1969, expanding his original 1957 Spanish edition El Libro de los Seres Imaginarios. ... The Book of Sand (El libro de arena) is a short story by Jorge Luis Borges. ...


Though a contender since at least the late 1960s, Borges was never awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. Especially in the 1980s, when he was clearly growing old and infirm, the failure to grant him the prize became a glaring omission. It was speculated that he was considered unfit to receive the award because of his tacit support of, or unwillingness to condemn, the military dictatorships that were being established in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and elsewhere. Although this political stance stemmed from his self-described "Anarcho-Pacifism," it placed him in the distinguished company of Nobel Prize in Literature non-winners, a group including, among others, Graham Greene, Franz Kafka, James Joyce, Vladimir Nabokov, Marcel Proust, Leo Tolstoy and Alfonso Reyes. (Borges said of Reyes: "the best prose-writer in the Spanish language of any time"). He did, however, receive the Jerusalem Prize in 1971, awarded to writers who deal with themes of human freedom and society. Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... This article is about the writer. ... “Kafka” redirects here. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American, Academy Award nominated author. ... “Proust” redirects here. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Alfonso Reyes El regiomontano universal was born in Monterrey, Mexico, in 1889, and died in Mexico City in 1959. ... The Jerusalem Prize for the Freedom of the Individual in Society is a biennial literary award given to writers whose work has dealt with themes of human freedom, society, politics, and government. ...


Later personal life

When Perón returned from exile and was re-elected president in 1973, Borges immediately resigned as director of the National Library.


In 1967 Borges married recently widowed Elsa Astete Millán. It was believed that his mother, who was 90, and anticipating her own death, wanted to find someone to care for her blind son. The marriage lasted less than three years. After a legal separation, Borges moved back in with his mother, with whom he lived until her death at 99.[5] Thereafter, he lived alone in the small flat he had shared with her, cared for by Fanny, their housekeeper of many decades.[6]


After 1975, the year his mother died, Borges began to travel all over the world, up to the time of his death. He was often accompanied in these travels by his personal assistant María Kodama, an Argentine woman of Japanese and German ancestry.


Jorge Luis Borges died of liver cancer in 1986 in Geneva and is buried in the Cimetière des Rois (Plainpalais). A few months before his death, an attorney in Paraguay married him to Maria Kodama. Kodama, as sole inheritor of a significant annual income, has control over his works. Kodama was denounced by the prestigious French publisher Gallimard, by Le Nouvel Observateur, and by intellectuals such as Beatriz Sarlo, as an obstacle to the serious reading of Borges' works.[7] Hepatic tumors are tumors or growths on or in the liver (medical terms pertaining to the liver often start in hepato- or hepatic from the Greek word for liver, hepar). ... The Cimetière des Rois (French for Cemetery of Kings) is a cemetery in Geneva, Switzerland, where people such as John Calvin, the great Reformer of the Swiss Reformation, Jorge Luis Borges, the famed Argentine fantasy writer, and Sergio Vieira De Mello, the former United Nations diplomat to Iraq, are... María Kodama (Buenos Aires, 1945 - ) is an Argentine writer, translator and literature professor. ... Éditions Gallimard is the second most important French publisher, and probably the most respected. ... Le Nouvel Observateur (often shorten to Le Nouvel Obs) is a weekly French newsmagazine. ... Beatriz Sarlo Sabajanes is an Argentine literary and cultural critic. ...


J.M. Coetzee said of Borges: "He more than anyone renovated the language of fiction and thus opened the way to a remarkable generation of Spanish American novelists. " J.M. Coetzee John Maxwell Coetzee (pronounced coot-SEE-uh) is a South African author. ...


Other works

In addition to his short stories for which he is most famous, Borges also wrote poetry, essays, several screenplays, and a considerable volume of literary criticism, prologues, and reviews, edited numerous anthologies, and was a prominent translator of English-, French- and German-language literature into Spanish (and of Old English and Norse works as well). His blindness (which, like his father's, developed in adulthood) strongly influenced his later writing. Paramount among his intellectual interests are elements of mythology, mathematics, theology, and, as a personal integration of these, Borges' sense of literature as recreation — all of these disciplines are sometimes treated as a writer's playthings and at other times treated very seriously. This article is about the art form. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... A North Germanic language is any of several Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the islands west of Scandinavia. ...


