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Encyclopedia > Jordan
المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية
Al-Mamlakah al-Urdunniyyah al-Hāšimiyyah
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Flag of Jordan Hebrew
Anthem عاش المليك
The Royal Anthem of Jordan
  ("As-salam al-malaki al-urdoni")1
Long live the King

Capital
(and largest city)
Amman
31°57′N, 35°56′E
Official languages Arabic
Demonym Jordanian
Government Constitutional monarchy
 -  King Abdullah II
 -  Queen Queen Rania of Jordan
 -  Prime Minister Nader al-Dahabi
Independence
 -  End of British League of Nations mandate
25 May 1946 
Area
 -  Total 89,342 km² (112th)
45,495 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  July 2007 estimate 6,053,193 (110th)
 -  2004 census 5,100,000 
 -  Density 64/km² (131st)
166/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $27.96 billion (97th)
 -  Per capita $4,900 (103rd)
Gini (2002–03) 38.8 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.773 (medium) (86th)
Currency Jordanian dinar (JOD)
Time zone UTC+2 (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .jo
Calling code +962
1 Also serves as the Royal anthem.

Jordan (Arabic: الأردنّ‎, transliterated as al-Urdunn), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a country in the Arab World in Southwest Asia, bordered by Syria to the north, Iraq to the north-east, Israel and the West Bank to the west, and Saudi Arabia to the east and south. It shares with Israel the coastlines of the Dead Sea, and the Gulf of Aqaba with Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt.The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a constitutional monarchy with representative government. The reigning monarch is the head of state, the chief executive and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The king exercises his executive authority through the prime ministers and the Council of Ministers, or cabinet. The cabinet, meanwhile, is responsible before the elected House of Deputies which, along with the House of Notables (Senate), constitutes the legislative branch of the government. The judicial branch is an independent branch of the government. Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The royal anthem of Jordan is known As-salami al-urdoni (Arabic: السلام الملكي الأردني). It was adopted in 1946. ... Image File history File links LocationJordan. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... The Jordanian monarchy was set up in 1921, with help from the British. ... King Abdullah II bin Al Hussein (Arabic: ‎, al-Malik Ê¿Abdullāh aṯ-ṯānÄ« bin al-Ḥusayn) is the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. ... Queen Rania Al-Abdullah (Arabic: رانية آل عبدالله) (born Rania Al-Yasin on August 31, 1970), is the queen consort of King Abdullah II, the king of Jordan. ... Categories: Jordan | Prime Ministers of Jordan ... Nader al-Dahabi (Arabic: نادر الذهبي) (born 1946) is a Jordanian politician and military figure, who was named prime minister on November 25, 2007. ... Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... The Jordanian dinar (ISO 4217 code JOD) is the official currency of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the first official one in the State of Palestine. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .jo is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Jordan. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... A royal anthem is a patriotic song, much like a national anthem that recognizes the nations monarch. ... The name Jordan can refer to several things. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... Arab States redirects here. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... Sinai Peninsula, with the Gulf of Aqaba (east) and the Gulf of Suez (west), as viewed from the Space Shuttle STS-40. ...

Contents

History

The ancient city of Petra.
The ancient city of Petra.
Main article: History of Jordan

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1800, 2333 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Jordan User:Cybjorg/images Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1800, 2333 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Jordan User:Cybjorg/images Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... This article is about the Jordanian site of Petra. ... History of Jordan. ...

Beginnings

With the break-up of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I, the League of Nations created the French Mandate of Syria and British Mandate Palestine. Approximately 90% of the British Mandate of Palestine was east of the Jordan river and was known as "Transjordan". In 1921 , the British gave semi-autonomous control of Transjordan to the future King Abdullah I of Jordan, of the Hashemite family. Abdullah I continued to rule until a Palestinian Arab assassinated him in 1951 on the steps of the Mosque of Omar. At first he ruled "Transjordan", under British supervision until after World War II. In 1946, the British requested that the United Nations approve an end to British Mandate rule in Transjordan. Following this approval, the Jordanian Parliament proclaimed King Abdullah as the first ruler of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... Flag Capital Damascus Language(s) Arabic, French Political structure League of Nations Mandate Historical era Interwar period  - Mandate granted April 25, 1920  - Battle of Maysalun July 23, 1920  - Federation established June, 1922  - Unification of Damascus and Aleppo December 1, 1924  - Franco-Syrian Treaty of Independence March-September, 1936  - Independence April... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... This article is about the Jordan River and its valley in western Asia. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... Abdullah I of Jordan as-Sayyid Abdullah I, King of Jordan, GCMG, GBE, (1882 – July 20, 1951 by assassination) (Arabic: عبد الله الأول), also known as as-Sayyid Abdullah bin al-Husayn (Arabic: عبد الله بن الحسين `as=Sayyid Abd Allāh ibn al-Ḥusayn), was, successively, Emir of Transjordan (1921–1946) under a British Mandate, then... Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... Dome of the Rock in center of Temple Mount The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: قبة الصخرة Qubbat As-Sakhrah) is a famous Islamic shrine in Jerusalem. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... UN redirects here. ... King Abdullah can refer to: Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, current king of Saudi Arabia Abdullah II, current king of Jordan Abdullah I, Emir of Transjordan (1921–1946) and King of Transjordan (1946–1949) This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ...


In 1950, Jordan annexed the West Bank, which had been under its control since the armistice that followed the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. The annexation was recognized only by the United Kingdom (de facto in the case of East Jerusalem). Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially...

King Abdullah I.
King Abdullah I.

In 1965, there was an exchange of land between Saudi Arabia and Jordan. Jordan gave up a relatively large area of inland desert in return for a small piece of sea-shore near Aqaba. King Abdullah bin Hussein of Jordan This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... King Abdullah bin Hussein of Jordan This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-ʻAqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ...


Jordan signed a mutual defense pact in May 1967 with Egypt, and it participated in the June 1967 war against Israel along with Syria, Egypt, and Iraq. During the war, Jordan lost the West Bank and East Jerusalem to Israel (the western sector having been under Israeli control). In 1988, Jordan renounced all claims to the West Bank but retained an administrative role pending a final settlement, and its 1994 treaty with Israel allowed for a continuing Jordanian role in Muslim and Christian holy places in Jerusalem. The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


Refugees and Black September

The 1967 war led to a dramatic increase in the number of Palestinians, especially from the West Bank, living in Jordan. Its Palestinian refugee population — 700,000 in 1966 — grew by another 300,000 from the West Bank. The period following the 1967 war saw an upsurge in the power and importance of Palestinian resistance elements (fedayeen) in Jordan. King Hussein's armed forces targeted the fedayeen, and open fighting erupted in June 1970. The battle in which Palestinian fighters from various Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) groups were expelled from Jordan is commonly known as Black September, it is also known as white September to many. PLO redirects here. ... Combatants PLO Jordan Commanders Yasser Arafat King Hussein Casualties 7,000-8,000 killed[1] This article, Black September in Jordan, describes the events surrounding September, 1970 in Jordan. ...

King Hussein
King Hussein

The heaviest fighting occurred in northern Jordan and Amman. The Syrian army battled the Jordanian army in Amman and other urban areas. The global media portrayed King Hussein as a corrupt King slaughtering the Palestinian refugees. Other Arab governments attempted to work out a peaceful solution. In the ensuing heavy fighting, a Syrian tank force invaded northern Jordan to support the fedayeen but subsequently retreated. It is said by some people, such as Ahmed Jibril, that King Hussein asked for help from Israel,[1] then Israel threatened that it would invade Jordan if Syria intervened.[2][3] By September 22, Arab foreign ministers meeting at Cairo had arranged a cease-fire beginning the following day. Sporadic violence continued, however, until Jordanian forces led by Habis Al-Majali with the help of the Iraqi forces (who had bases in Jordan after the war of 1967),[1] won a decisive victory over the fedayeen on July 1971, expelling them from the country. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1378x1880, 943 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Black September (group) Hussein of Jordan Rule of the West Bank and East Jerusalem by Jordan Portal:Jordan... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1378x1880, 943 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Black September (group) Hussein of Jordan Rule of the West Bank and East Jerusalem by Jordan Portal:Jordan... Ahmed Jibril Ahmed Jibril (born 1928) is the founder and leader of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (PFLP-GC), part of the left-wing, secular Palestinian rejectionist front, so-called because they reject proposals for a peaceful settlement with Israel. ... Hussein bin Talal, King of Jordan (Arabic: ‎, ) (November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999) was the ruler of Jordan since his father, King Talal, abdicated in 1952, until his death. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Field Marshal Habis Al-Majali in traditional headdress Field Marshal Habis Al-Majali (1914 - April 22, 2001) from the Jordanian southern city -then villiage- of Kerak, Chief of Staff, Jordanian Armed Forces 1958 - 1975, Minister of Defence 1967 - 1968, 20 year member of the house of Senate 1981?? - 2001. ...


