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Encyclopedia > Jordan River

This article is about the Jordan River and its valley in western Asia. For other meanings, see Jordan River (disambiguation) and Jordan Valley (disambiguation). The Jordan River may refer to: The Jordan River in western Asia, that flows in the Dead Sea. ... The river valley of Jordan River in western Asia. ...

River Jordan (Hebrew: נהר הירדן, nehar hayarden,
Arabic: نهر الأردنnahr al-urdun
)
River
Country Jordan
Tributaries
 - left Banias River, Dan River
 - right Hasbani River, Iyon River
Landmarks Sea of Galilee, Dead Sea
Length 251 km (156 mi)
The Jordan River runs along the border between Israel, the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan

The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest Asia flowing through the Great Rift Valley into the Dead Sea. Historically and religiously, it is considered to be one of the world's most sacred rivers.[1] It is 251 kilometers (156 miles) long. Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 564 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1944 × 2068 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Dan River flows in both North Carolina and Virginia, USA. It arises in the state of Virginia in Patrick County and crosses the state border into Stokes County, North Carolina. ... Hasbani is a Lebanese river that merges with the Baniar River to make the Jordan River. ... The Sea of Galilee or Lake Kinneret (Hebrew ים כנרת), is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... “Miles” redirects here. ...

Contents

Physical characteristics

Tributaries

The Hasbani (Hebrew: שניר senir, Arabic: الحاصباني hasbani), which flows from Lebanon. The Banias (Hebrew: חרמון hermon, Arabic: بانياس banias), arising from a spring at Banias at the foot of Mount Hermon. The Dan (Hebrew: דן dan, Arabic: اللدان leddan), whose source is also at the base of Mount Hermon. The Iyon (Hebrew: עיון iyon, Arabic: دردره derdara or براغيث braghith), which flows from Lebanon.


Course

The river drops rapidly in a 75 kilometer run to swampy Lake Hula, which is slightly below sea level in the Galilee sea. Exiting the lake, it drops much more in about 25 kilometers to the Sea of Galilee. The last section has less gradient, and the river begins to meander before it enters the Dead Sea, which is about 400 meters below sea level and has no outlet. Two major tributaries enter from the east during this last phase: the Yarmouk River and Jabbok River. The Hula Valley (Hebrew: emek hahula) is an agricultural region in northern Israel with abundant fresh water. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... The Sea of Galilee or Lake Kinneret (Hebrew ים כנרת), is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... Stream gradient is the ratio of drop in a stream per unit distance, usually expressed as feet per mile or meters per kilometer. ... For other uses, see Meander (disambiguation). ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin—also called a terminal or closed basin—is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water, either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or... Look up tributary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Yarmouk River (Arabic:Nahr Al-Yarmuk; Hebrew:נהר הירמוך, Nehar HaYarmukh; Greek:Hieromax) is one of the three main tributaries which enter the Jordan River between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea (the other being the Jabbok). ... Nahr ez-Zarqa / Jabbok Jabbok, pouring out, is a river on the east side of the Jordan River, one of the so-called torrent valleys. ...


Its section north of the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כינרת kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) is within the boundaries of Israel (disputed by Syria), and forms the western boundary of the Golan Heights. South of the lake, it forms the border between the Kingdom of Jordan (to the east) and Israel and the West Bank (to the west). The Sea of Galilee or Lake Kinneret (Hebrew ים כנרת), is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... Hebrew טבריה (Standard) Teverya Arabic طبرية Government City District North Population 39 900 (a) Jurisdiction 10 000 dunams (10 km²) Tiberias (British English: ; American English: ; Hebrew: , Tverya; Arabic: , abariyyah) is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee, Israel. ... The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-Å«lān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ... The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, commonly called Jordan, is a country in the Middle East. ...


Human impact

In 1964 Israel began operating a dam that diverts water from the Sea of Galilee, a major Jordan River water provider, to the National Water Carrier. Also in 1964 Jordan constructed a channel that diverted water from the Yarmouk River, another main tributary of the Jordan River. Syria has also built reservoirs that catch the Yarmouk's waters. Environmentalists blame Israel, Jordan and Syria for extensive damage to the Jordan River ecosystem.[1] Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... The National Water Carrier of Israel (in Hebrew commonly called המוביל הארצי HaMovil HaArtzi) is the main water project of Israel. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... The Yarmouk River (Arabic:Nahr Al-Yarmuk; Hebrew:נהר הירמוך, Nehar HaYarmukh; Greek:Hieromax) is one of the three main tributaries which enter the Jordan River between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea (the other being the Jabbok). ...