Since Borges lived through most of the twentieth century, he was rooted in the Modernist period of culture and literature, especially Symbolism. His fiction is profoundly learned, and always concise. Like his contemporary Vladimir Nabokov and the older James Joyce, he combined an interest in his native land with far broader perspectives. He also shared their multilingualism and their playfulness with language, but while Nabokov and Joyce tended--as their lives went on--toward progressively larger works, Borges remained a miniaturist. Also in contrast to Joyce and Nabokov, Borges' work progressed away from what he referred to as "the baroque," while theirs moved towards it: Borges' later writing style is far more transparent and naturalistic than his earlier works. For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American, Academy Award nominated author. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ...


Many of his most popular stories concern the nature of time, infinity, mirrors, labyrinths, reality, philosophy, and identity. A number of stories focus on fantastic themes, such as a library containing every possible 410-page text ("The Library of Babel"), a man who forgets nothing he experiences ("Funes, the Memorious"), an artifact through which the user can see everything in the universe ("The Aleph"), and a year of time standing still, given to a man standing before a firing squad ("The Secret Miracle"). The same Borges told more and less realistic stories of South American life, stories of folk heroes, streetfighters, soldiers, gauchos, detectives, historical figures. He mixed the real and the fantastic: fact with fiction. On several occasions, especially early in his career, these mixtures sometimes crossed the line into the realm of hoax or literary forgery.[8] For other uses, see Infinity (disambiguation). ... A mirror, reflecting a vase. ... This article is about the mazelike structure from Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Reality (disambiguation). ... The Library of Babel (Spanish: ) is a short story by Argentine author (and librarian) Jorge Luis Borges, conceiving of a universe in the form of a vast library containing all possible 410-page books that can be composed in a certain character set. ... Eidetic memory, photographic memory, or total recall, is the ability to recall images, sounds, or objects in memory with extreme accuracy and in seemingly abundant volume. ... Funes the Memorious (original Spanish title: Funes el memorioso) is a fantasy short story by Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges. ... The Aleph is a short story by the Argentinean writer and poet Jorge Luis Borges. ... The Secret Miracle is a short story by Argentine writer and poet Jorge Luis Borges. ... For other uses, see Gaucho (disambiguation). ...


Borges' abundant nonfiction includes astute film and book reviews, short biographies, and longer philosophical musings on topics such as the nature of dialogue, language, and thought, and the relationships between them. In this respect, and regarding Borges' personal pantheon, he considered the Mexican essayist of similar topics Alfonso Reyes "the best prose-writer in the Spanish language of any time." (In: Siete Noches, p. 156). His non-fiction also explores many of the themes found in his fiction. Essays such as "The History of the Tango" or his writings on the epic poem Martín Fierro explore specifically Argentine themes, such as the identity of the Argentine people and of various Argentine subcultures. His interest in fantasy, philosophy, and the art of translation are evident in articles such as "The Translators of The Thousand and One Nights", while The Book of Imaginary Beings is a thoroughly (and obscurely) researched bestiary of mythical creatures, in the preface of which Borges wrote, "There is a kind of lazy pleasure in useless and out-of-the-way erudition." Borges' interest in fantasy was shared by Adolfo Bioy Casares, with whom Borges coauthored several collections of tales between 1942 and 1967, sometimes under different pseudonyms including H. Bustos Domecq. Alfonso Reyes El regiomontano universal was born in Monterrey, Mexico, in 1889, and died in Mexico City in 1959. ... A couple dances Argentine Tango. ... Martín Fierro is an epic poem by the Argentinean writer José Hernández. ... Motto En unión y libertad(Spanish) In Union and Freedom Anthem Himno Nacional Argentino Capital (and largest city) Buenos Aires Official languages Spanish Demonym Argentinian, Argentine Government Federal republic  -  President Néstor Kirchner  -  President-elect Cristina Fernández de Kirchner Independence from Spain   -  May Revolution 25 May 1810   -  Declared... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... Jorge Luis Borges wrote and edited the Book of Imaginary Beings in 1969, expanding his original 1957 Spanish edition El Libro de los Seres Imaginarios. ... A bestiary is a medieval book that has short descriptions of various real or imaginary animals, birds and even rocks. ... A legendary creature is a mythological or folkloric creature (often known as fabulous creatures in historical literature). ... Adolfo Bioy Casares (September 15, 1914 - March 18, 1999) was an Argentine fiction writer. ... H. Bustos Domecq (Honorio Bustos Domecq) is a pseudonym used for several collaborative works by the Argentine writers Jorge Luis Borges and Adolfo Bioy Casares. ...


