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Encyclopedia > Jonestown

Jonestown was an intentional community in northwestern Guyana formed by the Peoples Temple, a cult from California led by Jim Jones. It became internationally notorious in November 1978 when 918 people died in the settlement as well as in a nearby airstrip and in Georgetown, Guyana's capital. The name of the settlement became a term for the incidents at those locations. Jonestown was the name of the communal settlement founded by cult leader Jim Jones, in Guyana, in 1974, and made infamous by the mass suicide or massacre (or combination thereof), which occurred there in 1978, after which the site was deserted. ... An intentional community is a planned residential community designed to promote a much higher degree of social interaction than other communities. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cult typically refers to a cohesive social group devoted to beliefs or practices that the surrounding culture considers outside the mainstream, with a notably positive or negative popular perception. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the Peoples Temple leader. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


On November 18, 1978, 909 Temple members died in Jonestown, all but two of which from apparent cyanide poisoning in an event termed as "revolutionary suicide" by Jones and some members on an audio tape of the event and in prior discussions. To the extent the actions in Jonestown were viewed as a mass suicide, it is the largest such event in over 1,900 years of history,{see mass suicide} and the largest mass suicide of United States citizens. This article is about the chemical compound. ... Mass suicide occurs when a number of people kill themselves together with one another or for the same reason and is usually connected to a real or perceived persecution. ...


Just before that incident, at a nearby Port Kaituma airstrip, Temple members murdered 5 others, including Congressman Leo Ryan, the first and only Congressman murdered in the line of duty in the history of the United States. Ryan had led reporters and a delegation of concerned relatives of Peoples Temple members on a visit to Jonestown to investigate allegations of abuses there. On the same night, at the Temple's headquarters in Georgetown, Temple members Sharon Amos and her daughter Liane murdered two of Sharon's younger children and killed themselves. Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Leo Joseph Ryan, Jr. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party...


Named after Jones, Jonestown was founded by the Peoples Temple in the mid-1970s as an agricultural commune. It stood amidst jungle, about seven miles (11 km) southwesterly from Port Kaituma. At its height, Jonestown's population consisted of about one thousand Peoples Temple members, although most residents lived there for under 18 months. Port Kaituma Waterfront Port Kaituma is a small town within Region One (Barima-Waini) of Guyana. ...


Jonestown was later abandoned by the collapsing remnant of the Peoples Temple and is now an abandoned ruin.

Contents

Origins

Main article: Peoples Temple

The Peoples Temple was formed in Indianapolis, Indiana, during the mid-1950s.[1] In the 1960s, the congregation had dwindled to fewer than a hundred members and was on the verge of collapse when Jones managed to secure an affiliation with the Disciples of Christ.[2] This new association bolstered the Temple's reputation, increased its membership, and spread Jones' influence. Partly inspired by the eccentric preacher Father Divine, he began charity efforts with the goal of recruiting the poor.[3] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Indianapolis redirects here. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The insignia of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). ... Father Divine (c. ...


The Peoples Temple purported to practice what it called "apostolic socialism."[4] In doing so, the Temple preached to established members that "religion is an opiate of the people."[5] Accordingly, "those who remained drugged with the opiate of religion had to be brought to enlightenment -- socialism."[6] In that regard, Jones also openly stated that he "took the church and used the church to bring people to atheism."[7] Jones mixed those concepts, such as preaching that "If you're born in this church, this socialist revolution, you're not born in sin. If you're born in capitalist America, racist America, fascist America, then you're born in sin. But if you're born in socialism, you're not born in sin."[5] Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the world. ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ...


In 1961, Jones helped to integrate churches, restaurants, the telephone company, the police department, a theater, an amusement park, and the Methodist Hospital and became the executive director of the Indianapolis Human Rights Commission.[8]


Jones received considerable criticism in Indiana for his integrationist views.[9] In 1965, Jones left Indiana, moving the Peoples Temple to Redwood Valley, California.[10][2] This was based, in part, on Jones belief that they would be safe from nuclear fallout if there were a nuclear attack on the United States.[11] Redwood Valley is a census-designated place located in Mendocino County, California. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... Nuclear war, or atomic war, is war in which nuclear weapons are used. ...


The Peoples Temple opened other branches in California, including one in Los Angeles, California in the early 1970s. Shortly thereafter, Jones made grants to newspapers in California with the stated goal of supporting the First Amendment.[12] In the mid-1970s, the Temple moved its primary location to San Francisco, California.[13]