In modern times the waters are 70 to 90% used for human purposes and the flow is much reduced. Because of this and the high evaporation rate of the Dead Sea, the sea is shrinking. All the shallow waters of the southern end of the sea have been drained in modern times and are now salt flats.


In September 2006 a problem arose with contamination: just downstream, raw sewage is flowing into the water. Small sections of the Jordan's upper portion, near the Sea of Galilee, have been kept pristine for baptisms. Most polluted is the 60-mile downstream stretch - a meandering stream from the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea. Environmentalists say the practice has almost destroyed the river's ecosystem. Rescuing the river could take decades, according to environmentalists.[1] In 2007, friends of the Earth Middle East named Jordan River as one of the world's 100 most endangered ecological sites, due in part to lack of cooperation between Israel and the neighboring Arab states. [2] For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sea of Galilee or Lake Kinneret (Hebrew ים כנרת), is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... For other uses, see Ecological Systems Theory. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Friends of the Earth is an international network of environmental organizations in 70 countries. ...


Importance

The waters of the Jordan are an extremely important resource to the dry lands of the area and are a bone of contention between Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel and the Palestinians. The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ...


Transport

Route 90 connects the northern and southern tips of Israel and parallels the Jordan River on the western side. Route 90 road sign Route 90 road sign Route 90 is the longest road in Israel and stretches from Metula and the northern border with Lebanon, along the western side of the Sea of Galilee, through the Jordan River Valley, along the western bank of the Dead Sea, through the...


Biblical importance

Tanakh

In the Bible, the Jordan is referred to as the source of fertility to a large plain ("Kikkar ha-Yarden"), called on account of its luxuriant vegetation "the garden of God" (Genesis 13:10). There is no regular description of the Jordan in the Bible; only scattered and indefinite references to it are given. Jacob crossed it and its tributary, the Jabbok (the modern Al-Zarḳa), in order to reach Haran (Genesis 32:11, 32:23-24). It is noted as the line of demarcation between the "two tribes and the half tribe" settled to the east (Numbers 34:15) and the "nine tribes and the half tribe of Manasseh" that, led by Joshua, settled to the west (Joshua 13:7, passim). For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Nahr ez-Zarqa / Jabbok Jabbok, pouring out, is a river on the east side of the Jordan River, one of the so-called torrent valleys. ... Haran (הָרָן) was a son of Terah, and brother of Nahor and Abram. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ...


Opposite Jericho it was called "the Jordan of Jericho" (Numbers 34:15; 35:1). The Jordan has a number of fords, and one of them is famous as the place where many Ephraimites were slain by Jephthah (Judges 12:5-6). It seems that these are the same fords mentioned as being near Beth-barah, where Gideon lay in wait for the Midianites (Judges 7:24). In the plain of the Jordan, between Succoth and Zarthan, is the clay ground where Solomon had his brass-foundries (1 Kings 7:46). The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... A ford, with pedestrian footbridge, on a minor road near Weimar bei Kassel in Germany The ford at Brockenhurst, leading into the village centre, following heavy rain. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... According to the Bible, Midian (מִדְיָן Strife; judgment, Standard Hebrew Midyan, Tiberian Hebrew Miḏyān) was a son of Abraham and his concubine Keturah (Genesis 25:1-6). ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth is an 8-day Biblical pilgrimage festival, also known as the Feast of Booths, the Feast of Tabernacles, or Tabernacles. ... The Books of Kings (‎) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ...


In biblical history the Jordan appears as the scene of several miracles, the first taking place when the Jordan, near Jericho, was crossed by the Israelites under Joshua (Joshua 3:15-17). Later the two tribes and the half tribe that settled east of the Jordan built a large altar on its banks as "a witness" between them and the other tribes (Joshua 22:10, 22:26, et seq.). The Jordan was said to be crossed dry-shod by Elijah and Elisha (2 Kings 2:8, 2:14). Elisha performed two other miracles at the Jordan: he healed Naaman by having him bathe in its waters, and he made the axe head of one of the "children of the prophets" float, by throwing a piece of wood into the water (2 Kings 5:14; 6:6). For other uses, see Miracle (disambiguation). ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Not to be confused with Elishah. ... Naaman the Syrian is mentioned in the Books of Kings in the Bible. ...