Borges composed poetry throughout his life. As his eyesight waned (it came and went, with a struggle between advancing age and advances in eye surgery), he increasingly focused on writing poetry, since he could memorize an entire work in progress. His poems embrace the same wide range of interests as his fiction, along with issues that emerge in his critical works and translations, and from more personal musings. This breadth of interest can be found in his fiction, nonfiction, and poems. For example, his interest in philosophical idealism is reflected in the fictional world of Tlön in "Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius", in his essay "A New Refutation of Time", and in his poem "Things." Similarly, a common thread runs through his story "The Circular Ruins" and his poem "El Golem" ("The Golem"). This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Jorge Luis Borges short story has been widely translated. ... A New Refutation of Time is an essay by Argentinian writer Jorge Luis Borges in which he argues that the negations of idealism may be extended to time. ... The Circular Ruins is a short story by Argentine writer and Jorge Luis Borges. ... El Golem is a poem by Jorge Luis Borges, part of the 1969 book El otro, el mismo (The other, the self). ...


As already mentioned, Borges was notable as a translator. He translated Oscar Wilde's story The Happy Prince into Spanish when he was ten, perhaps an early indication of his literary talent. At the end of his life he produced a Spanish-language version of the Prose Edda. He also translated (while simultaneously subtly transforming) the works of, among others, Edgar Allan Poe, Franz Kafka, Hermann Hesse, Rudyard Kipling, Herman Melville, André Gide, William Faulkner, Walt Whitman, Virginia Woolf, Sir Thomas Browne, and G. K. Chesterton. In a number of essays and lectures, Borges assessed the art of translation, and articulated his own view at the same time. He held the view that a translation may improve upon the original, may even be unfaithful to it, and that alternative and potentially contradictory renderings of the same work can be equally valid. Look up Translator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Happy Prince and Other Stories is an 1888 collection of stories for children by Oscar Wilde. ... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... “Kafka” redirects here. ... Hermann Hesse (pronounced ) (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-Swiss poet, novelist, and painter. ... This article is about the British author. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. ... André Gide in 1893 Gide redirects here, for other people named Gide, see Gide (disambiguation) André Paul Guillaume Gide (November 22, 1869 – February 19, 1951) was a French author and winner of the Nobel Prize in literature in 1947. ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American novelist and poet whose works feature his native state of Mississippi. ... Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ... Sir Thomas Browne (October 19, 1605 – October 19, 1682) was an English author of varied works that disclose his wide learning in diverse fields including medicine, religion, science and the esoteric. ... Gilbert Keith Chesterton (May 29, 1874–June 14, 1936) was an influential English writer of the early 20th century. ...


Borges also employed two very unusual literary forms: the literary forgery and the review of an imaginary work. Both constitute a form of modern pseudo-epigrapha. Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ...


Borges' best-known set of literary forgeries date from his early work as a translator and literary critic with a regular column in the Argentine magazine El Hogar. Along with publishing numerous legitimate translations, he also published original works after the style of the likes of Emanuel Swedenborg or The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, originally passing them off as translations of things he had come upon in his reading. Several of these are gathered in the Universal History of Infamy. He continued this pattern of literary forgery at several points in his career, for example sneaking three short, falsely attributed pieces into his otherwise legitimate and carefully researched anthology El matrero. Emanuel Swedenborg, 75, holding the manuscript of Apocalypsis Revelata (1766). ...


At times, confronted with an idea for a work that bordered on the conceptual, rather than write a piece that fulfilled the concept, he wrote a review of a nonexistent work, as if it had already been created by some other person. The most famous example of this is "Pierre Menard, author of the Quixote", which imagines a twentieth-century Frenchman who tries to write Miguel de Cervantes' Don Quixote verbatim—-not by having memorized Cervantes' work, but as an "original" narrative of his own invention. Initially he tries to immerse himself in sixteenth-century Spain, but dismisses the method as too easy, instead trying to reach Don Quixote through his own experiences. He finally manages to (re)create "the ninth and thirty-eighth chapters of the first part of Don Quixote and a fragment of chapter twenty-two." Borges' "review" of the work of the fictional Menard effectively discusses the resonances that Don Quixote has picked up over the centuries since it was written, by way of overtly discussing how much richer Menard's work is than that of Cervantes. Pierre Menard is a fictional 20th century writer, created by Jorge Luis Borges. ... Cervantes redirects here. ... This article is about the fictional character and novel. ...