At the same time, unlike other figures considered as cult leaders, Jones enjoyed public support and contact with some of the highest level politicians in the United States. For example, in the heat of the 1976 Presidential Campaign, Jones met with Vice Presidential Candidate Walter Mondale on his campaign plane.[14] Likewise, First Lady Rosalynn Carter personally met Jones for a private dinner at the Stanford Court Hotel.[14] Mrs. Carter later called Jones personally.[15] At the 1976 grand opening of the San Francisco Democratic Party Headquarters, Jones packed the audience with Temple members and garnered louder applause when he spoke than Mrs. Carter.[16] Governor Jerry Brown, Lieutenant Govenor Mervyn Dymally and Assemblyman Willie Brown, among others, attended a large testimonial dinner in honor of Jim Jones during September 1976.[17] At that dinner, Willie Brown referred to Jones as "a combination of Martin King, Angela Davis, Albert Einstein, and Chairman Mao."[18] By mid-1977, Willie Brown had visited the Temple perhaps a dozen times, some by invitation and some on his own, and Jerry Brown had visited at least once.[19][20] Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... Eleanor Rosalynn Smith Carter (born August 18, 1927) is the wife of former President Jimmy Carter and was First Lady of the United States from 1977 to 1981. ... For the whistleblower, see Gerald W. Brown. ... Mervyn M. Dymally, Ph. ... The name Willie Brown may refer to the following people: Willie Brown, a Californian politician. ...


In that regard, after the Peoples Temple participation was instrumental in the mayoral election victory of George Moscone in 1975, Moscone appointed Jones as the Chairman of the San Francisco Housing Commission.[21] Mayor Moscone George Richard Moscone (November 24, 1929 – November 27, 1978) was the mayor of San Francisco, California from January 1976 until his assassination in November 1978. ...


After several scandals in Northern California in the early 1970s, the Peoples Temple began considering setting up an agricultural commune outside the United States. In 1974, the Temple leased over 3,800 acres (15.4 km²) of jungle land from the Guyanese government.[22]


Former Temple member Tim Carter stated that the reason for choosing Guyana was the Temple's view of creeping fascism, the perception of the dominance of multinational corporations on the government, and perceived racism in the U.S. government.[23] Carter said the Temple concluded that Guyana, a predominantly black, English-speaking socialist country, would afford black members of the Temple a peaceful place to live.[23]


A small group Peoples Temple members began the construction of Jonestown. The Temple encouraged some of its members to move to Jonestown, which it called the "Peoples Temple Agricultural Project."[22] Jonestown's population increased from 50 members in early 1977 to more than 1000 at its peak in 1978.


Jonestown established

Houses in Jonestown
Houses in Jonestown

Jones purported to establish Jonestown as a benevolent communist community stating, "I believe we’re the purest communists there are." [24] Marceline Jones described Jonestown as "dedicated to live for socialism, total economic and racial and social equality. We are here living communally."[24] Jones wanted to construct a model community and claimed that Prime Minister of Guyana Forbes Burnham "couldn’t rave enough about us, uh, the wonderful things we do, the project, the model of socialism."[25] In that regard, like the restrictive emigration policies of the Soviet Union, Cuba, North Korea and other communist republics, Jones did not permit members to leave Jonestown.[26] Houses in Jonestown http://jonestown. ... Houses in Jonestown http://jonestown. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In the summer of 1977, Jones and several hundred Temple members moved to Jonestown after building pressure from media investigations.[27] Jones left during the same night that an editor at New West magazine read Jones an article to be published by Marshall Kilduff detailing allegations by former Temple members.[27][28]


Many of the Peoples Temple members believed that Guyana would be, as Jones promised, a paradise. At first, work was performed six days a week, from six thirty to seven in the morning to six in the evening, with an hour lunch, in Guyana's equatorial climate.[29] In mid-1978, after Jim Jones' health deteriorated and Marcy Jones began managing more of Jonestown's operations, the work week was reduced to eight hours a day for five days a week.[23] Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Suriname and Venezuela Geographic coordinates: 5 00 N, 59 00 W Map references: South America Area: total: 214,970 km² land: 196,850 km² water: 18,120 km² Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Idaho Land boundaries: total: 2,462 km...


After their daily work, Temple members would attend several hours of activities in a Pavilion structure, including classes in socialism.[30] Jones described this study as like that of the North Korean system of eight hours of daily work followed by eight hours of study.[31][32] Jones would often also read news and commentary, including some from news from Radio Moscow and Radio Havanna.[33]


Jones' recorded reading of the news was part of the constant broadcasts over Jonestown's tower speakers such that all members could hear them throughout the day and night. [34] Jones' reading of the news usually portrayed the United States as a "capitalist" and "imperialist" villain, while casting "socialist" leaders such as former North Korean dictator Kim Il-sung ("great leader of the revolution, is in the vanguard of the Korean working class"), Robert Mugabe ("long known for his communist inspiration to the people of Zimbabwe and one of the revolutionary heroes") and Joseph Stalin (disturbed by people criticizing Stalin) in a positive light. [35] North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia, covering the northern half of the peninsula of Korea. ... Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of North Korea from its founding in early 1948 until his death, when he was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. ... Mugabe redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...


The members lived in small communal houses eating meals reportedly consisted of nothing more than rice and beans on many days (more on others).[36] Despite theoretically having access to millions of dollars in Temple funds, Jones also lived in a tiny communal house (pictured below), though fewer people lived there than in other communal houses and it reportedly contained a small refrigerator containing, at times, eggs, meat, fruit, salads, and soft drinks.[36] Medical problems such as severe diarrhea and high fevers struck half the community in February 1978. In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ...