At the Rabat summit conference in 1974, Jordan agreed, along with the rest of the Arab League, that the PLO was the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people", thereby relinquishing to that organization its role as representative of the West Bank. The Rabat summit conference was a meeting of Arab leaders held in Rabat, Morocco in 1974. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041...


Post Black September and Peace Treaty

Fighting occurred along the 1967 Jordan River cease-fire line during the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war. Jordan sent a brigade to Syria to fight Israeli units on Syrian territory but did not engage Israeli forces from Jordanian territory. Jordan did not participate in the Gulf War of 1990–91. In 1991, Jordan agreed, along with Syria, Lebanon, and Palestinian fedayeen representatives, to participate in direct peace negotiations with Israel at the Madrid Conference, sponsored by the U.S. and Russia. It negotiated an end to hostilities with Israel and signed a declaration to that effect on July 25, 1994 (see Washington Declaration). As a result, an Israeli-Jordanian peace treaty was concluded on October 26, 1994. Following the outbreak of Israel-Palestinian Authority fighting in September 2000, the Jordanian government offered its good offices to both parties. Jordan has since sought to remain at peace with all of its neighbors. Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... The Madrid Conference of 1991 was an early attempt by the international community to start a peace process through negotiations with Israel and the Palestinians. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... ... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) (Hebrew:הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: HaSekhem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisrael Le-Yarden) (Arabic: معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Orduniyah al-Israyliyah, and commonly referred to as Araba Valley... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...


Recent events

On November 9, 2005 Jordan experienced three simultaneous bombings at hotels in Amman. At least 57 people died and 115 were wounded. "Al-Qaeda in Iraq", a group led by terrorist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, a native Jordanian, claimed responsibility. is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Amman, the capital city of Jordan. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Wikinews has related news: Abu Musab al-Zarqawi killed in airstrike Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (Arabic: , , Abu Musab from Zarqa)) (October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006), born as Ahmad Fadeel al-Nazal al-Khalayleh (Arabic: , )was a Jordanian who ran a militant training camp in Afghanistan. ... Wikinews has related news: Abu Musab al-Zarqawi killed in airstrike Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (Arabic: , , Abu Musab from Zarqa)) (October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006), born as Ahmad Fadeel al-Nazal al-Khalayleh (Arabic: , )was a Jordanian who ran a militant training camp in Afghanistan. ...


Politics

King Abdullah II, Jordanian Head of State.
King Abdullah II, Jordanian Head of State.
Main article: Politics of Jordan

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... King Abdullah II bin Al Hussein (Arabic: ‎, al-Malik ʿAbdullāh aṯ-ṯānī bin al-Ḥusayn) is the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. ... Politics of Jordan takes place in a framework of a parliamentary monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Jordan is head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...

Constitution

Jordan is a constitutional monarchy based on the constitution promulgated on January 8, 1952. Executive authority is vested in the king and his council of ministers. The king signs and executes all laws. His veto power may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of both houses of the National Assembly. He appoints and may dismiss all judges by decree, approves amendments to the constitution, declares war, and commands the armed forces. Cabinet decisions, court judgments, and the national currency are issued in his name. The council of ministers, led by a prime minister, is appointed by the king, who may dismiss other cabinet members at the prime minister's request. The cabinet is responsible to the Chamber of Deputies on matters of general policy and can be forced to resign by a two-thirds vote of "no confidence" by that body. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... The Jordanian monarchy was set up in 1921, with help from the British. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The parliament of Jordan, the National Assembly (Majlis al-Umma) has two chambers. ... Amend redirects here. ... Military branches: Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF; includes Royal Jordanian Land Force, Royal Naval Force, and Royal Jordanian Air Force); Badiya (irregular) Border Guards; Ministry of the Interiors Public Security Force (falls under JAF only in wartime or crisis situations) See also the Royal Special Forces, and His Majestys... This article is about the governmental body. ... Categories: Jordan | Prime Ministers of Jordan ... The lower house of the National Assembly (Majlis al-Umma) of Jordan is Chamber of Deputies (Majlis al-Nuwaab). ...


The constitution provides for three categories of courts: civil, religious, and special. Administratively, Jordan is divided into twelve governorates, each headed by a governor appointed by the king. They are the sole authorities for all government departments and development projects in their respective areas. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into lawsuit. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ...


The Royal Armed Forces and General Intelligence Department of Jordan are under the control of the king. Dairat al-Mukhabarat al-Ammah (Arabic: ) (translated: General Intelligence Department, or GID) is the Jordanian Intelligence Agency. ...


Legal system and legislation

Jordan's legal system is based on Islamic law and French codes. Judicial review of legislative acts occurs in a special High Tribunal. It has not accepted compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ...


Article 97 of Jordan’s constitution guarantees the independence of the judicial branch, clearly stating that judges are 'subject to no authority but that of the law.' While the king must approve the appointment and dismissal of judges, in practice these are supervised by the Higher Judicial Council.


The Jordanian legal system draws upon civil traditions as well as Islamic law and custom. Article 99 of the Constitution divides the courts into three categories: civil, religious and special. The civil courts deal with civil and criminal matters in accordance with the law, and they have jurisdiction over all persons in all matters, civil and criminal, including cases brought against the government. The civil courts include Magistrate Courts, Courts of First Instance, Courts of Appeal, High Administrative Courts and the Supreme Court.


The religious courts include Sharia (Islamic law) courts and the tribunals of other religious communities. Religious courts deal only with matters involving personal law such as marriage, divorce and inheritance. Sharia courts also have jurisdiction over matters regarding Islamic waqfs (a religious endowment such as an area of land). In cases involving parties of different religions regular courts have jurisdiction.


Specialized courts involve various bodies. One such body is the Supreme Council which will interpret the Constitution if requested by either the National Assembly or the prime minister, according to Dew et al.: "...such courts are usually created in areas that the legislator deems should be governed by specialized courts with more experience and knowledge in specific matters than other regular courts" [4]. Other examples of special courts include the Court of Income Tax and the Highest Court of Felonies.


Prior to 2002 Jordan’s legal system only allowed men to file for divorce, however, during this year the first Jordanian woman successfully filed for divorce [5]; this was made possible from a proposal by a royal human rights commission which had been established by King Abdullah who had vowed to improve the status of women in Jordan.


Despite being traditionally dominated by men the number of women involved as lawyers in the Jordan legal system has been increasing. As of mid-2006 Jordan had 1,284 female lawyers, out of a total number of 6,915, and 35 female judges from a total of 630 [6].


Parliament of Jordan

The 1952 Constitution provided for the establishment of the bicameral Jordanian National Assembly - ‘Majlis al-Umma’. The Legislature consists of two houses, the Assembly of Senators ‘Majlis al-Aayan’ and the Chamber of Deputies ‘Majlis al-Nuwaab’. The House of Senators has 55 members all of whom are directly appointed by the King,[7] whilst the Chamber of Deputies/House of Representatives has 80 elected members representing 12 constituencies. Of the 80 members of the lower house, 71 must be Muslim and 9 Christians, with six seats held back specifically for women members [8]. The Constitution ensures that the Senate cannot be more than half the size of the Chamber of Deputies.