While Borges was certainly the great popularizer of the review of an imaginary work, it was not his own invention. Borges was already familiar with the idea from Thomas Carlyle's Sartor Resartus, a book-length review of a non-existent German transcendentalist philosophical work, and the biography of its equally non-existent author. This Craft of Verse (p. 104) records Borges as saying that in 1916 in Geneva he "discovered — and was overwhelmed by — Thomas Carlyle. I read Sartor Resartus, and I can recall many of its pages; I know them by heart." In the introduction to his first published volume of fiction, The Garden of Forking Paths, Borges remarks, "It is a laborious madness and an impoverishing one, the madness of composing vast books — setting out in five hundred pages an idea that can be perfectly related orally in five minutes. The better way to go about it is to pretend that those books already exist, and offer a summary, a commentary on them." He then cites both Sartor Resartus and Samuel Butler's The Fair Haven, remarking, however, that "those works suffer under the imperfection that they themselves are books, and not a whit less tautological than the others. A more reasonable, more inept, and more lazy man, I have chosen to write notes on imaginary books." [Collected Fictions, p.67] The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze. ... Sartor Resartus, Oxford Worlds Classics edition 1999 Thomas Carlyles major work, Sartor Resartus (meaning The tailor re-tailored), first published as a serial in 1833-34, purported to be a commentary on the thought and early life of a German philosopher called Diogenes Teufelsdröckh (which translates as... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Samuel Butler Samuel Butler (December 4, 1835 - June 18, 1902) was a British writer best known for his satire Erewhon. ...


Borges as Argentine and as world citizen

Special two-Argentine pesos coin with a Caricature of Borges, 1999
Special two-Argentine pesos coin with a Caricature of Borges, 1999

Borges' work maintained a universal perspective that reflected a multi-ethnic Argentina, exposure from an early age to his father's substantial collection of world literature, and lifelong travel experience. As a young man, he visited the frontier pampas where the boundaries of Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil blurred, and lived and studied in Switzerland and Spain; in middle age he traveled through Argentina as a lecturer and, internationally, as a visiting professor; he continued to tour the world as he grew older, ending his life in Geneva where he had attended high school (he never went to university). Drawing on influences of many times and places, Borges' work belittled nationalism and racism. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x627, 512 KB) Thanks to Gisela for licensing this picture as cc-by-sa for Wikimedia Commons. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x627, 512 KB) Thanks to Gisela for licensing this picture as cc-by-sa for Wikimedia Commons. ... The Argentine peso (originally established as the nuevo peso argentino or peso convertible) is the currency of Argentina. ... This article is about the lowland plains in South America. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ...


Borges grew acquainted with the literature from Argentine, Spanish, North American, English, French, German, Italian, and Northern European/Icelandic sources, including those of Anglo-Saxon and Old Norse. He also read many translations of Near Eastern and Far Eastern works. The universalism that made him interested in world literature reflected an attitude that was not congruent with the Perón government's extreme nationalism. That government's meddling with Borges' job fueled his skepticism of government (he labeled himself a Spencerian anarchist in the blurb of Atlas). When extreme Argentine nationalists sympathetic to the Nazis asserted Borges was Jewish (the implication being that his Argentine identity was inadequate), Borges responded in "Yo Judío" ("I, a Jew"), where he said, while he would be proud to be a Jew, he presented his actual Christian genealogy, along with a backhanded reminder that any "pure" Castilian just might likely have a Jew in their ancestry, stemming from a millennium back. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine general and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina and serving from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... For other persons named Herbert Spencer, see Herbert Spencer (disambiguation). ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Genealogy (from Greek: γενεα, genea, family; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ...