Although Jonestown contained no prison and no form of capital punishment, various forms of punishment were used against members considered to be serious disciplinary problems. Methods included imprisonment in a 6x4x3-foot (1.8 x 1.2 x 0.9 m) plywood box and forcing children to spend a night at the bottom of a well, sometimes upside-down.[1] For some members who attempted to escape, drugs such as Thorazine, sodium pentathol, chloral hydrate, Demerol and Valium were administered until they "came to their senses," with detailed records being kept of each person’s drug regimen; .[37] Armed guards patrolled the area day and night to enforce Jonestown's rules. Some local Guyanese, including a police official, related stories about harsh beatings and a "torture hole," the well into which the children were placed when they were perceived to have misbehaved.[38][39] Towers of Hanoi constructed from plywood. ... Chlorpromazine was the first antipsychotic drug, used during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Sodium thiopental also called Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories), thiopental, thiopentone sodium, or trapanal is a rapid-onset, short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic. ... Chloral hydrate, also known as trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate, 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-ethanediol, and under the tradenames Aquachloral, Novo-Chlorhydrate, Somnos, Noctec, and Somnote, is a sedative and hypnotic drug as well as a chemical reagent and precursor. ... Pethidine (INN) or meperidine (USAN) (also referred to as: isonipecaine; lidol; operidine; pethanol; piridosal; Algil®; Alodan®; Centralgin®; Demerol®; Dispadol®; Dolantin®; Dolestine®; Dolosal®; Dolsin®; Mefedina®) is a fast-acting opioid analgesic drug. ... Diazepam, brand names: Valium, Seduxen, in Europe Apozepam, is a 1,4-benzodiazepine derivative, which possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. ...

Jim Jones' cabin
Jim Jones' cabin

Children, generally surrendered to communal care, addressed Jones as "Dad" and some at times were only allowed to see their real parents briefly at night. Jones was called "Father" or "Dad" by the adults as well.[40] Image File history File links Cabin of Jim Jones in Jonestown http://jonestown. ... Image File history File links Cabin of Jim Jones in Jonestown http://jonestown. ...


Up to $65,000 in monthly welfare payments from government organizations in the United States to Jonestown residents were signed over to the Temple.[41] In 1978, officials from the United States Embassy in Guyana interviewed Social Security recipients on multiple occasions to make sure they were not being held against their will.[42] None of the 75 people the Embassy interviewed stated that they were being held against their will, were forced to sign over welfare checks or wanted to leave Jonestown. [43]


The Temple's wealth was estimated in late 1978 to be approximately $26 million.[44]


Events in Jonestown prior to Ryan visit

Regarding Jonestown's safety, Jones made addresses to Temple members including statements that the CIA and other intelligence agencies were conspiring with "capitalist pigs" to destroy Jonestown and harm its members.[45]


In Georgetown, the Peoples Temple conducted frequent meetings with the embassies of the Soviet Union, North Korea, Yugoslavia and Cuba.[46] Their negotiations with the Soviet Union included extensive discussions of possible resettlement there and the Temple produced memoranda discussing potential places within the Soviet Union in which they might settle.[46] Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


After work, when puported emergencies arose, the Temple sometimes conducted what Jones referred to as "White Nights."[47] During such events, Jones would sometimes give the Jonestown members four choices: (1) attempt to flee to the Soviet Union; (2) commit "revolutionary suicide"; (3) stay in Jonestown and fight the purported attackers or (4) flee into the jungle.[48]


On at least two occasions, after a "revolutionary suicide" vote was reached, a simulated mass suicide was rehearsed during these White Nights. In an affidavit, Peoples Temple defector Deborah Layton describes the event:

"Everyone, including the children, was told to line up. As we passed through the line, we were given a small glass of red liquid to drink. We were told that the liquid contained poison and that we would die within 45 minutes. We all did as we were told. When the time came when we should have dropped dead, Rev. Jones explained that the poison was not real and that we had just been through a loyalty test. He warned us that the time was not far off when it would become necessary for us to die by our own hands."[36]

After pressure increased in the United States for investigations into Jonestown, on February 19, 1978, Harvey Milk wrote a letter of support for the Peoples Temple to President Jimmy Carter.[49] Therein, Milk wrote that Jones was known "as a man of the highest character."[49] Regarding defecting Temple members pressing for an investigation of the Peoples Temple, Milk wrote "they are attempting to damage Rev. Jones reputation" with "apparent bold-faced lies."[49] [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Harvey Milk (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


On April 11, 1978, a group of relatives of Temple members often referred to as the "Concerned Relatives" distributed a packet of documents, including letters and affidavits, that they titled an "Accusation of Human Rights Violations by Rev. James Warren Jones" to the Peoples Temple, members of the press and members of Congress.[50] In June of 1978, Peoples Temple defector Deborah Layton provided the group with a further affidavit detailing alleged crimes by the Peoples Temple and substandard living conditions in Jonestown. [51] is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... A survivor/defector of Jonestown who, in a sworn affidavit wrote that during one of the white nights [mass suicide rehearsals], people were told that they would die, and were forced to drink unsweetened Flavor Aid that they thought contained poison. ...