Political History of Jordanian Parliament

As a developing constitutional monarchy, Jordan has survived the trials and tribulations of Middle Eastern politics. The Jordanian public has experienced limited democracy since gaining independence in 1946, the population has not suffered as others under dictatorships imposed by nationalistic Arab regimes [9]. The 1952 Constitution provided for citizens of Jordan to form and join political parties [10]. Such rights were suspended in 1967 when a state of emergency was declared and martial law and suspension of Parliament, continuing until it was repealed in 1989.


In 1988 King Hussein cut political ties with the West Bank following the Israeli occupation. Subsequently, civil unrest followed with Prime Minister al-Rifa’i alleged to have used heavy handed tactics against the population which resulted in riots in April 1989. After the riots had subsided the King fired al-Rifa’i and announced elections for later that year.


Organized political activity was resumed in 1989 through the resumption of Parliamentary election, reinforced by new laws for political parties, media and publishing, and fewer restrictions on freedoms of expression. The relaxations have been endorsed and widened more recently by King Abdullah II, so that the country is now one of the most politically open in the Middle East, permitting opposition parties such as the Islamic Action Front (IAF), the political wing of the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood. The influence of the IAF significantly reduced in 2007 when their parliamentary representation fell from seventeen to six. The King holds the true levers of power, appointing members of the upper House of Notables and has the right to replace the government, a step that King Hussein took in April 2005.


It has been argued that the influence of tribalism in determining Parliament election results in Jordan should not be overlooked; it is stronger than political affiliations. Tribal identity has a strong influence over Jordanian life: “…identities remain the primary driving forces of decision making at the level of the individual, the community, and the state” [11].


Legislative Procedure

Both houses initiate debates and vote on legislation. Proposals are referred by the Prime Minister to the House of Deputies where they are either accepted, amended or rejected. Every proposal is referred to a committee of the lower house for consideration. If it is approved then it is referred to the government to draft in the form of a bill and submit it to the Chamber of Deputies. If approved by this House it is passed onto the Senate for debate and a vote. If the Senate gives its approval then the King can either grant consent or refuse. In this case the bill is passed back to the House of Deputies where the review and voting process is repeated. If both houses pass the bill by a two-thirds majority it becomes an Act of Parliament overriding the King’s veto. Article 95 of the Constitution empowers both houses to submit legislation to the government in the form of a draft law [12]


The Constitution does not provide a strong system of checks and balances within which the Jordanian Parliament can assert its role in relationship to the Monarch. During the suspension of Parliament between 2001 and 2003, the scope of King Abdullah II’s power was demonstrated with the passing of 110 temporary laws. Two of such laws dealt with election law and were seen to reduce the power of Parliament.[13] [14]


Term

Campaign posters from 2007 election, courtesy of N. Pratt


Senators have terms of four years and are appointed by the King and can be reappointed. Prospective Senators must be at least forty years old and have held senior positions in either the government of military. Appointed senators have included former prime ministers and members of the Chamber of Deputies . Deputies are elected to also serve a four year term. Candidates must be older than thirty five and cannot have blood ties to the king and must not have any financial interests in government contracts [15].


Current Members of Legislature

For a list of the members of the lower house in the Jordaninan Parliament as well as how many votes they gained in the 2007 election follow this link [16].


Permanent Committees

Legal, Financial, Administrative and Foreign Affairs. Both houses have the ability to create committees when required.


Political Parties in the House of Representatives

Despite the reforms of 1989, multi-party politics has yet to develop in Jordan. The only political party that plays a role in the legislature is the Islamic Action Front (IAF). Political parties can be seen to represent four sections: Islamists, leftists, Arab nationalists and conservative. There are over 30 other political parties in Jordan including the Jordanian Arab Democratic Party, Jordanian Socialist Party, Muslim Centre Party, but these have little impact on the political process.


Current Weakness of Parliament

  • The Legislature is subject to the power of the Monarch. He is able to suspend, dissolve, shorten or lengthen the term of session.
  • The Senators are appointed by the Monarch and not elected.
  • There is discrimination against urban areas which consists predominantly of Jordanians of Palestinian origin. This point is argued by Ryan who maintains that the parliament has been dominated by conservative tribal leaders through the manipulation of electoral districts, is has been described as a largely gerrymandered parliament. Jordanian electoral districts are unequal in size, with electoral law over-represents rural conservative districts whilst under-representing urban areas which tend to be bastions of Palestinian or Islamist support. The strategy has worked as intended, yielding a parliament made up overwhelmingly of ethnic Transjordanian conservatives, and at times governed by tribal affiliations [17]
  • Although the Constitution makes positive provision for six female members of the lower house there is a gross underrepresentation of women in the lower house and little sign that this is being tackled. The lower house is dominated by conservative rural members as a result of the electoral structure and represents the most conservative elements of society. As an example, articles 97, 98 and 340 of the Jordan penal code offers leniency to those committing honour killings. Potential changes backed by the King and the Senate have successively been rejected by the elected lower house, including in 2003 when twice in a month the recently elected parliament rejected an amended Penal Code backing stricter punishment for those committing honour killings [18]. In a survey amongst Jordanians 94% [19] of respondents believed that ‘honour’ killings were not morally just, yet this was not reflected in the actions of the lower house.
  • Low voter turnout has indicated that there is a problem with public participation in the democratic process, with the following turnouts for previous elections: 2007 54% [20] 2003 58% [21]; 1997 44%; 1993 47%; 1989 41% [22]
  • Practical issues have reduced the effect of Parliament with brief parliamentary sessions (November to March) and a lack of resources and support for members of both houses [23]
  • Boycotting of previous elections by the IAF which represents the only real political party as the vast majority of Representatives ran as independents based on tribal lines or families close to the king.

Democratization of Jordan’s House of Representatives

The Jordanian Parliament and its form of democracy is young in comparison to its western contemporaries. According to Kaaklini et al, “Since 1989, it [Jordanian Parliament] has become a more credible, representative, and influential institution. Still, serious constitutional, political, and internal hurdles continue to prevent it from enjoying the prerogatives and from performing the range of functions that are appropriate for a legislature in a democratic system” [24]. Judged against other states in the Middle East, Jordan has made significant progress towards a democratic system of government.


Despite the seemingly disproportionate power of rural over urban areas in Jordan’s democratization there is debate as to whether the Jordanian public will act for change, according to Parker, “Jordanians are much too concerned about ensuring there is food on the table to engage in the risks of public protest. The public mood is more one of apathy and resignation than of anger and vengeance.” [25].


It has been argued that the Jordanian Parliament is part of a democracy that has not been achieved by other states within the Middle East. However, in comparison to elected democracies as associated with ‘western’ nations, Jordan may not be considered to have occurred as the monarchy continues to dominate national politics, “…1989 elections brought unparalleled political liberalization and somewhat greater democratic input… although the political supremacy of the palace has been rendered less visible by the more active role of parliament, it is clear that a fundamental transfer of power into elected hands has not yet occurred.” [26].


Kings of Jordan and political events

King Abdullah I ruled Jordan after independence from Britain. After the assassination of King Abdullah I in 1951, his son King Talal ruled briefly. King Talal's major accomplishment was the Jordanian constitution. King Talal was removed from the throne in 1952 due to mental illness. At that time his son, Hussein, was too young to rule, and hence a committee ruled over Jordan. King Abdullah I of Jordan (1882 - July 20, 1951), known as Abdullah bin Husayn, was, successively, Emir of Trans-Jordan (1921-1946) under a British Mandate, then King of Transjordan (May 25, 1946 - 1949), and finally King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (1949-1951). ... Talal I bin Abdullah, King of Jordan (Arabic: طلال بن عبد الله Ṭalāl ibn `Abd Allāh) (February 26, 1909 – July 7, 1972) was King of Jordan from July 20, 1951 until forced to abdicate due to health reasons (he suffered from schizophrenia) on August 11, 1952. ... Hussein bin Talal, King of Jordan (Arabic: ‎, ) (November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999) was the ruler of Jordan since his father, King Talal, abdicated in 1952, until his death. ...