Multicultural influences on Borges' writing

Borges' Argentina is a multi-ethnic country, and Buenos Aires, the capital, a cosmopolitan city. At the time of Argentine independence in 1816, the population was predominantly criollo, which in Argentine usage generally means people of Spanish ancestry, although it can allow for a small admixture of other origins. The Argentine national identity diversified, forming over a period of decades after the Argentine Declaration of Independence. During that period substantial immigration came from Italy, Spain, France, Germany, Russia, Syria and Lebanon (then parts of the Ottoman Empire), the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, Portugal, Poland, Switzerland, Yugoslavia, North America, Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden, and China, with the Italians and Spanish forming the largest influx. The diversity of coexisting cultures characteristic of the Argentine lifestyles is especially pronounced in Six Problems for Don Isidoro Parodi, co-authored with Adolfo Bioy Casares, and in the unnamed multi-ethnic city that's the setting for "Death and the Compass", which may or may not be Buenos Aires. Borges' writing is also steeped by influences and informed by scholarship of Christian, Buddhist, Islamic, and Jewish faiths, including mainline religious figures, heretics, and mystics. For more examples, see the sections below on International themes in Borges and Religious themes in Borges. The Independence of Argentina was declared on July 9, 1816 by the Congress of Tucumán. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Adolfo Bioy Casares (September 15, 1914 - March 18, 1999) was an Argentine fiction writer. ... Christopher Eccleston as Red Scharlach/Zunz Death and the Compass is British director Alex Coxs second Mexican feature (the first was El Patrullero), made in 1996. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Borges as specialist in the history, culture, and literature of Argentina

If Borges often focused on universal themes, he no less composed a substantial body of literature on themes from Argentine folklore, history, and current concerns. Borges' first book, the poetry collection Fervor de Buenos Aires (Passion for Buenos Aires), appeared in 1923. Considering Borges' thorough attention to all things Argentine — ranging from Argentine culture ("History of the Tango"; "Inscriptions on Horse Wagons"), folklore ("Juan Muraña", "Night of the Gifts"), literature ("The Argentine Writer and Tradition", "Almafuerte"; "Evaristo Carriego") and current concerns ("Celebration of The Monster", "Hurry, Hurry", "The Mountebank", "Pedro Salvadores") — it is ironic indeed that ultra-nationalists would have questioned his Argentine identity. Evaristo Carriego (Paraná, May 7, 1883 - † Buenos Aires, October 13, 1912). ...


Borges' interest in Argentine themes reflects in part the inspiration of his family tree. Borges had an English paternal grandmother who, around 1870, married the criollo Francisco Borges, a man with a military command and a historic role in the civil wars in what is now Argentina and Uruguay. Spurred by pride in his family's heritage, Borges often used those civil wars as settings in fiction and quasi-fiction (for example, "The Life of Tadeo Isidoro Cruz," "The Dead Man," "Avelino Arredondo") as well as poetry ("General Quiroga Rides to His Death in a Carriage"). Borges' maternal great-grandfather, Manuel Isidoro Suárez (1799-1846), was another military hero, whom Borges immortalized in the poem "A Page to Commemorate Colonel Suárez, Victor at Junín." The city of Coronel Suárez in the south of Buenos Aires Province is named after him. Colonel Manuel Isidoro Suárez Manuel Isidoro Suárez (1799 - 1846) was an Argentine colonel who commanded Peruvian and Colombian cavalry troops in their wars of independence. ... Coronel Suárez is a city in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. ... The Buenos Aires province (IPA: , Spanish: Provincia de Buenos Aires) is the wealthiest and most populated province of Argentina. ...


Borges, Martín Fierro, and tradition

Borges contributed to a few avant garde publications in the early 1920s, including one called Martín Fierro, named after the major work of nineteenth-century Argentine literature, Martín Fierro, a gauchesque poem by José Hernández, published in two parts, in 1872 and 1880. Initially, along with other young writers of his generation, Borges rallied around the fictional Martín Fierro as the symbol of a characteristic Argentine sensibility, not tied to European values. As Borges matured, he came to a more nuanced attitude toward the poem. Hernández's central character, Martín Fierro, is a gaucho, a free, poor, pampas-dweller, who is illegally drafted to serve at a border fort to defend against the Indians; he ultimately deserts and becomes a gaucho matrero, the Argentine equivalent of a North American western outlaw. Borges' 1953 book of essays on the poem, El "Martín Fierro", separates his great admiration for the aesthetic virtues of the work from his rather mixed opinion of the moral virtues of its protagonist. He uses the occasion to tweak the noses of arch-nationalist interpreters of the poem, but disdains those (such as Eleuterio Tiscornia) whom he sees as failing to understand its specifically Argentine character. Martín Fierro was an Argentine literary magazine which appeared from February 1924 to 1927. ... For the baseball player, see José Hernández. ... The pampas (from Quechua for plain) are the fertile lowlands that extend across c. ... Like most Argentinians, Jorge Luis Borges was a great admirer of José Hernándezs poem Martín Fierro. ...


