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Encyclopedia > Jordan Valley
Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA)
Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA)
The Jordan River
The Jordan River

The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest Asia flowing through the Great Rift Valley into the Dead Sea. It is one of the world's most sacred rivers.[1] Jordan River viewed from space. ... Jordan River viewed from space. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Jordan_river. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Jordan_river. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The River Thames in London River running into Harrietville Trout Farm A river is a large natural waterway. ... The definition of cultural-geographical regions in use by the United Nations. ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ; Arabic: ‎) is both the lowest point on Earth at 418 metres (1,371 ft) below sea level and falling[2], and the deepest hypersaline lake in the world at 330 m (1,083 ft) deep and 799 m (2,621 ft) below sea level. ...


It is 251 kilometers (156 miles) long. Its tributaries are A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... A mile is the name of a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ...

  1. The Hasbani (Hebrew: שניר senir, Arabic: الحاصباني hasbani), which flows from Lebanon.
  2. The Banias (Hebrew: חרמון hermon, Arabic: بانياس banias), arising from a spring at Banias at the foot of Mount Hermon.
  3. The Dan (Hebrew: דן dan, Arabic: اللدان leddan), whose source is also at the base of Mount Hermon.
  4. The Ayoun (Hebrew: עיון ayoun, Arabic: عيون ayoun), which flows from Lebanon.

The four merge to form the Jordan in northern Israel, near kibbutz Sede Nehemya. The Jordan drops rapidly in a 75 kilometer run to swampy Lake Hula, which is slightly below sea level in the Rift Valley. Exiting the lake, it drops much more in about 25 kilometers to the Sea of Galilee. The last section has less gradient, and the river begins to meander before it enters the Dead Sea, which is about 400 meters below sea level and has no outlet. Two major tributaries enter from the east during this last phase: the Yarmouk River and Jabbok River. Hasbani is a Lebanese river that merges with the Baniar River to make the Jordan River. ... Look up spring in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the city in northwestern Syria, see Baniyas For information on the processor formerly codenamed Banias, please see Centrino The spring at Banyas - one of the three sources of the Jordan river The remains of the city of Banias (Arabic pronunciation of Panias) are located at the foot of Mt. ... Mount Hermon (top of photo) supplies the bulk of the Jordan River water Mount Hermon (Arabic: Jabalu sh-Shaykh) is a mountain in the Anti-Lebanon range, on the border between Lebanon, Syria, and Israel. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: קיבוץ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים, gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ... The Hula Valley (Hebrew: emek hahula) is an agricultural region in northern Israel with abundant fresh water. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... The Sea of Galilee with the Jordan River flowing out of it to the south and into the Dead Sea Kineret redirects here; for the Amgen drug having this tradename, see Anakinra The Sea of Galilee is Israels largest freshwater lake, approximately 53 kilometers (33 miles) in circumference, about... Stream gradient is the ratio of drop in a stream per unit distance, usually expressed as feet per mile or meters per kilometer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ; Arabic: ‎) is both the lowest point on Earth at 418 metres (1,371 ft) below sea level and falling[2], and the deepest hypersaline lake in the world at 330 m (1,083 ft) deep and 799 m (2,621 ft) below sea level. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... The Yarmouk River (Arabic:Nahr Al-Yarmuk; Hebrew:נהר הירמוך, Nehar HaYarmukh; Greek:Hieromax) is one of the three main tributaries which enter the Jordan River between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea (the other being the Jabbok). ... Jabbok, puring out, river on the east side on Jordan, one of the so-called torrent valleys. ...


Its section north of the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כינרת kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) is within the boundaries of Israel (disputed by Syria), and forms the western boundary of the Golan Heights. South of the lake, it forms the border between the Kingdom of Jordan (to the east) and the State of Israel (to the west). The Sea of Galilee with the Jordan River flowing out of it to the south and into the Dead Sea Kineret redirects here; for the Amgen drug having this tradename, see Anakinra The Sea of Galilee is Israels largest freshwater lake, approximately 53 kilometers (33 miles) in circumference, about... Tiberias in 1862, the ruins reminiscent of its ancient heritage. ... Sites on the Golan in blue are Israeli settlement communities. ... The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, commonly called Jordan, is a country in the Middle East. ...