After Hussein reached 18, he ruled Jordan as king from 1953 to 1999, surviving a number of challenges to his rule, drawing on the loyalty of his military, and serving as a symbol of unity and stability for both the Bedouin-related and Palestinian communities in Jordan. King Hussein ended martial law in 1991 and legalized political parties in 1992. In 1989 and 1993, Jordan held free and fair parliamentary elections. Controversial changes in the election law led Islamist parties to boycott the 1997 elections. The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... Legalization is the process of removing a legal prohibition against something which is currently illegal. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


King Abdullah II succeeded his father Hussein following the latter's death in February 1999. Abdullah moved quickly to reaffirm Jordan's peace treaty with Israel and its relations with the United States. Abdullah, during the first year in power, refocused the government's agenda on economic reform. King Abdullah II bin Al Hussein (Arabic: ‎, al-Malik ʿAbdullāh aṯ-ṯānī bin al-Ḥusayn) is the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. ... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) (Hebrew:הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: HaSekhem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisrael Le-Yarden) (Arabic: معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Orduniyah al-Israyliyah, and commonly referred to as Araba Valley...


Jordan's continuing structural economic difficulties, burgeoning population, and more open political environment led to the emergence of a variety of political parties. Moving toward greater independence, Jordan's parliament has investigated corruption charges against several regime figures and has become the major forum in which differing political views, including those of political Islamists, are expressed. While King Abdullah remains the ultimate authority in Jordan, the parliament plays an important role.


Governates and Nahias

Governorates of Jordan
Governorates of Jordan

Administratively, Jordan is divided into 12 governorates, each headed by a governor appointed by the king. They are the sole authorities for all government departments and development projects in their respective areas. The governorates are: The country of Jordan is divided into 12 governorates (Arabic: muhafazat, singular is muhafazah). ... Nahias of Jordan The governorates of Jordan are divided into 52 nahias. ... The country of Jordan is divided into 12 governorates (Arabic: muhafazat, singular is muhafazah). ...

The governorates are subdivided into approximately fifty-two nahias. Nahias of Ajlun Ajlun (alternative spelling Ajloun) (Arabic: عجلون) is one of the governorates of Jordan, located north of Amman the capital of Jordan. ... Amman (Arabic عمان ʿAmmān) is one of the governorates of Jordan. ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-ʻAqabah) is one of the governorates of Jordan, located south of Amman, capital of Jordan. ... Balqa (Al Balqā) is one of the governorates (muhafazat) of Jordan. ... Location of Irbid Governorate Irbid or Irbed(Arabic: إربد) is one of the governorates of Jordan. ... Jerash (Arabic: جرش) is one of the governorates of Jordan. ... Karak (also Kerak) (Arabic: الكرك) is one of the governorates of Jordan. ... Maan (Arabic: معان) is one of the governorates of Jordan. ... Map of the governorates of Jordan Madaba, (Arabic مادبا) is one of the governorates of Jordan. ... Mafraq (Arabic المفرق Al-Mafraq, local dialects Mafrag or Mafra ) is one of the governorates of Jordan. ... Tafilah (Arabic: الطفيلة) is one of the governorates of Jordan. ... Zarqa (Arabic الزرقاء az-Zarqā, local dialects ez-Zergā or ez-Zera, The Blue One) is one of the governorates of Jordan. ... Nahia is a form of administrative divison smaller than governorates. ...


Geography

Map of Jordan
Map of Jordan
Main article: Geography of Jordan

Jordan is a Southwest Asian country, bordered by Syria to the north, Iraq to the northeast, Saudi Arabia to the east and south and Israel and the West Bank to the west. All these border lines add up to 1,619 km (1,006 mi). The Gulf of Aqaba and the Dead Sea also touch the country, and thus Jordan has a coastline of 26 km (16 mi). map of Jordan, converted directly from CIA World Factbook GIF File links The following pages link to this file: Jordan Geography of Jordan Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... map of Jordan, converted directly from CIA World Factbook GIF File links The following pages link to this file: Jordan Geography of Jordan Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... Location: Southwest Asia, northwest of Saudi Arabia. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... Sinai Peninsula, with the Gulf of Aqaba (east) and the Gulf of Suez (west), as viewed from the Space Shuttle STS-40. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ...


Jordan consists of arid desert plateau in the east irrigated by Oasis and seasonal water stream, with Highland area in the west of arble land and Mediterranean evergreen forestry. The Great Rift Valley of the Jordan River separates Jordan, the west bank and Israel. The highest point in the country is Jabal Ram, it is 1,734 m (5,689 ft) above sea level, while the lowest is the Dead Sea -420 m (-1,378 ft). Jordan is part of a region considered to be "the cradle of civilization", the Levant region of the Fertile Cresent. This article is about arid terrain. ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... This article is about the Jordan River and its valley in western Asia. ... Jabal Ram is the highest point in Jordan, 1,734 m above sea level. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... Central New York City. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


Major cities include the capital Amman in the northwest, Irbid and Az Zarqa, both in the north. Karak and Aqaba in the south. For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Irbid (Arabic: إربد), known in ancient times as Arabella, is a city in Jordan located about 70 km north of Amman on the northern ridge of the Gilead. ... Az Zarqa is the second city after Amman the capital of Jordan, population wise, as most of the industrial facilities are located there. ... Karak, also known as Kaya, was a small nation that existed on the southern tip of the Korean Peninsula between approximately 42 BC to 562 AD. It later became part of the Silla kingdom. ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-Ê»Aqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ...


The climate in Jordan is dry in summer with average temperature in the mid-30c° and relatively cold in winter averaging around the Template:Convert/.c. The western part of the country receives greater precipitation during the winter season from November to March and snowfall in Amman (756 m (2,480 ft) ~ 980 m (3,215 ft) above sea-level) and Western Heights of 500 m (1,640 ft). Excluding the rift valley the rest of the country is entirely above 300 m (984 ft)(SL).[27]


Economy

The Four Seasons hotel in Amman, Jordan's capital.
The Four Seasons hotel in Amman, Jordan's capital.
Main article: Economy of Jordan

Jordan is a small country with limited natural resources. The country is currently exploring ways to expand its limited water supply and use its existing water resources more efficiently, including through regional cooperation. Jordan also depends on external sources for the majority of its energy requirements. During the 1990s, its crude petroleum needs were met through imports from Iraq and neighboring countries. Since early 2003, oil has been provided by some Gulf Cooperation Council member countries. In addition, the Arab Gas Pipeline from Egypt to the southern port city of Aqaba was completed in 2003. The government plans to extend this pipeline north to the Amman area and beyond. Since 2000, exports of light manufactured products, principally textiles and garments manufactured in the Qualifying Industrial Zones (QIZ) that enter the United States tariff and quota free, have been driving economic growth. Jordan exported €5.6 million ($6.9 million) in goods to the U.S. in 1997, when two-way trade was €321 million ($395 million); it exported €538 million ($661 million) in 2002 with two-way trade at €855 million ($1.05 billion). Similar growth in exports to the United States under the bilateral US-Jordan Free Trade Agreement that went into effect in December 2001, to the European Union under the bilateral Association Agreement, and to countries in the region, holds considerable promise for diversifying Jordan's economy away from its traditional reliance on exports of phosphates and potash, overseas remittances, and foreign aid. The government has emphasized the information technology (IT) and tourism sectors as other promising growth sectors. The low tax and low regulation Aqaba Special Economic Zone (ASEZA) is considered a model of a government-provided framework for private sector-led economic growth. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1800x1200, 2230 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Jordan User:Cybjorg/images Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1800x1200, 2230 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Jordan User:Cybjorg/images Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Jordan is a small country with limited natural resources. ... Natural resources are commodities that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... ... Arab Gas Pipeline is a pipeline that exports Egyptian natural gas to the Middle East and by the possible further extension, to Europe. ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-Ê»Aqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... The U.S.-Jordan Free Trade Agreement was signed on October 24, 2000. ... Phosphate minerals are those minerals that contain the tetrahedrally coordinated phosphate (PO43-) anion along with the freely substituting arsenate (AsO43-) and vanadate (VO43-). Chlorine (Cl-), fluorine (F-), and hydroxide (OH-) anions also fit into the crystal structure. ...