During the summer of 1978, Jones hired famous JFK assassination conspiracy theorists Mark Lane and Donald Freed to help make the case of a "grand conspiracy" by intelligence agencies against the Peoples Temple.[52] Jones told Lane he wanted to "pull an Eldridge Cleaver", referring to a fugitive Black Panther that was able to return to the United States after repairing his reputation.[53] In September of 1978, Lane spoke to the residents of Jonestown, providing support for Jones' theories and drawing parallels between Martin Luther King and Jim Jones.[54] Lane then held press conferences stating that "none of the charges" against the Temple "are accurate or true" and that there was a "massive conspiracy" against the Temple by "intelligence organizations," naming the CIA, FBI, FCC and even the U.S. Post Office.[55] Though Lane represented himself as disinterested, Jones was actually paying him $6,000 per month to generate such theories.[56] For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... John F. Kennedy The assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 PM Central Standard Time (18:30 UTC). ... Look up conspiracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mark Lane can be: Mark Lane (author) the JFK assassination researcher who wrote Rush to Judgment Mark Lane tube station in the London Underground This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Donald Freed is an american playwright, novelist and screenwriter, born in Chicago. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ...


On October 2, 1978, Feodor Timofeyev from the Soviet Union embassy in Guyana visited Jonestown for two days and gave a speech.[57] Jones stated before the speech that "For many years, we have let our sympathies be quite publicly known, that the United States government was not our mother, but that the Soviet Union was our spiritual motherland," which was followed by extended cheers and applause from the Jonestown crowd.[57] Timofeyev opened the speech stating that the USSR would like to send "our deepest and the most sincere greetings to the people of this first socialist and communist community of the United States of America, in Guyana and in the world," followed by cheers and applause from the crowd.[57] Timofeyev also stated "I’d like to wish you, dear comrades, all the successes to your great, to your very big work you’re doing here."[57] is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


By October of 1978, Temple members met almost weekly with Timofeyev discussing a potential exodus to the Soviet Union.[46]


On November 1, 1978, Congressman Leo Ryan announced that he would visit Jonestown. [58] Ryan was friends with the father of Bob Houston, whose mutilated body was found near train tracks on October 5, 1976, three days after a taped telephone conversation with Houston's ex-wife in which leaving the Temple was discussed.[59] Over the following months, Ryan's interest was further aroused by the complaints of the Concerned Relatives and the allegations following the defection of Deborah Layton.[60] is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ... Leo Joseph Ryan, Jr. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A survivor/defector of Jonestown who, in a sworn affidavit wrote that during one of the white nights [mass suicide rehearsals], people were told that they would die, and were forced to drink unsweetened Flavor Aid that they thought contained poison. ...


Jones' health significantly declined in Jonestown, and a doctor that examined Jones in 1978 told him that he might have a lung infection.[61] Jones was said to be abusing injectiable Valium, Quaaludes, uppers and barbiturates.[62] His once sharp voice later sounded slurred, words collided with each other and Jones wouldn't finish sentences even when reading.[63]


Ryan Delegation's initial investigation in Georgetown

On Tuesday November 14, 1978, Congressman Leo Ryan, a Democrat representing a district in Northern California, flew to Georgetown, Guyana (250 miles from Jonestown) along with a team of 18 people consisting of government officials, media representatives and some members of the "Concerned Relatives." The group included Ryan, his legal advisor Jackie Speier (now a Congresswoman), Neville Annibourne, representing Guyana's Ministry of Information, Richard Dwyer, Deputy Chief of Mission of the US Embassy to Guyana at Jonestown (who some believe to have been a CIA officer,[64]) reporters Tim Reiterman (San Francisco Examiner) and Don Harris (NBC), Greg Robinson (San Francisco Examiner), Steve Sung (NBC), Bob Flick (NBC), Charles Krause (Washington Post), Ron Javers (San Francisco Chronicle), Bob Brown (NBC), and Concerned Relatives representatives Anthony Katsaris, Jim Cobb, Sherwin Harris, and Carolyn Houston Boyd. is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Leo Joseph Ryan, Jr. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Jackie Speier is a Democratic member of the California State Senate representing San Francisco and San Mateo Counties. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... CIA redirects here. ...


Ryan and the others intended to investigate allegations that included daily human rights violations, charges of false imprisonment and the forced confiscation of money and passports, mass suicide rehearsals, and the murder of seven attempted defectors.[65] Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


From the time Ryan and the others arrived in Georgetown, the capital city of Guyana, early in the morning of November 15, the Peoples Temple's lawyers, Mark Lane and Charles Garry, refused to allow Ryan's party access to Jonestown. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mark Lane is the author of the book Rush to Judgment. ... Charles R. Garry was a prominent civil rights attorney who represented several high-profile political cases during the 1960s and 1970s. ...


During his stay, Ryan visited the Temple's Georgetown headquarters in the suburb of Lamaha Gardens. At a rear patio, Ryan spoke with Temple members Laura Johnston Kohl and others, who showed him around the house's first floor. Ryan asked to speak to Jones by radio, but Sharon Amos, the highest-ranking Temple member present, told Ryan that he could not because his present visit was unscheduled.