In "The Argentine Writer and Tradition", Borges celebrates how Hernández expresses that character in the crucial scene in which Martín Fierro and El Moreno compete by improvising songs about universal themes such as time, night, and the sea. The scene clearly reflects the real-world gaucho tradition of payadas, improvised musical dialogues on philosophical themes — as distinct from the type of slang that Hernández uses in the main body of Martín Fierro. Borges points out that therefore, Hernández evidently knew the difference between actual gaucho tradition of composing poetry on universal themes, versus the "gauchesque" fashion among Buenos Aires literati. Borges goes on to deny the possibility that Argentine literature could distinguish itself by making reference to "local color", nor does it need to remain true to the heritage of the literature of Spain, nor to define itself as a rejection of the literature of its colonial founders, nor follow in the footsteps of European literature. He asserts that Argentine writers need to be free to define Argentine literature anew, writing about Argentina and the world from the point of view of someone who has inherited the whole of world literature.


Borges uses Martín Fierro and El Moreno's competition as a theme once again in "El Fin" ("The End"), a story that first appeared in his short story collection Artificios (1944). "El Fin" is a sort of mini-sequel or conclusion to Martín Fierro. In his prologue to Artificios, Borges says of "El Fin," "Everything in the story is implicit in a famous book [Martín Fierro] and I have been the first to decipher it, or at least, to declare it."


Limits to universalism

To exaggerate Borges' universalism might be as much a mistake as the nationalists' questioning the validity of his Argentine identity. His writing was evidently more influenced by some literatures than others, reflecting in part the particular contents of his library his father had amassed, and the particular population composition of Argentina during his lifetime. A review of his work reveals far more influences from European and New World sources than Asian-Pacific or African ones. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ...


Few references to Africans or African-Americans appear in his work; rare mentions include an idiosyncratic inventory of the latter-day effects of the slave trade in "The Dread Redeemer Lazarus Morrell" and a number of sympathetic references to a person of African descent killed by the fictional outlaw Martin Fierro. Indigenous Amerind sources are poorly represented, owing to the near-destruction of that population and culture in the Southern Cone region of South America; rare mentions include a captive Aztec priest, Tzinacán, in "The God's Script" and Amerinds who capture Argentines in "Story of the Warrior and the Captive" and "The Captive". "Lo Gauchesco" (Gaucho culture), has, however, a big presence throughout his work. Gauchos are of mixed blood (Spanish and indigenous) and have always been associated with the barbaric, indigenous and unruly elements of Argentine culture. World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Brazilian Indian chiefs The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic...


In contrast to his scholarship in Christian, Jewish, Muslim, and Buddhist sources, Borges' view of Hinduism and Hindus seems to have been formed by peering through the sympathetic lens of the works of Rudyard Kipling, as in Borges' "The Approach to Al Mutasim". This article is about the British author. ...


Sexuality and sexual orientation

There has been discussion of Borges' attitudes to sex and women. Herbert J. Brant, in his essay The Queer Use of Communal Women in Borges’ "El muerto" and "La intrusa",[9] has argued that Borges employed women as intermediaries of male affection, allowing men to engage each other romantically without resorting to direct, homosexual contact. For instance, the plot of La Intrusa was based on a true story of two friends,[citations needed] but Borges made their fictional counterparts brothers, excluding the possibility of a homosexual relationship. Borges dismissed these suggestions.


There are, however, instances in Borges writings of heterosexual love and attraction. The story "Ulrikke" from The Book of Sand tells a romantic tale of heterosexual desire, love, trust and sex. The protagonist of "El muerto" clearly relishes and lusts after the "Splendid, contemptuous, red-haired woman" of Azevedo Bandeira.[10] Later he "sleeps with the woman with shining hair".[11] "El muerto" ("The Dead Man") contains two separate examples of definitive gaucho heterosexual lust. Ulrikke (original Spanish title: Ulrica) is a short story by Argentinian writer Jorge Luis Borges. ... The Book of Sand (El libro de arena) is a short story by Jorge Luis Borges. ...


James Woodall and Edwin Williamson have both written biographies of Borges, both of which are titled Borges, a Life. Their investigations of his actual relationships and his personal correspondence elaborate on the debate surrounding Borges' sexuality.