The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States[28] that went into effect in December 2001 will phase out duties on nearly all goods and services by 2010. The agreement also provides for more open markets in communications, construction, finance, health, transportation, and services, as well as strict application of international standards for the protection of intellectual property. In 1996, Jordan and the United States signed a civil aviation agreement that provides for open skies between the two countries, and a U.S.-Jordan treaty for the protection and encouragement of bilateral investment entered into force in 2003. Jordan has been a member of the World Trade Organization since 2000. The Open Skies system is an integrated web-enabled reservation and inventory system suite that includes Internet, call center, airport departure control functionality and more. ... WTO redirects here. ...


Textile and clothing exports from Jordan to the United States shot up 2,000 percent from 2000 to 2005, following introduction of the FTA. According to the National Labor Committee, a U.S.-based NGO, Jordan has experienced sharp increases in sweatshop conditions in its export-oriented manufacturing sector.[29] For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, shawl and sweater. ... The National Labor Committee in Support of Human and Worker Rights, commonly known as the National Labor Committee or the NLC, is a non-profit NGO founded in 1981 by David Dyson to combat sweatshop labor and United States government policy in El Salvador. ... For other uses, see Sweatshop (disambiguation). ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ...


Jordan is classified by the World Bank as a "lower middle income country." The per-capita GDP was approximately $1,817 (€1,479) for 2003 and 14.5% of the economically active population, on average, was unemployed in 2003. The GDP per capita in 2005 is at $USD 4,200. Education and literacy rates and measures of social well-being are relatively high compared to other countries with similar incomes. Jordan's population growth rate is high, but has declined in recent years, to approximately 2.8% currently. One of the most important factors in the government’s efforts to improve the well-being of its citizens is the macroeconomic stability that has been achieved since the 1990s. However, unemployment rates remain high, with the official figure standing at 12.5%, and the unofficial around 30%. Rates of price inflation are low, at 2.3% in 2003, and the currency has been stable with an exchange rate fixed to the U.S. dollar since 1995. The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ...

Spring in northern Jordan.
Spring in northern Jordan.

While pursuing economic reform and increased trade, Jordan's economy will continue to be vulnerable to external shocks and regional unrest. Without calm in the region, economic growth seems destined to stay below potential. On the positive side, however, there is huge potential in the solar energy falling on Jordan's deserts, not only for the generation of pollution-free electricity but also for such spin-offs as desalination of sea water (see Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation (TREC)). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (2844 × 1918 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (2844 × 1918 pixel, file size: 1. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Logo of TREC The Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation (TREC)[1] is an initiative of the Club of Rome, the Hamburg Climate Protection Foundation and the National Energy Research Center of Jordan (NERC). ...

The treasury, as seen from al-Siq.
The treasury, as seen from al-Siq.
An Arabian Desert castle in Al Azrak.
The Corinthian columns are a popular tourist attraction in Jerash.
The Corinthian columns are a popular tourist attraction in Jerash.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1800, 288 KB) Summary A first glimpse of the Treasury (al-Khazneh) when travelling through the Siq in Petra, Jordan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1800, 288 KB) Summary A first glimpse of the Treasury (al-Khazneh) when travelling through the Siq in Petra, Jordan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2710x2130, 887 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2710x2130, 887 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1800, 2365 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jordan User:Cybjorg/images Corinthium column Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1800, 2365 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jordan User:Cybjorg/images Corinthium column Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... The oval Forum of Roman Jerash, and the South end of the Cardo Map of the Decapolis showing location of Gerasa (Jerash) // Jerash is the capital of Jerash Governorate (محافظة جرش) in Kingdom of Jordan. ...

Tourism

Main article: Tourism in Jordan

Tourism is a very important sector of the Jordanian economy, contributing between 10 percent and 12 percent to the country's Gross National Product in 2006. In addition to the country's political stability, the geography offered makes Jordan an attractive tourism destination. Jordan's major tourist activities include numerous ancient places, its unique desert castles and unspoiled natural locations to its cultural and religious sites. The best known attractions include: The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan offers an array of options for the adventurous traveler. ...

  • Ancient sightseeing
    • Petra in Ma'an, the home of the Nabateans, is a complete city carved in a mountain. The huge rocks are colorful, mostly pink, and the entrance to the ancient city is through a 1.25 km narrow gorge in the mountain - called the Siq. In the city are various structures, all (except 2) are carved into rock, including al Khazneh - known as the Treasury - which has been designated as one of the "New Seven Wonders of the World" by the for-profit New Open World Corporation. Other major sites of interest in Petra include the Monastery, the Roman theatre, the Royal Tombs, the High Place of Sacrifice. Petra was rediscovered for the western world by Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in 1812.
    • Umm Qais, a town located on the site of the ruined Hellenistic-Roman city of Gadara.
    • Ajlun, famous for the Islamic Ajlun Castle.
    • Jerash, famous for its its ancient Roman architecture, including the colonnaded streets, arches, Roman theatres, and the Oval Plaza.
    • Amman contains the Roman theater, in addition to several museums, where one may find remains of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
    • Al Karak contains an important castle from the times of Salah al-Din, known as Al-Karak Castle.
  • Religion-related
  • Seaside
  • Other sites
    • Wadi Rum is a desert full of mountains and hills located south of Jordan. It is popular for its sights in addition to a variety of sports that are practiced there, such as rock-climbing. It is also known for its connection to Lawrence of Arabia.
    • Fuheis, a beautiful town about 20 minutes north-west of Amman.
    • Mahis with important religious sites, and wonderful landscape.
    • Al-Omwia's Palace, placed to the north east of Jordan, of Islamic design.

This article is about the Jordanian site of Petra. ... Maan (Arabic: معان) is a city in southern Jordan. ... Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans were a trading people of ancient Arabia, whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... The Treasury, as seen from al-Siq, right before the passage ends. ... Al Khazneh Al Khazneh (The Treasury) (Arabic: الخزنة) is one of the most elaborate buildings in the ancient city of Petra in Jordan. ... Location of the New Seven Wonders winners. ... This entry incorporates text from the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia with some modernisation. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Ajlun castle Ajlun (alternative spelling Ajloun) is a hill town in the north of Jordan with an impressive 12th century castle. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The inner steps of the castle Ajlun Castle (Arabic: قلعة عجلون; transliterated: Qalat Ajlun)(also Qalat Al-Rabed,Arabic: قلعة الربض; transliterated: Qalat ar-Rabad) is an islamic castle that stands atop Jabal Auf near Ajlun in present-day northern Jordan, at . // This huge fortress was built by Izz al-Din... The oval Forum of Roman Jerash, and the South end of the Cardo Map of the Decapolis showing location of Gerasa (Jerash) // Jerash is the capital of Jerash Governorate (محافظة جرش) in Kingdom of Jordan. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... The Roman Theatre, as seen from its upper corner. ... Al Karak (also Karak or Kerak) (Arabic: الكرك) is a city in Jordan that contains a famous Crusader castle. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... A 6th century mosaic map of Jerusalem Madaba, مادبا, is a capital city of Madaba Governorate, which has a population of about 60. ... Madaba Map The Madaba Map is the oldest extant map of the Holy Land and is dated to the middle of the 6th century AD. It was discovered late in the 19th century, during an excavation and reconstruction of a mosaic floor in St Georges Church in Madaba, Jordan. ... This article is about the Jordan River in western Asia. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Hebrew (Natzrat or Natzeret) Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Government City District North Population 64,800[1] Metropolitan Area: 185,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... The Brazen Serpent sculpture Mount Nebo (Arabic: جبل نيبو; transliterated: Jabal Nebo) is an elevated ridge that is approximately 817 metres (2680 feet) above sea level, in what is now western Jordan. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... This article is about the Jordan River in western Asia. ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-Ê»Aqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... Sinai Peninsula, with the Gulf of Aqaba (east) and the Gulf of Suez (west), as viewed from the Space Shuttle STS-40. ... For other uses, see Hotel (disambiguation). ... Wadi Rum Wadi Rum is a valley cut into the sandstone and granite rock in south west Jordan. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... About half an hour from Amman, in Jordan, the quaint town of Fuheis (Arabic: فحيص) features charming restaurants, galleries and a small complex of craft shops presenting ceramics, weaving, jewelery, antiques and other items. ... Site from Mahis towards the Jordanian valley A view of Mahis in late winter Mahis (Arabic: ماحص) is a Jordanian town 10 km west of Amman. ...