Ryan’s Jonestown visit

By late morning on Friday, November 17, Ryan informed Lane and Garry that he would leave for Jonestown at 2:30 p.m., regardless of Jones' schedule or willingness. Ryan's party did so at roughly that time, accompanied by Lane and Garry, and came to Port Kaituma airstrip, 6 miles (10 km) from Jonestown, some hours later. Only Ryan and three others were initially accepted into Jonestown, but the rest of Ryan's group was allowed in after sunset. It was later reported (and verified by audiotapes recovered by investigators) that Jones had run rehearsals in how to receive Ryan's delegation in order to convince them that everyone was happy and in good spirits. 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ...


That night, the Ryan delegation attended a reception in the Pavilion. Temple members, carefully selected by Jones, greeted the delegation. Two Peoples Temple members (Vernon Gosney and Monica Bagby) made the first move for defection that night. Gosney passed a note to Don Harris (mistaking him for Ryan), reading "Dear Congressman, Vernon Gosney and Monica Bagby. Please help us get out of Jonestown."[66]


That night, the Ryan delegation (Ryan, Speier, Dwyer, and Annibourne) stayed in Jonestown. The entire press corps and members of Concerned Relatives were told that they had to find other accommodations, and so they went to Port Kaituma and stayed at a small café.


In the early morning of November 18, more than a dozen Temple members sensed danger enough to walk out of the colony toward train tracks and to take a train to Matthew's Ridge, in the opposite direction of the airstrip at Port Kaituma. These defectors included the members of the Evans family and Wilson family (the family of Jonestown's head of security, Joe Wilson).[67]. Later, when the reporters and Concerned Relatives had arrived, Marceline Jones, wife of Jim Jones, gave a tour of the settlement for the visiting reporters. is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Jim Jones woke late on the morning of November 18. Then two families stepped forward and asked to be escorted out of Jonestown by the Ryan delegation. They were the Parks and the Bogue families, along with Christopher O'Neal and Harold Cordell, who were partners of women in the two families.[68] When Jones' adopted son Johnny attempted to talk Jerry Parks out of leaving, Parks told him "No way, it's nothing but a communist prison camp."[69] Cordell lost 20 family members that evening during the poisonings. [70] The Bogues lost their daughter Marilee (age 18), and Gosney lost his son Mark (age 5).[71] is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Jones gave them permission to leave, with some money and their passports. Jones also told them they would be welcome to come back at any time. That afternoon, there was a very long negotiation under a pavilion. Jones also learned, but kept quiet, that the Evans and Wilson families had defected on foot. Then Don Harris of NBC handed Jones Vernon Gosney's note. Jones was angry and said that those who wanted to leave the community would "lie" and destroy Jonestown.


While negotiations proceeded under the pavilion, some new emotional scenes developed between family members. Al Simon, an American Indian member of the Peoples Temple, walked toward Ryan with two of his small children in his arms and asked to go back with them to the U.S., but his wife Bonnie was summoned on the loudspeakers by Jones' staff, and she loudly denounced her husband.[72] He pleaded with her to return to the US and consult with their family, but she bitterly rejected his suggestion. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...


The Port Kaituma airstrip shootings

Port Kaituma airstrip shootings
Port Kaituma airstrip shootings
The tractor and trailer driven by the Twin Otter shooters, as recorded by Bob Brown of NBC News. One shooter is visible in front of the vehicle, having just fired a shot.
Location Port Kaituma, Guyana
Date November 18, 1978
5:20 p.m. – 5:25 p.m. (UTC-4)
Attack type Mass murder
Weapon(s) Firearms
Deaths 5[73]
Injured 11[73]
Perpetrator(s) Larry Layton (Cessna attack)
Suspected perpetrator(s) Joe Wilson (Twin Otter attack)
Thomas Kice Sr. (Twin Otter attack)
Albert Touchette (Twin Otter attack)
Approximately 5-6 additional Peoples Temple members (Twin Otter attack)

More people were leaving Jonestown than had been expected, and this would require a second aircraft. Congressman Ryan's plan as of approximately 3:00 PM on Saturday was to send a small group to the airstrip, to allow them to depart, and to stay behind with the rest of the entourage until another flight could be chartered.[74] Port Kaituma Waterfront Port Kaituma is a small town within Region One (Barima-Waini) of Guyana. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... ... Mass murder (massacre) is the act of murdering a large number of people, typically at the same time, or over a relatively short period of time. ... Firearms redirects here. ...


Shortly after the first group left by truck transport, Temple member Don Sly (nicknamed "Ujara"), acting directly under Jones' orders, attacked Ryan with a knife.[74] While Congressman Ryan was unhurt, Deputy Chief of Mission Dwyer strongly suggested that Ryan leave Jonestown while Dwyer filed a criminal complaint against Sly. Ryan did so, promising to return later to address the dispute.[75]


Shortly before the delegation departed for the airstrip, Jones loyalist Larry Layton demanded to join the group. Several Jonestown defectors voiced their suspicions about Layton's motives, suspicions which Ryan and Speier disregarded. Ryan's party and 16 ex-Temple members left Jonestown and reached the Port Kaituma airstrip between 4:30 and 4:45 p.m.