Further Reading

  • Jorge Luis Borges (Critical Lives) / Jason Wilson., 2006
  • With Borges / Alberto Manguel., 2006
  • Borges and Dante : echoes of a literary friendship / Humberto Núñez-Faraco., 2006
  • Borges and translation : the irreverence of the periphery / Sergio Gabriel Waisman., 2005
  • Borges : a life / Edwin Williamson., 2005
  • You might be able to get there from here: reconsidering Borges and the postmodern / Frisch, Mark F., 2004
  • Jorge Luis Borges (Bloom's BioCritiques) / Bloom, Harold., 2004
  • Jorge Luis Borges as writer and social critic / Racz, Gregary Joseph., 2003
  • The lesson of the master: on Borges and his work / Di Giovanni, Norman Thomas., 2003
  • Borges, the passion of an endless quotation / Block de Behar, Lisa., 2003
  • Jorge Luis Borges (Bloom's Major Short Story Writers) / Bloom, Harold., 2002
  • Invisible work: Borges and translation / Kristal, Efraín., 2002
  • Borges and his fiction: a guide to his mind and art / Bell-Villada, Gene., 1999
  • Jorge Luis Borges: thought and knowledge in the XXth century / Toro, Alfonso de., 1999
  • The secret of Borges: a psychoanalytic inquiry into his work / Woscoboinik, Julio., 1998
  • Borges and Europe revisited / Fishburn, Evelyn., 1998
  • Nightglow: Borges' poetics of blindness / Yudin, Florence., 1997
  • The Borges tradition / Di Giovanni, Norman Thomas., 1995
  • Signs of Borges / Molloy, Sylvia., 1994
  • Cervantes and the modernists: the question of influence / Williamson, Edwin., 1994
  • Out of context: historical reference and the representation of reality in Borges / Balderston, Daniel., 1993
  • Jorge Luis Borges: a writer on the edge / Sarlo, Beatriz., 1993
  • Borges' Narrative Strategy / Shaw, Donald L., 1992
  • Borges revisited / Stabb, Martin S., 1991
  • The contemporary praxis of the fantastic: Borges and Cortázar / Rodríguez-Luis, Julio., 1991
  • Borges and his successors: the Borgesian impact on literature and the arts / Aizenberg, Edna., 1990
  • Jorge Luis Borges: a study of the short fiction / Lindstrom, Naomi., 1990
  • Borges and the Kabbalah: and other essays on his fiction and poetry / Alazraki, Jaime., 1988
  • The meaning of experience in the prose of Jorge Luis Borges / Agheana, Ion Tudro., 1988
  • Critical essays on Jorge Luis Borges / Alazraki, Jaime., 1987
  • Jorge Luis Borges (Modern Critical Views) / Bloom, Harold., 1986
  • Jorge Luis Borges, life, work, and criticism / Yates, Donald A., 1985
  • The prose of Jorge Luis Borges: existentialism and the dynamics of surprise / Agheana, Ion Tudro., 1984
  • The aleph weaver: biblical, kabbalistic and Judaic elements in Borges / Aizenberg, Edna., 1984
  • Borges and his fiction: a guide to his mind and art / Bell-Villada, Gene H., 1981
  • Jorge Luis Borges / McMurray, George R., 1980
  • Jorge Luis Borges, A Literary Biography / Monegal, Emir Rodriguez, 1978
  • Paper tigers: the ideal fictions of Jorge Luis Borges / Sturrock, John., 1977
  • The Cardinal points of Borges / Dunham, Lowell., 1971

See also

This is a bibliography of works by Jorge Luis Borges. ...