Influence of the Southwest Asian conflict

The ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict, the Gulf War, and other conflicts in Southwest Asia have made huge impacts on the economy of Jordan. The fact that Jordan has peace with the surrounding countries, combined with its stability, has made it a preference for many Palestinians, Lebanese, and people from the Persian Gulf immigrants and refugees. Though this may have resulted in a more active economy, it has also damaged it by substantially decreasing the amount of resources each person is entitled to. Jordan has a law that states that any Palestinian may immigrate and obtain Jordanian citizenship, but must remit his/her Palestinian claim. Palestinians are not allowed to purchase land unless they give up their Palestinian citizenship. In November 2005, King Abdullah called for a "war on extremism" in the wake of three suicide bombings in Amman. Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... A peace treaty is an agreement (a peace treaty) between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ... For the term Palestinian as applied to Jews, see Palestinian Jew. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ...


Foreign relations

Jordan has consistently followed a pro-Western foreign policy and traditionally has had close relations with the United States and the United Kingdom. These relations were damaged by Jordan's neutrality and maintaining relations with Iraq during the first Gulf War. Jordan has a well earned reputation for usually following a pragmatic and non-confrontational foreign policy, leading to fair relations with its neighbours. hi wutcha doinrelations of Jordan have consistently followed a pro-Western foreign policy and traditionally Jordan has had close relations with thecall 4216201States]] and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...

King Abdullah II on a visit to The Pentagon.
King Abdullah II on a visit to The Pentagon.

Following the Gulf war, Jordan largely restored its relations with Western countries through its participation in the Southwest Asia peace process and enforcement of UN sanctions against Iraq. Relations between Jordan and the Gulf countries improved substantially after King Hussein's death. Following the fall of the Iraqi regime, Jordan has played a pivotal role in supporting the restoration of stability and security to Iraq. The Government of Jordan signed a memorandum of understanding with the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq to facilitate the training of up to 30,000 Iraqi police cadets at a Jordanian facility. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2566x1918, 1138 KB) Description:His Majesty King Abdallah II (left), of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, is welcomed by Secretary of Defense William Cohen (right) as he arrives at the Pentagon on May 20, 1999. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2566x1918, 1138 KB) Description:His Majesty King Abdallah II (left), of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, is welcomed by Secretary of Defense William Cohen (right) as he arrives at the Pentagon on May 20, 1999. ...


Jordan signed a non-belligerency agreement with Israel (the Washington Declaration) in Washington, D.C., on 25 July 1994. King Hussein and Yitzhak Rabin negotiated this treaty. Jordan and Israel signed a historic peace treaty on 26 October 1994, witnessed by President Bill Clinton, accompanied by U.S. Secretary, Warren Christopher. The U.S. has participated with Jordan and Israel in trilateral development discussions in which key issues have been water-sharing and security; cooperation on Jordan Rift Valley development; infrastructure projects; and trade, finance, and banking issues. Jordan also participates in the multilateral peace talks. Jordan belongs to the UN and several of its specialized and related agencies, including the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Jordan also is a member of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), Nonaligned Movement (NAM), and Arab League. is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Hussein bin Talal, King of Jordan (Arabic: ‎, ) (November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999) was the ruler of Jordan since his father, King Talal, abdicated in 1952, until his death. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) (Hebrew:הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: HaSekhem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisrael Le-Yarden) (Arabic: معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Orduniyah al-Israyliyah, and commonly referred to as Araba Valley... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Warren Minor Christopher (born October 27, 1925) is an American diplomat and lawyer. ... WHO redirects here. ...


Demographics

Graph showing the population of Jordan from 1960 to 2005.
Graph showing the population of Jordan from 1960 to 2005.

Jordan has a population of 5.9 million. 95% of Jordan's population are Arabs. Jordanian Arabs make 55% of the population and a large portion of the population (approximately 40%) are of Palestinian extraction,[31] who fled from Palestine to Transjordan and gained citizenship after the Arab-Israeli wars in 1948 and 1967, the remaining non-Arabs of the population are mainly Circassians, Chechens, Armenians (13th largest in the world), Dom and Kurds, but have integrated into the Jordanian and Arab cultures in the country.Many Native Jordanians are also of European origin assimilated into the Arabophone genepool that has resulted from the vast history of civilisations on its land.[citation needed]. Image File history File links Jordan_pop. ... Image File history File links Jordan_pop. ... Jordanians are mostly Arabs, except for a few small communities of Circassians, Chechens, Armenians, and Kurds which have adapted to Arab culture. ... Circassian language is used in a number of ways: as a synonym for the Adyghe language; as a synonym for the Kabardian language; as a term for a distinct language that includes both Adyghe and Kabardian. ... Chechen can mean: Chechen people, an ethnic group Chechen language Related to Chechnya This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Map of the Armenian diaspora. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Arabic ( or just ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ...


The number of Lebanese permanently settling in Jordan since the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict has not been established, and is estimated to be very little. According to Labour Ministry figures, the number of guest workers in the country now stands just over 300,000, most are Egyptians who makeup 227,000 of the foreign labor, and the remaining 36,150 workers are mostly from Bangladesh, China, Sri Lanka and India. Since the Iraq War many Christians (Assyrians and Chaldeans) from Iraq have settled permanently or temporarily in Jordan. Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah) Imad Mughniyeh (Commander of Hezbollahs armed wing)[5] Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[12] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[6] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC)[13... A foreign worker (cf expatriate), is a person who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a citizen. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... Map showing the location of Tel Kaif, Iraq and the neighboring areas. ...


Jordanian Christians permanently residing in Jordan form approximately 12% of the population and have 20% of the seats in parliament.[citation needed] (reason for which is a good percentage of expatriate communities of Jordanians abroad are Christian - original percentage should read 12%) Most Christians belong to the Greek Orthodox church (called "Room Urthudux" in Arabic). The rest are Roman Catholics (called "Lateen"), Eastern Catholics (called "Room Katoleek" to distinguish them from "Western Catholics"), and various Protestant communities including Baptists. Christians in Jordan are of many nationalities, as evinced, for example, by the Catholic mass being celebrated in Arabic, English, French, Italian, Spanish, Tagalog and Sinhala, as well as in Iraqi dialects of Arabic. However, Jordanian Christians are indigenous Arabs that share the Greater culture of Jordan and the Broader East Mediterranean Levantine Arab Identity. For the band, see Expatriate (band). ... The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in Southwest Asia south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and in the east, the north Arabian Desert and Mesopotamia. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


Other Jordanians belonging to religious minorities include adherents to the Druze and Bahá'í Faith, which fall administratively under Islamic denomination. The Druze are mainly located in the Eastern Oasis Town of Azraq and the city of Zarka, while the Village of Adassiyeh bordering The Jordan Valley is home to Jordan's Bahá'í community. Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Quran Languages Arabic. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Quran Languages Arabic. ... For the English rock band, see Oasis (band). ... Azraq (Arabic: الأزرق ) is a small town with a population of approximately 5,000 people (1990) in central-eastern Jordan, 100km east of Amman. ... Zarqa (Arabic: ‎; BGN: Az Zarqāʼ; local pronunciation ez-Zergā or ez-Zera) is a city in Jordan located to the northeast of Amman. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ...