The Jordan was crossed by Judas Maccabeus and his brother Jonathan Maccabaeus during their war with the Nabatæans (1 Maccabees 5:24). A little later the Jordan was the scene of the battle between Jonathan and Bacchides, in which the latter was defeated (1 Maccabees 9:42-49). Judas Maccabeus (or Judah the Maccabee from the Hebrew יהודה המכבי transliteration: Yehudah HaMakabi) translation: Judah the Hammer was the third son of the Jewish priest Mattathias. ... Jonathan Maccabaeus was leader of the Hasmonean Dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BC. He is called also Apphus (Ἀπφοῦς [Syriac, (image) ] = the dissembler or the diplomat, in allusion to a trait prominent in him; 1 Maccabees ii. ... 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish (pre-Christian) author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... Bacchides (Greek: Βακχίδης) was a Hellenistic Greek general; friend of the Syrian-Greek king Demetrius; and ruler in the country beyond the river—Euphrates. ...


New Testament

The excavated remains of Bethabara, in modern-day Jordan, where John the Baptist is believed to have baptized.
The excavated remains of Bethabara, in modern-day Jordan, where John the Baptist is believed to have baptized.

The New Testament states that John the Baptist baptized unto repentance[3] in the Jordan (Matthew 3:5-6; Mark1:5; Luke 3:3; John1:28). This is recounted as having taken place at Bethabara (John 1:28). ImageMetadata File history File links Baptism_Site. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Baptism_Site. ... This entry incorporates text from the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia with some modernisation. ... St. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... St. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... This entry incorporates text from the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia with some modernisation. ...


Jesus came to be baptized by him there (Matthew 3:13; Mark 1:9; Luke 3:21, 4:1). The Jordan is also where John the Baptist bore record of Jesus as the Son of God and Lamb of God (John 1:29-36). This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... In the synoptic gospels, Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of... For the band, see Lamb of God (band). ...


The prophesy of Isaiah regarding the Messiah which names the Jordan (Isaiah 9:1-2) is recounted in Matthew 4:15. For prophecy in the context of revealed religions see Prophet. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ...


The New Testament speaks several times about Jesus crossing the Jordan during his ministry (Matthew 19:1; Mark 10:1), and of believers crossing the Jordan to come hear him preach and to be healed of their diseases (Matthew 4:25; Mark 3:7-8). When his enemies sought to capture him, Jesus took refuge at Jordan in the place John had first baptized (John 10:39-40). Preaching is the most important element in the protestant churches. ... For other uses, see Miracle (disambiguation). ...


Gallery

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Jordan River

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Symbolic importance

The Jordan is a frequent symbol in folk, gospel, and spiritual music, or in poetic or literary works. Folk song redirects here. ... Gospel music is a musical genre characterized by dominant vocals (often with strong use of harmony) referencing lyrics of a religious nature, particularly Christian. ... == Historical background on spiritual music Spirituals were often expressions of religious faith, although they may also have served as socio-political protests veiled as assimilation to white, American culture. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... This article is about the art form. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ...


Because the Israelites made a difficult and hazardous journey from slavery in Egypt to freedom in The Promised Land, the Jordan can refer to freedom. The actual crossing is the final step of the journey, which is then complete. The Jordan also can signify death itself, with the crossing from life into Paradise or Heaven. “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... Slave redirects here. ... Paradise, Jan Bruegel Paradise is an English word from Persian roots that is generally identified with the Garden of Eden or with Heaven. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ...


References

  1. ^ a b c Ramit Plushnick-Masti. Raw Sewage Taints Sacred Jordan River. Associated Press. Retrieved on 2007-04-10.
  2. ^ "Endangered Jordan",Dateline World Jewry, World Jewish Congress, September, 2007
  3. ^ Cf. Acts 19:4

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Jewish Congress (WJC) is an international federation of Jewish communities and organizations. ... For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

See also

The Jordan River Crossing (Arabic: معبر نهر الأردن, Hebrew: מסוף נהר ירדן) is an international border that connects Irbid, Jordan and Beit Shean, Israel. ...

External links

Coordinates: 33°11′12″N 35°37′09″E / 33.18667, 35.61917 Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jordan River (217 words)
River of Israel, Palestine and Jordan, 320 km long, and starts where the Hasbani River of Lebanon, and Banias River from Syria meet.
Sea of Galilee is part of the Jordan River system, and the Yarmuk River of Syria is an important tributary further downstream.
For Christians, the point where the Jordan River runs out of the Sea of Galilee, is holy and considered to be the place where Jesus was baptized.
Jordan River - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (791 words)
South of the lake, it forms the border between the kingdom of Jordan (to the east) and Israel (to the west).
The waters of the Jordan are an extremely important resource to the dry lands of the area and are a bone of contention between Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel and the Palestinians.
The Jordan was said to be crossed dry-shod by Elijah and Elisha (II Kings 2: 8, 14).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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