The entourage planned to use two planes (the six-passenger Cessna and a slightly larger Twin Otter) to fly to Georgetown. The planes were not ready for departure when the group arrived; the group had to wait at the airstrip until approximately 5:10 p.m.[75] The DHC-6 Twin Otter is the most successful aircraft program in Canadas history. ...


Larry Layton was a passenger on the Cessna, which was the first aircraft to set up for takeoff. At approximately 5:20 p.m, just as the Cessna had taxied to the far end of the airstrip, Layton produced a gun he had hidden under his poncho and started shooting at the passengers. He wounded Monica Bagby and Vernon Gosney, and he tried to kill Dale Parks, who disarmed Layton.


Meanwhile, the larger Twin Otter was partially boarded with passengers. At about the same time the Cessna shooting was underway, a tractor with trailer attached appeared at the airstrip, driven by members of the Temple's Red Brigade security squad. This tractor got within about 30 feet of the plane, and the Red Brigade opened fire on the aircraft while circling the plane on foot.[75] A few seconds of the shooting were captured on camera by NBC cameraman Bob Brown. Congressman Ryan, news team members Brown, Robinson, and Harris, and 44-year-old Jonestown defector Patricia Parks were killed in the few minutes of shooting. Jackie Speier, Steve Sung, and Anthony Katsaris were among the 9 injured in and around the Twin Otter. After the shootings, the Cessna was able to take off and fly to Georgetown, leaving behind the gunfire-damaged Otter (whose pilot and copilot later flew out in the Cessna). This article is about the television network. ...


The murder of Congresman Ryan was the first and only murder of a Congressman in the line of duty in the history of the United States. [76] A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ...


Deaths in Jonestown

Before leaving Jonestown for the airstrip, Congressman Ryan had actually told Temple attorney Charles Garry that he would issue a report that would describe Jonestown "in basically good terms", that none of the sixty relatives Ryan had targeted for interviews wanted to leave, that the 14 other people that did leave were a very small portion of Jonestown's residents, that even if 200 of the 900+ wanted to leave "I'd still say you have a beautiful place here" and that any sense of imprisonment the 14 leaving had was likely because of peer pressure and a lack of physical transportation. [77] Similarly, Washington Post reporter Charles Krause stated that, on the way back to the airstrip, he was unconvinced that Jonestown was as bad as defectors had claimed because there were no signs of malnutrition or physical abuse, many members appeared to enjoy Jonestown and only a small number of the over 900 residents elected to leave.[78] Charles R. Garry was a prominent civil rights attorney who represented several high-profile political cases during the 1960s and 1970s. ...


Despite Garry's report, Jones told him "I have failed." Garry reiterated that Ryan would be making a positive report, but Jones maintained that "all is lost."[79]

Aftermath of the suicides. The vat containing the poison is visible in the foreground.
Aftermath of the suicides. The vat containing the poison is visible in the foreground.

Despite the existence of a 44 minute audio recording (the "death tape"),[80] three witness accounts, a handful of autopsies and some suicide notes, not all is known about what happened in Jonestown on the evening of November 18, 1978. What is known is that Jim Jones called a meeting under the pavilion in the early evening. Before the meeting, aides prepared a metal vat with grape Flavor Aid, poisoned with Valium, chloral hydrate, and presumably (though not certainly) cyanide. Download high resolution version (471x721, 623 KB)Jonestown aftermath File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (471x721, 623 KB)Jonestown aftermath File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Flavor Aid is a soft drink beverage made by Jel Sert, introduced in 1929. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ... Chloral hydrate, also known as trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate, 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-ethanediol, and under the tradenames Aquachloral, Novo-Chlorhydrate, Somnos, Noctec, and Somnote, is a sedative and hypnotic drug as well as a chemical reagent and precursor. ... Potassium cyanide is the inorganic compound with the formula KCN. This colorless crystalline compound, similar in appearance to sugar, is highly soluble in water. ...


When the assembled gathered, Jones told the gathering "one of the people on that plane, is gonna shoot the pilot, I know that. I didn't plan it but I know it's going to happen. They're gonna shoot that pilot and down comes the plane into the jungle and we had better not have any of our children left when it's over, because they'll parachute in here on us..."[80] Parroting Jones' prior statements that hostile forces would convert captured children to Fascism, one temple member states "the ones that they take captured, they're gonna just let them grow up and be dummies."[80]


On the death tape, only one Temple member, Christine Miller, openly disagreed with the decision for Temple members to commit what they had long referred to as "revolutionary suicide."[80] Miller argued that the Temple should attempt an alternative airlift to Russia. After several exchanges in which Jones argued that a Soviet exodus would not be possible, along with reactions by other temple members hostile to Miller, Miller backed down. However, Miller's ceasing of dissent might also have been caused by Jones confirming announcement at one point that "the congressman is dead" after members of his "Red Brigade" squad returned from the airstrip after shooting Ryan.[80]


After the airstrip shooters arrived back in Jonestown, Tim Carter, a Vietnam war veteran[81], recalled the shooters having the "thousand-yard stare" of weary soldiers. The shooters numbered about nine, and their identities are not all certainly known, but most sources agree that Joe Wilson, Jones' head of security, Thomas Kice Sr., and Albert Touchette were among them. The phrase thousand-yard stare refers to an unfocused gaze of the eyes, typically by soldiers, typical of acute battle shock and/or post-traumatic stress disorder; also seen in reactions to traumatic events. ...