The official language is Arabic, but English is used widely in commerce and government and among educated people. Arabic and English are obligatory learning at public and private schools. French is taught at some public and private schools but is not obligatory. However, a vibrant Francophone community has emerged in modern Jordan.[citation needed] Radio Jordan offers radio services in Arabic, English and French. Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


A portion of the people are registered as Palestinian refugees and displaced persons reside in Jordan, most as citizens. Since 2003 many Iraqis fleeing the Iraq War have settled in Jordan; latest estimates indicate between 700,000 and 1.7 million Iraqis living in Jordan;[32] mainly in Amman, the capital.[33] In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinians call the Nakba (نكبة, meaning disaster). History Most of the refugees had already fled by the time the neighboring Arab states intervened on the side of Palestinians and continued after... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Jordan

The culture of Jordan, as in its spoken language, values, beliefs, ethnicities is Arab as the Kingdom is in the heart of Southwest Asia. Although many people from different regions of the world have come to settle in Jordan, like Circassians and Chechens, they have long been assimilated in the society and added their richness to the society that subsequently developed. The culture of Jordan is based around Arab and Islamic elements. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ...

  • Music of Jordan
  • Religion in Jordan  (Islam in Jordan, Christianity in Jordan)
  • Sports in Jordan
  • Cuisine of Jordan
  • Art in Jordan
    Art in Jordan is plentiful, there are many local artists, as well as Arab, especially Iraqis, and those Arabs who live abroad frequently have exhibitions in different art galleries in the capital. In addition to an art museum in Jabal Luwiebdeh, there is Darat Al Funun, a very prestigious art center that frequently holds exhibitions by local, Arab and international artists. It is too in Jabal Luwiebdeh, but there are many other art centers that too hold exhibitions which suggests that art is a vibrant aspect of the capital
  • Public Holidays in Jordan

The music of Jordan can be distinguished from that of its neighboring countries like Syria and Saudi Arabia by its strong Bedouin influence . ... Religion in Jordan is a much more important cultural issue than in the west. ... The Abu Darweesh Mosque was built in 1961 by the Circassian community which came to settle in Amman More than 90 percent of population in Jordan adhered to Sunni Islam in the late 1980s. ... Christians as a total form 6% of the total population of Jordan. ... Football and Basketball in Jordan are the most-watched sports. ... Arab cuisine is the cuisine of most Arab countries. ... Public holidays in Jordan. ...

Language

Arabic is the official language of Jordan. English is widely understood among most Jordanians, although the degree to which varies with educational level and demographic concentration. Middle and upper class citizens tend to be fluent and consider English as their second language. French is understood by some especially graduates of the handful French Schools graduates in Jordan. Armenian and other Caucasian languages such as Circassian and Chechen are understood and spoken by their respective communities residing in Jordan with minority schools teaching these languages, alongside Arabic and English. A second language (L2) is any language learned after the first language or mother tongue (L1). ... The term Caucasian languages is loosely used to refer to a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than 7 million people in the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. ... Circassian language is used in a number of ways: as a synonym for the Adyghe language; as a synonym for the Kabardian language; as a term for a distinct language that includes both Adyghe and Kabardian. ... Chechen can mean: Chechen people, an ethnic group Chechen language Related to Chechnya This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Education

Main article: Education in Jordan

Jordan has given great attention to education in particular. Its educational system is of international standards and its secondary education program is accepted in world-class universities. It is ranked 91th in the world according to literacy rate. Jordan has given good attention to education in particular. ... World literacy rates by country, based on The World Factbook. ... Literacy is the ability to use text to communicate across space and time. ...


School education

See also: Tawjihi and List of private schools in Jordan

School education in Jordan could be categorized into two sections: Tawjihi is the general secondary examination in Jordan. ... This is the list of private schools in Jordan. ...

  • Secondary education, which consists of two years of school study, for students who have completed the 10-year basic cycle. It comprises two major tracks:
  1. Secondary education, which can either be academic or vocational. At the end of the two-year period, students sit for the general secondary examination (Tawjihi) in the appropriate branch and those who pass are awarded the Tawjihi (General Secondary Education Certificate). The academic stream qualifies students for university entrance, whereas the vocational or technical type qualifies for entrance to Community colleges or universities or the job market, provided they pass the two additional subjects.
  2. Vocational secondary education, which provides intensive vocational training and apprenticeship, and leads to the award of a Certificate (not the Tawjihi). This type of education is provided by the Vocational Training Corporation, under the control of the Ministry of Labour / Technical and Vocational Education and Training Higher Council.

Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Vocational education prepares learners for certain careers or professions, which are traditionally non-academic and directly related to a trade, occupation or vocation in which the learner participates. ... Tawjihi is the general secondary examination in Jordan. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... A community college is a type of educational institution. ... Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning of the market for labour. ... Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ...

Foreign secondary education programs

After completing the 8 or 10 years of basic education, Jordanians are free to choose any foreign secondary education program instead of the Tawjihi examinations (8 for IGCSE, 10 for SAT and IB). Such programs are usually offered by private schools. These programs include: Tawjihi is the general secondary examination in Jordan. ... For the film of this title, see Private School (film). ...

Private schools in Jordan also used to offer GCSE examinations, but they have now been replaced by IGCSE examinations. The International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) is an international qualification for school students. ... For other uses, see SAT (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into International Baccalaureate Organization. ... GCSE is an acronym that can refer to: General Certificate of Secondary Education global common subexpression elimination - an optimisation technique used by some compilers This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Upon graduation, the ministry of Higher Education, through a system similar to that of the UK tariff points, transforms the Grades/Marks of these foreign educational programs, into the same marks used in grading Tawjihi students. This system is controversial, both as to the conversion process and the number of places allocated to non-Tawjihi applicants. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ...


Another source of trouble is the system used to transform exam results of foreign education programs into the Tawjihi scale, which is a percentage out of 100. Again, some see the system as fair and in fact over lenient with non-Tawjihi graduates, while others see it as unfair.


Higher education

See also: List of universities in Jordan

Access to higher education is open to holders of the General Secondary Education Certificate who can then choose between private community colleges, public community colleges or universities (public and private). The credit-hour system, which entitles students to select courses according to a study plan, is implemented at universities. At present, there are eight public universities plus two newly-licensed ones, and thirteen private universities plus four newly-licensed ones. All post-secondary education is the responsibility of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. The Ministry includes the Higher Education Council and the Accreditation Council. // Al-Ahliyya Amman University [1] Amman Arab University for Higher Studies [2] Applied Science Private University [3] Arab Open University [4] Arab Academy for Banking & Financial Sciences, Amman [5] Al-Isra Private University [6] German-Jordanian University [7] Jordan Academy of Music [8] New York Institute of Technology, Jordan [9... Use of the term The concept of property or ownership has no single or universally accepted definition. ... A publicly traded corporation often refers to a company whose shares are traded on the open market, such as a stock market. ...


Stages of studies

Non-university level-secondary studies

Non-university and vocational studies are offered in community colleges, access to which is open to holders of all types of general secondary education certificates. The two-to three-year programme encompasses many fields, such as Arts, Science, Management, Business Administration and Engineering. As of 1997, all public Community Colleges are under the supervision of Al-Balqa Applied University. At the end of the two- or three-year course, students sit for a comprehensive examination (Al-Shamel). Those who pass are awarded the Associate Degree / Diploma.


University level studies

Most universities in Jordan follow the English-American education systems and are associated with many American and English universities. Bachelor's Degrees normally take four years. In Dentistry, Pharmacy and Engineering, studies last for five years. In Medicine, they last for six years, followed by an Internship which lasts for one year. The Bachelor's Degree requires a total of 126-164 credit hours, depending on the field of study. In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ...

A Master's degree is awarded after a further one to two years' study following a Bachelor's Degree. It can be obtained either by course work and a thesis (c. 24 credit hours of courses and nine credit hours of research), or by course work (c. 33 credit hours) and a comprehensive examination. There are other postgraudate degrees equivalent to the Master's degree in some Jordanian universities like the Magister in the German Jordanian University, the DEA's degree in the Universities which follow the French system and the MBA for the students who have significant work experience. Quaternary education or postgraduate education is the fourth-stage educational level which follows the completion of an undergraduate degree at a college or university. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Magister (also magistar, from lat. ... In France, a DEA (diplôme détudes approfondies, or diploma of advanced studies) is a former postgraduate degree. ... Master of Business Administration (MBA) is a tertiary degree in business management. ...