In 1964 Israel began operating a dam that diverts water from the Sea of Galilee, a major Jordan River water provider, to the national water carrier, told Hillel Glassman, a stream expert at Israel's Parks Authority. Also in 1964 Jordan constructed a channel that diverted water from the Yarmouk River, another main tributary of the Jordan River. This resulted in great damage to the ecosystem. Syria has also built reservoirs that catch the Yarmouk's waters. In a year, the Yarmouk's flow into the Jordan River will dwindle to a trickle, once Syria and Jordan begin operating a dam they jointly built, he added. Environmentalists blame Israel, Jordan and Syria. The three countries replenished the river with sewage water, agricultural runoff and salt water, Glassman said. The freshwater foliage that once flourished along the river's banks has been replaced with saline vegetation.[1] 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood event A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... The Yarmouk River (Arabic:Nahr Al-Yarmuk; Hebrew:נהר הירמוך, Nehar HaYarmukh; Greek:Hieromax) is one of the three main tributaries which enter the Jordan River between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea (the other being the Jabbok). ...

Road sign
Road sign

In modern times the waters are 70 to 90% used for human purposes and the flow is much reduced. Because of this and the high evaporation rate of the Dead Sea, the sea is shrinking. All the shallow waters of the southern end of the sea have been drained in modern times and are now salt flats. Image File history File links Route_ninety. ... Image File history File links Route_ninety. ...


In September 2006 there is a problem with contamination: just downstream, raw sewage is flowing into the water. Small sections of the Jordan's upper portion, near the Sea of Galilee, have been kept pristine for baptisms. Most polluted is the 60-mile downstream stretch - a meandering stream from the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea. Environmentalists say the practice has almost destroyed the river's ecosystem. Rescuing the river could take decades, according to environmentalists. Raw Sewage Taints Sacred Jordan River. Retrieved on 2006-09-11.</ref> Look up September in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sea of Galilee with the Jordan River flowing out of it to the south and into the Dead Sea Kineret redirects here; for the Amgen drug having this tradename, see Anakinra The Sea of Galilee is Israels largest freshwater lake, approximately 53 kilometers (33 miles) in circumference, about... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ; Arabic: ‎) is both the lowest point on Earth at 418 metres (1,371 ft) below sea level and falling[2], and the deepest hypersaline lake in the world at 330 m (1,083 ft) deep and 799 m (2,621 ft) below sea level. ... An ecosystem, a contraction of ecological and system, refers to the collection of components and processes that comprise, and govern the behavior of, some defined subset of the biosphere. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ...


The waters of the Jordan are an extremely important resource to the dry lands of the area and are a bone of contention between Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel and the Palestinians. The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ...


Route 90 connects the northern and southern tips of Israel and parallels the Jordan River on the western side. Route 90 road sign Route 90 road sign Route 90 is the longest road in Israel and stretches from Metula and the northern border with Lebanon, along the western side of the Sea of Galilee, through the Jordan River Valley, along the western bank of the Dead Sea, through the...

Contents

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In the Bible

In the Hebrew Bible, the Jordan is referred to as the source of fertility to a large plain ("Kikkar ha-Yarden"), called on account of its luxuriant vegetation "the garden of God" (Genesis 13:10). There is no regular description of the Jordan in the Bible; only scattered and indefinite references to it are given. Jacob crossed it and its tributary, the Jabbok (the modern Al-Zarḳa), in order to reach Haran (Gen. 32:11, 23-24). It is noted as the line of demarcation between the "two tribes and the half tribe" settled to the east (Numbers 34:15) and the "nine tribes and the half tribe of Manasseh" that, led by Joshua, settled to the west (Josh. 13:7, passim). 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah, the first book of the Tanakh and also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... It has been suggested that Yaqub be merged into this article or section. ... Jabbok, puring out, river on the east side on Jordan, one of the so-called torrent valleys. ... Haran (הָרָן) was a son of Terah, and brother of Nahor and Abram. ... Numbers can mean: Number The Book of Numbers, the fourth book of the Bible NUMB3RS, a CBS television show This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Joshua, Josue or Yehoshua (Hebrew: יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, Tiberian: , Israeli: Yhoshua) is a person mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, especially in the Book of Joshua. ...


Opposite Jericho it was called "the Jordan of Jericho" (Num. 34: 15, 35: 1). The Jordan has a number of fords, and one of them is famous as the place where many Ephraimites were slain by Jephthah (Judges 12:5-6). It seems that these are the same fords mentioned as being near Beth-barah, where Gideon lay in wait for the Midianites (Judges 7:24). In the plain of the Jordan, between Succoth and Zarthan, is the clay ground where Solomon had his brass-foundries (I Kings 7:46). The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 For other meanings of the word Jericho, see: Jericho (disambiguation) Jericho (Arabic ; ʼArīḥā; Hebrew ; Standard Hebrew Yəriḥo; Tiberian Hebrew Yərîḫô, Yərîḥô, Greek Ίεριχώ = Ίερή ηχώ, Hierē ēchō - Holy echo) is a town in the West Bank, near... A ford, with pedestrian footbridge, on a minor road near Weimar and Kassel in Germany A ford is a place in a watercourse (most commonly a stream or river) that is shallow enough to be crossed by wading, on horseback, or in a wheeled vehicle. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... The Books of Kings (Hebrew: Sefer Melachim ספר מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ...