After Jones' confirmation that "the congressman is dead", no dissent occurs on the death tape.[80] Directly after this, referring to his Red Brigade security squad that shot Ryan, Jones stated "What the Red Brigade doin' one bit that made any sense anyway" and "Red Brigade showed them justice."[80] In response to reactions of seeing the poison take effect on others, Jones commanded "Stop this hysterics. This is not the way for people who are Socialists or Communists to die. No way for us to die. We must die with some dignity." [80]


According to escaped Temple member Odell Rhodes, first to take the poison were Ruletta Paul and her one year old infant.[82] A needleless syringe was used to squirt poison into the infant's mouth and then Paul squirted another syringe into her mouth.[83] Stanley Clayton also saw mothers with their babies first approach the table containing the poison.[84] Clayton said that Jones approached people to encourage them to drink the poison and that, after adults saw the poison begin to take effect, "they showed a reluctance to die."[85]


The poison caused death within around five minutes.[86] After consuming the poison, according to Rhodes, people were then escorted away down a wooden walkway leading outside the Pavilion.[87] It is not clear whether or not some initially thought the exercise was another "White Night" rehearsal. Rhodes reported being in close contact with dying children.[88]


While the tape contains no direct audio of screaming or crying, Jones made reference to the existence of such events: "I don't care how many screams you hear, I don't care how many anguished cries, death is a million times preferable to ten more days of this life. If you knew what was ahead of you -- if you knew what was ahead of you, you'd be glad to be stepping over tonight."[80] However, surivor Odell Rhodes stated that while the poison was squirted in some children's' mouths, there was no panic or emotional outburst and people looked like they were "in a trance."[89]


Survivors/eyewitnesses

Four people who were intended to be poisoned managed to survive.[90] Grover Davis, 79, who was hearing impaired, missed the announcement on the loudspeaker to assemble, laid down in a ditch and pretended to be dead. Hyacinth Thrash, 76, hid under her bed when nurses were going through her dormitory with cups of poison. Odell Rhodes, 36, a Jonestown teacher and craftsman volunteered to fetch a stethoscope and hid under a building. Stanley Clayton, 25, a kitchenworker and cousin of Huey Newton, tricked security guards and ran into the jungle. Huey P. Newton (February 17, 1942 - August 22, 1989) was co-founder and inspirational leader of the Black Panther Party, a militant African-American activist group. ...


Three more survivors claim they were given an assignment by Maria Katsaris, a top lieutenant of Jones, and thereby escaped death. Brothers Tim and Mike Carter, 30 years old and 20 years old respectively, and Mike Prokes, 31, were given luggage containing $550,000 US currency, $130,000 in Guyanese currency and a envelope, which they were told to deliver to Guyana’s Soviet Embassy, in Georgetown.[91] The envelope contained two passports and three instructional letters, the first of which was to Feodor Timofeyev of the Embassy of the Soviet Union in Guyana, stating: CCCP redirects here. ...

Dear Comrade Timofeyev,
The following is a letter of instructions regarding all of our assets that we want to leave to the Communist Party of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Enclosed in this letter are letters which instruct the banks to send the cashiers checks to you. I am doing this on behalf of Peoples' Temple because we, as communists, want our money to be of benefit for help to oppressed peoples all over the world, or in any way that your decision-making body sees fit.[92][93]

The letters included listed accounts with balances totaling in excess of $7.3 million to be transferred to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union [92][94][95] The Carters and Prokes soon ditched most of the money and were apprehended heading for the Temple boat (Cudjo) at Kaituma.[90] It is unknown how they were supposed to reach Georgetown, 250 miles away, since the boat had been sent away by Temple leadership earlier that day.[90] The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ...


At the start of the meeting, lawyers Charles Garry and Mark Lane were told that the people were angry at them. The lawyers were escorted to "the East House", which was used to accommodate visitors, far from the pavilion. According to the lawyers, they talked their way past armed guards and made it to the jungle, before eventually arriving in Port Kaituma.[96] While in the jungle near the settlement, they heard cheering, then gunshots. This observation concurs with the testimony of Clayton, who heard the same sounds as he was sneaking back into Jonestown to retrieve his passport.


Medical examinations

The only medical doctor to initially examine the scene at Jonestown while the bodies were still present was Guyanese Chief Medical Examiner Dr. Leslie Mootoo. Mootoo visually examined over 200 bodies and later told a Guyanese coroner's jury that he saw needle marks on at least 70.[97] However, no determination was made whether those injections intiated the introduction of poison or whether they were so-called "relief" injections to quicken death and reduce suffering from convulsions from those who had previously taken poison orally. Mootoo and American pathologist Dr. Lynn Crook determined that cyanide was present in some of the bodies, while analysis of the contents of the vat revealed tranquilizers and two poisons: potassium cyanide and potassium chloride.[97] A coroner is the presiding officer of a special court to investigate deaths that occur under unusual circumstances where conventional criminal proceedings are not immediately called for. ...