A Doctorate Degree is awarded after three to five years of further study and the submission of an original dissertation. It requires, depending on the subject, 24 credit hours of course work and 24 credit hours of research.

  • Teacher education: Training of pre-primary and primary/basic school teachers

Basic schoolteachers must hold a Bachelor's Degree. Training of secondary school teachers: Secondary school teachers must hold a Bachelor's Degree and a one-year postgraduate Higher Diploma in Education. Training of higher education teachers: They must hold a Doctorate (PhD). In some cases a Master's Degree is sufficient. In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study, lesson plan, or a practical skill, including learning and thinking skills. ...

  • Non-traditional studies: Distance higher education

This type of education is offered at the newly established branch of the Arab Open University.


Lifelong higher education

Lifelong education is offered at public and private universities, public and private community colleges, the Jordan Institute of Public Administration, The Jordan Geographic Center and The Royal Scientific Society, as well as in other institutions. Courses are offered in Engineering, Industry, Agriculture, Foreign Languages, Computer Sciences, Managerial Sciences, Secretarial Studies, Physical Education and subjects that can help the local community. Courses last between one week and six months at the end of which students obtain a Certificate of Attendance or Achievement. The qualifications needed depend on the subject and level of the course. Some are designed for specific occupations, in which case a work experience in the relevant field is needed to attend such courses. The Royal Scientific Society (RSS) is the largest applied research institution, consultation and technical service provider in Jordan, with more than 600 members of staff. ...

See also: List of universities in Jordan

// Al-Ahliyya Amman University [1] Amman Arab University for Higher Studies [2] Applied Science Private University [3] Arab Open University [4] Arab Academy for Banking & Financial Sciences, Amman [5] Al-Isra Private University [6] German-Jordanian University [7] Jordan Academy of Music [8] New York Institute of Technology, Jordan [9...

See also

// Telephone Telephones - main lines in use: >1,000,000 (2005)194. ... Below is a list of newspapers published in Jordan. ... hi wutcha doinrelations of Jordan have consistently followed a pro-Western foreign policy and traditionally Jordan has had close relations with thecall 4216201States]] and the United Kingdom. ... Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... The record of human rights in Jordan continues to be a matter of concern for many international human rights groups. ... The following is a list of famous people from Jordan: // Sherif Hussein ibn Ali King Abdullah I of Jordan King Talal of Jordan King Hussein I King Abdullah II of Jordan Queen Noor of Jordan Queen Rania of Jordan Wasfi Al Tal Dr. Fawzi Mulki Bahjat Al Talhooni Zeid Bin... Category: ... The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan offers an array of options for the adventurous traveler. ... Military branches: Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF; includes Royal Jordanian Land Force, Royal Naval Force, and Royal Jordanian Air Force); Badiya (irregular) Border Guards; Ministry of the Interiors Public Security Force (falls under JAF only in wartime or crisis situations) See also the Royal Special Forces, and His Majestys... Political parties in Jordan lists political parties in Jordan. ... Public holidays in Jordan. ... Royal Jordanian Air Force insignia The Royal Jordanian Air Force (RJAF) (Arabic: القوات الجوية الملكية الأردنية, Transliterated: Al Quwwat al-Jawwiya Almalakiya al-Urduniya in Arabic) is the Aviation branch of the Jordanian Armed Forces. ... Royal Jordanian Airlines (Arabic: الملكية الأردنية; transliterated: al-Malakiyah al-Orduniyah) is an airline based in Amman, Jordan, operating scheduled international services over four continents. ... The Jordanian Association for Boy Scouts and Girl Guides is the national Scouting and Guiding organization of Jordan. ... // (2000) total: 677 km narrow gauge (1. ... Logo of TREC The Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation (TREC)[1] is an initiative of the Club of Rome, the Hamburg Climate Protection Foundation and the National Energy Research Center of Jordan (NERC). ... // Every military needs decipline and respect in order to achive its objective. ...

References

  1. ^ a b (Arabic) Aljazeera.net article.
  2. ^ Black September at History Central.
  3. ^ Jordan Expels the PLO in 1970, Palestine Facts.
  4. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2PgiE1PCeL8C&pg=PA278&lpg=PA278&dq=jordan+special+courts&source=web&ots=zo5NSYkmBt&sig=Hwv28otEiNUZ1QNqutG0MDnG9co&hl=en#PPA278,M1
  5. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/1985271.stm.
  6. ^ http://www.legal500.com - Default Recommended Firms
  7. ^ US Department of State Background Note: Jordan http://www.infoplease.com/country/profiles/jordan.html
  8. ^ www.sheltercentre.org/shelterlibrary/items/pdf/Jordan.pdf
  9. ^ www.uk.oneworld.net/guides/jordan/development
  10. ^ www.idea.int/publications/dem_jordan/upload/Jordan_country_report_English.pdf
  11. ^ Khouri 2003 as quoted in the World Bank p.147 as quoted in World Bank 2003 ‘Better governance for development in the Middle East and North Africa: enhancing inclusiveness and accountability’ Washington
  12. ^ www.kinghussein.gov.jo/government3html
  13. ^ p.148 Parker, C. 2004 ‘Transformation without transition: electoral politics, network ties, and the persistence of the shadow state in Jordan’ in Elections in the Middle East: what do they mean’ Cairo Papers in Social Sciences Vol. 25 Numbers ½, Spring Summer 2002 Cairo
  14. ^ World Bank 2003 p.44 ‘Better governance for development in the Middle East and North Africa: Enhancing inclusiveness and accountability’ Washington
  15. ^ www.lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+jo0103)
  16. ^ http://www.kinghussein.gov.jo/government3a.html
  17. ^ Ryan, C. 10/07/2005 ‘Reform retreats amid Jordan’s political storm’ Middle East Report Online https://portal.uea.ac.uk/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab=courses&url=/bin/common/course.pl?course_id=_13667_1
  18. ^ Aljazeera.net Sunday, September 07 ‘Jordan quashes ‘honour crimes’ law’ 2003 http://english.aljazeera.net/English/archive/archive?ArchiveId=39747
  19. ^ Sheeley, E. 2008 ‘An appeal to Jordan to stop honor killings’ www.usiasionline.com/Society_Culture/2008/04/07an_appeal_to_stop_honor_killings/1109/
  20. ^ electionguide.org/details.aspz/3/Jordan/8/Election%20Results/article984
  21. ^ www.pogar.org/countries/elections.asp?cid=7 United Nations Development Programme Democratic Governance Jordan
  22. ^ Ryan, C. 2002 ‘Jordan in transition: From Hussein to Abdullah’ Lynne Rienner Publishers London p.39
  23. ^ page167Baaklini, A., Denoeux, G. & Springborg, R. 1999 ‘Legislative Politics in the Arab World: The resurgence of Democratic Institutions’ Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc. London
  24. ^ Kaaklini, A. Denouex, G & Springborg, R 1999 page 165 ‘Legislative Politics in the Arab world: the resurgence of democratic institutions’ Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc. London
  25. ^ Parker, C. 2004 P.170 ‘Transformation without Transition: Electoral politics network ties and the persistence of the shadow state in Jordan’ in ‘Elections in the Middle East: What do they mean?’ Ed by Hamdy, I. 2004 The American University Press in Cairo Cairo
  26. ^ p.79 Brynen, R. ‘The Politics of Monarchical Liberalism: Jordan’ Political Liberalization and democratization in the arab world’ volume 2, comparative experiences Korany, B. Brynen , R . Noble, P.
  27. ^ BBC World Weather - Country Guide:Jordan.
  28. ^ Jordan-US FTA.
  29. ^ NLCNet.
  30. ^ The Dead Sea, NPR
  31. ^ A conversation with King Abdullah II of Jordan - Charlie Rose
  32. ^ Doors closing on fleeing Iraqis
  33. ^ The New Iraqi Diaspora, Hii Dunia, January 2007

Further reading

External links

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