References

  1. ^ (Spanish) Jorge Luis Borges, Galería de Directores, Biblioteca Nacional (Argentina). Accessed online 23 December 2006.
  2. ^ Anthony Boucher entry, online Index to Science Fiction Anthologies and Collections.
  3. ^ Jorge Luis Borges, Collected Fictions, Viking Penguin 1998, ISBN 0140286802. (Translation and notes by Andrew Hurley.) Editorial note on page 517.
  4. ^ Mystery Writers of America. Edgar Award Database. Retrieved September 24, 2007.
  5. ^ Norman Thomas Di Giovanni, The Lessons of the Master
  6. ^ “Fanny”, El Señor Borges
  7. ^ (Spanish) Octavi Martí, Kodama frente a Borges, El País (Madrid), Edición Impresa, 16 August 2006. Abstract online; full text accessible online by subscription only.
  8. ^ His imitations of Swedenborg and others were originally passed off as translations, in his literary column in Crítica. For example, "El Teólogo" was originally published with the note "Lo anterior…es obra de Manuel Swedenborg, eminente ingeniero y hombre de ciencia, que durante 27 años estuvo en comercio lúcido y familiar con el otro mundo." ("The preceding…is the work of Emanuel Swedenborg, eminent engineer and man of science, who during 27 years was in lucid and familiar commerce with the other world.") Bibliografía cronológica de la obra de Jorge Luis Borges ("Chronological bibliography of the work of Jorge Luis Borges"), Borges Center, University of Iowa. Accessed online 7 November 2006.
  9. ^ Herbert J. Brant, The Queer Use of Communal Women in Borges' "El muerto" and "La intrusa", paper presented at XIX Latin American Studies Association (LASA) Congress held in Washington DC in September, 1995.
  10. ^ Andrew Hurley Jorge Luis Borges: Collected Fictions. New York: Penguin, 1998. 197.
  11. ^ ibid. 200

is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Andrew Hurley is primarily known as an English translator of Spanish literature, of a variety of authors, especially regarding work of the Argentine writer, Jorge Luis Borges. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
  • Borges Center, University of Iowa: important internet resources including bibliographies, chronologies, full text articles and books, and information on the journal Variaciones Borges
  • BBC Radio 4: In Our Time Archive page for edition about Borges in a series on the 'History of Ideas'. Includes link to streaming audio.
  • The Modern Word: The Garden of Forking Paths. A comprehensive Web site dedicated to exploring Borges and his work, including pages that discuss writers that Borges influenced.
  • Internetaleph. Fully bilingual (English/Spanish) portal dedicated to Jorge Luis Borges. Links, recent news, reading suggestions and an introduction for beginners.
  • The Borgesian Cyclopaedia. "Being a Virtual Reference to the World of Jorge Luis Borges".
  • Hallucinating Spaces, or the Aleph An essay from Borgesland by Susana Medina
  • The Friends of Jorge Luis Borges Worldwide Society & Associates A non-Governmental and not for profit organization with four distinctive entities that aim to promote artistic and intellectual talents along with civic virtues in new generations of mankind. Borges' works ("a writer of writers" for his extensive and insightful readings) are celebrated as a thread of Ariadne to walk the labyrinths of Philosophy and Literature and all fields of knowledge in quest of wisdom.
  • Fundación San Telmo's Jorge Luis Borges Collection
  • The Norton Lectures, delivered at Harvard University in the fall of 1967, by Jorge Luis Borges
  • Borges' Bad Politics Slate.com presents an essay by Clive James arguing that Borges could have done more to engage with Argentina's political situation
  • "El Tango" on audio MP3 (in Spanish)
  • Rend(er)ing L.C.: Susan Daitch Meets Borges & Borges, Delacroix, Marx, Derrida, Daumier, and Other Textualized Bodies William A. Nericcio (1993); pdf full-text
  • [1]l [Jose Luis Borges- The Mirror Man][2].
Persondata
NAME Borges, Jorge Luis
ALTERNATIVE NAMES JLB (initials)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Argentine writer
DATE OF BIRTH August 24, 1899(1899-08-24)
PLACE OF BIRTH Buenos Aires, Argentina
DATE OF DEATH June 14, 1986
PLACE OF DEATH Geneva, Switzerland

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Clive James AM (born October 7, 1939 in Kogarah, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia) is an expatriate Australian writer, poet, essayist, critic, and commentator on popular culture. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jorge Luis Borges - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5212 words)
Jorge Luis Borges (born August 24, 1899 in Buenos Aires, Argentina; died June 14, 1986 in Geneva, Switzerland) was an Argentine writer who is considered one of the foremost literary figures of the 20th century.
Jorge Guillermo Borges was forced into early retirement from the legal profession owing to the same failing eyesight that would eventually afflict his son, and in 1914, the family moved to Geneva, where Borges senior was treated by a Geneva eye specialist while Borges and his sister Norah (born 1902) attended school.
Jorge Luis Borges died of liver cancer (when?) in Geneva and is buried in the Cimetière des Rois (Planpalais).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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