In Biblical history the Jordan appears as the scene of several miracles, the first taking place when the Jordan, near Jericho, was crossed by the Israelites under Joshua (Josh. iii. 15-17). Later the two tribes and the half tribe that settled east of the Jordan built a large altar on its banks as "a witness" between them and the other tribes (Josh. xxii. 10, 26 et seq.). The Jordan was said to be crossed dry-shod by Elijah and Elisha (II Kings 2: 8, 14). Elisha performed two other miracles at the Jordan: he healed Naaman by having him bathe in its waters, and he made the ax of one of the children of the prophets float, by throwing a piece of wood into the water (II Kings 5:14, 6:6). According to many religions, a miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the ordinary course and operation of Nature is overruled, suspended, or modified. ... Elijah (אֱלִיָּהוּ Whose/my God is the Lord, Standard Hebrew Eliyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔliyyāhû), also Elias (NT Greek Ἠλίας), is a prophet of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament. ... Elisha (אֱלִישַׁע My God is salvation, Standard Hebrew Elišaʿ, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔlîšaʿ) was the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah; he became the attendant and disciple of Elijah (1 Kings 19:16-19). ...


The Jordan was crossed by Judas Maccabeus and his brother Jonathan Maccabaeus during their war with the Nabatæans (1 Maccabees 5:24). A little later the Jordan was the scene of the battle between Jonathan and Bacchides, in which the latter was defeated (I Macc. 9:42-49). Judas Maccabeus (or Judah the Maccabee from the Hebrew יהודה המכבי transliteration: Yehudah HaMakabi) translation: Judah the Hammer was the third son of the Jewish priest Mattathias. ... Jonathan Maccabaeus was leader of the Hasmonean Dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BC. He is called also Apphus (Ἀπφοῦς [Syriac, (image) ] = the dissembler or the diplomat, in allusion to a trait prominent in him; 1 Maccabees ii. ... 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish (pre-Christian) author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... Bacchides was a Syrian general; friend of the Syrian king Demetrius; and ruler in the country beyond the river—Euphrates. ...


The New Testament states that John the Baptist baptized Jesus in the Jordan (Matt. 3:13). The Jordan River has rocks. John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE to 29–36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ...

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Symbolic importance

The Jordan is a frequent symbol in folk, gospel, and spiritual music, or in poetic or literary works. Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and for the common people. ... Gospel music may refer either to the religious music that first came out of African-American churches in the 1930s or, more loosely, to both black gospel music and to the religious music composed and sung by white southern Christian artists. ... A spiritual is an African American song, usually with a Christian religious text. ... Music is a form of entertainment or other human activity that involves organized and audible sounds and silence. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ...


Because the Israelites made a difficult and hazardous journey from slavery in Egypt to freedom in The Promised Land, the Jordan can refer to freedom. The actual crossing is the final step of the journey, which is then complete. The Jordan also can signify death itself, with the crossing from life into Paradise or Heaven. The Twelve Tribes redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Paradise, by Jan Bruegel The word paradise is derived from the Avestan word pairidaeza (a walled enclosure), which is a compound of pairi- (around), a cognate of the Greek peri-, and -diz (to create, make), a cognate of the English dough. ... Heaven is an afterlife concept found in many religions or spiritual philosophies. ...

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Image File history File links Hayarden. ... Image File history File links Hayarden. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Raw Sewage Taints Sacred Jordan River. Retrieved on 2006-09-11.
[edit]

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ...

External links

  • Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law See Jordan River; Arab-Israeli conflicts. Peace Palace Libray

  Results from FactBites:
 
AQUASTAT - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture (3159 words)
Jordan, with a total area of about 89 210 km², lies to the east of the Jordan river and is divided into eightgovernorates: Amman, Zarqa, Irbid, Mafraq, Balqa, Karak, Tafileh and Ma'an.
It is bordered in the north by Syria, in the north-east by Iraq, in the south-east and south by Saudi Arabia, in the far south-west by the Gulf of Aqaba (northern shores of the Red Sea) and in the west by Israel.
Jordan's past economic development plans reveal that surface water resources have been extensively developed by the Government, with priority given to the construction of dams and irrigation projects in the Jordan valley in order to maximize the utilization of this resource before its drainage to the Dead Sea.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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