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Encyclopedia > Jorge Juan y Santacilia
Jorge Juan y Santacilia
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Jorge Juan y Santacilia

Jorge Juan y Santacilia (January 5, 1713–June 21, 1773) was a Spanish mathematician, scientist, naval officer, and mariner. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Contents

Family and Education

Jorge Juan was born on the estate El Fondonet, the property of his grandfather don Cipriano Juan Vergarain in Novelda, Alicante, Spain. He was baptised in the Church at Monforte del Cid. Juan was born of two distinguished families: His father was don Bernardo Juan y Canicia who came from the branch of the Counts of Peñalba. His mother was doña Violante Santacilia y Soler de Cornellá, who came from prominent land-owning family in Elche. Both of his parents were widowed and remarried. They lived in their house on the Plaza del Mar in Alicante and only vacationed in Novelda. Novelda is a town located in the province of Alicante, Spain. ... Location of Alicante province in Spain. ... View of Elche Elche (in Spanish) or Elx (in Catalan) is a city in the Alicante province in Valencia, Spain, near the city of Alicante. ...


His father died when Juan was only three years old and under the care of the Jesuits of the Jesuit school in Alicante. His uncle don Antonio Juan, a Canon at the Collegiate Church took charge of young Jorge and continued his education. Later another uncle, don Cipriano Juan, a Knight of the Order of Malta, took charge of his education and sent him to Saragossa for a preparatory education for higher studies. The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... For alternative meanings, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ...


At the age of 12 he was sent to Malta to receive Holy Orders at the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. The next year he became page to the Grand Master don Antonio Manuel de Villena, who granted him the title of Commander of Aliaga in Aragón. Thus he received his first title when he was only 14. Soon he became a Knight of the Order of Malta, which implied life-long celibacy.


In 1729, when he was 16, he returned to Spain and applied for entry to the Royal Company of Marine Guards, the Spanish military school for naval officers. He entered the academy in 1730 and studied modern technical and scientific studies subjects such as geometry, trigonometry, astronomy, navigation, hydrography, and cartography. He also completed his education in the humanities with classes in drawing, music and dancing. He earned the reputation of being an outstanding student and his fellow students called him Euclid. He finished his studies at the academy in 1734. At the young age of 22 he was given command of a corvette and he participated in the expedition against Orán and the campaign of Naples. Table of Geometry, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Trigonometry Trigonometry (from the Greek trigonon = three angles and metron = measure [1]) is a branch of mathematics which deals with triangles, particularly triangles in a plane where one angle of the triangle is 90 degrees (right triangles). ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Hydrography focuses on the measurement of physical characteristics of waters and marginal land. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study, practice, science and art of making maps or globes. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... Euclid (also referred to as Euclid of Alexandria) (Greek: ) (c. ... French steam corvette Dupleix (1856-1887) Canadian corvettes on antisubmarine convoy escort duty during World War II. A corvette is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, smaller than a frigate but larger than a coastal patrol craft. ... The Bay of Naples Naples (Italian: , Neapolitan: Nàpule, from Greek Νεάπολη < Νέα Πόλις Néa Pólis New City) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of the Campania region and the Province of Naples. ...


Career

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Bust of Jorge Juan y Santacilia in Mitad del Mundo, Ecuador

In 1734, King Philip V of Spain Jorge Juan and fellow scientist Antonio de Ulloa to join the French Geodesic Mission organized by the French Academy of Sciences from Paris, under command of Charles de La Condamine. The mission was to measure the length of a degree of the longitudinal meridian at the Equator in South America and to determine the roundness of the Earth. On May 26, 1735 they left Cadiz in the company of the Marquess of Villagarcía, who had just been appointed Viceroy of Peru. Jorge Juan was on board the ship El Conquistador and Antonio de Ulloa on the frigate Incendio. The expedition traveled to Quito in present-day Ecuador and after four years of careful study, determined that the Earth is not perfectly spherical but is oblate, i.e. flattened at the poles. Juan also successfully measured the heights of the mountains of the Andes using a barometer. Southeastern view of the monument The Mitad del Mundo (Spanish for Middle of the World) is a monument located in San Antonio de Pichincha, Ecuador, to the north of Quito, that marks one of the points where the equator goes through the country. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Antonio de Ulloa (January 12, 1716 _ July 3, 1795) was a Spanish general, explorer, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana. ... // The French Geodesic Mission (also called the First Geodesic Mission and the Spanish-French Geodesic Mission) was an 18th-century expedition to Ecuador carried out for the purpose of measuring the roundness of the Earth and measuring the length of a degree of longitude at the Equator. ... Louis XIV visiting the Académie in 1671 The French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. ... The Equator is an imaginary circle drawn around a planet (or other astronomical object) at a distance halfway between the poles. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Earth (IPA: , often referred to as the Earth, Terra, the World or Planet Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... Quito (official name: San Francisco de Quito) is the capital city of Ecuador in northwestern South America. ... An oblate spheroid is ellipsoid having a shorter axis and two equal longer axes. ... A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. ...


Juan remained nine years in America, studying the political and social situation of the Spanish territories. On his return to Spain, King Ferdinand promoted him to captain. Ferdinand VI, (September 23, 1713 - August 10, 1759), king of Spain from 1746 until his death, second son of Philip V, founder of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty (as opposed to the French Bourbons), by his first marriage with Maria Louisa of Savoy, was born at Madrid on September 23 1713. ... Please see Captain for other uses of the term Captain is a military rank used in nearly every army and navy of the world. ...


The Marquess de la Ensenada ordered Juan to travel to England secretly to study new naval construction methods and armament of the English. In 1749 he traveled incognito under the name of Mr. Mr. Josues and learned all that he could from the English. On his return to Spain in 1750 he was placed in charge of Spanish naval construction and improving the shipyards and armaments.


On 1757 he founded the National Astronomical Observatory of Spain Observatorio Astronómico Nacional de España.


He died in Madrid at the age of 60, reportedly of an epileptic seizure. He was buried in the church of San Martín. Location Coordinates : 40° 23’N , 3°43′0″W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Villa de Madrid (Spanish) Spanish name Villa de Madrid Founded 9th century Postal code 28001-28080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 91 (Villa de Madrid) Website http://www. ...


Works

  • Compendio de navegación (1757)
  • Examen marítimo teórico-práctico ((1771)
  • Estado de la astronomía en Europa (1774)

In collaboration with Antonio de Ulloa

  • Plan del camino de Quito al río Esmeraldas, según las observaciones astronómicas de Jorge Juan y Antonio de Ulloa (1736-1742)
  • Observaciones astronómicas y físicas hechas en los Reinos del Perú (Madrid, 1748)
  • Relación histórica del viaje hecho de orden de su Majestad a la América Meridional (Madrid, 1748)
  • Disertación Histórica y Geográfica sobre el Meridiano de Demarcación entre los dominios de España y Portugal (1749)
  • Noticias Secretas de América, sobre el estado naval, militar y político del Perú y provincia de Quito (The Secret news of America, on the naval state, military and political of the Peru and province of Quito) (1748) (published in London 1826 after publication was banned by the Spanish government)

Antonio de Ulloa (January 12, 1716 _ July 3, 1795) was a Spanish general, explorer, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana. ...

Sources

  • Biography – Spanish Wikipedia
  • Biography – Jorge Juan Foundation
  • Biography – famousamericans.net

 
 

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