Plastic cups, Flavor-Aid packets and syringes, some with needles and some without, littered the area where the bodies were found.[98]


Mootoo also concluded that the gunshot wound to Annie Moore could not have been self-inflicted, though Moore had also ingested a lethal dose of cyanide.[99]


Guyanese authorities waived their requirement for autopsies in the case of unnatural death.[97] Doctors in the United States performed autopsies on only seven bodies, including those of Jim Jones, Dr. Lawrence Schact, Annie Moore and Carolyn Layton.[97] Annie Moore and Carolyn Layton were selected among those autopsied, in part, because of the urging of the Moore family, including the two victims' sister, Rebecca Moore, who was not a Temple member herself.[97]


Notes from non-surviving Jonestown residents

Found near Marceline Jones' body was a typewritten note, dated November 18, 1978, signed by Marceline Jones and witnessed by Annie Moore and Maria Katsaris, stating: is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...

I, Marceline Jones, leave all bank accounts in my name to the Communist Party of the USSR. The bank accounts are located in the Bank of Nova Scotia, Nassau, Bahamas. Please be sure that these assets do get to the USSR. I especially request that none of these are allowed to get into the hands of my adopted daughter, Suzanne Jones Cartmell. For anyone who finds this letter, please honor this request as it is most important to myself and my husband James W. Jones.[100]

Annie Moore left a note, which in part stated: "I am at a point right now so embittered against the world that I don't know why I am writing this. Someone who finds it will believe I am crazy or believe in the barbed wire that does NOT exist in Jonestown."[101] The last line ("We died because you would not let us live in peace.") is written in different color ink. No other specific reference is made to the events of the day. Moore also wrote, "JONESTOWN — the most peaceful, loving community that ever existed."[101] In addition, she stated,"JIM JONES — the one who made this paradise possible — much to the contrary of the lies stated about Jim Jones being a power-hungry sadistic, mean person who thought he was God — of all things."[101] And "His hatred of racism, sexism, elitism, and mainly classism, is what prompted him to make a new world for the people — a paradise in the jungle. The children loved it. So did everyone else."[101]


Another note was found, 25 years later, buried among reams of unrelated paperwork. The document, titled "Last Words", unsigned, was attributed most likely to Richard Tropp.[102] The note also contained references to the events of the last day:

We did not want it this way. All was going well as Ryan completed [his] first day here. Then a man tried to attack him, unsuccessfully at some time, several set out into jungle wanting to overtake Ryan, aide, and others who left with him. They did, and several killed. When we heard this, we had no choice. We would be taken. We have to go as one, we want to live as Peoples Temple, or end it. We have chosen. It is finished.[102]

A note likely written by Tish Leroy stated:

Dad I see no way out - I agree with your decision - I fear only that without you the world may not make it to communism - Tish For my part - I am more than tired of this wretched, merciless planet & the hell it holds for the masses of so many beautiful people - thank you for the only life I've known.[103]

Found near Maria Katsaris' body was a handwritten note signed by Katsaris, dated November 18, 1978, witnessed by Jim McElvane and Marilee Bogue, stating, "I Maria Katsaris leave all of the money in the Banco Union de Venezuela in Caracas to the Communist Party Soviet Union."[104] is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


Found near Carolyn Layton's body was a handwritten note signed by Carolyn Layton, witnessed by Maria Katsaris and Annie Moore, dated November 18, 1978, stating, "This is my last will and testament. I hereby leave all assets in any bank account to which I am a signatory to the Communist Party of the U.S.S.R."[105] is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


Purported inconsistencies

  • Hyacinth Thrash, one of four on-the-scene survivors, said in her autobiography that she was given a meal on Sunday morning, perhaps before the Guyanese army arrived sometime late Sunday morning. [75]
  • At 4:44 a.m. local time (just about 8 hours after the deaths) the CIA's National Operations and Intelligence Watch Officers Network broadcast news of "mass suicides" at Jonestown, according to an official report from January 1979.[106] While this originally caused some confusion given that it was purportedly before Guyanese soldiers first arrived in Jonestown, one researcher originally puzzled by the timing has since learned that James Adkins, the CIA Station Chief for Guyana, had learned of the suicides prior to the broadcast through a police report based on an interview of escapee Odell Rhodes, who had witnessed the deaths.[107]
  • It is unknown whether Jones shot himself or was shot by someone else. It is a contact wound in a location and angle consistent with being self-inflicted.[108] However, Jones' son Stephan believes Jim Jones may have directed someone else to shoot him.[109]

Deaths in Georgetown

Also in the early evening of November 18, at the Temple's headquarters in Georgetown, Temple member Sharon Amos received a radio communication from Jonestown instructing the members at the headquarters to take revenge on the Temple's enemies and then commit revolutionary suicide.[110] Later, after police arrived at the Temple headquarters, Sharon Amos panicked and escorted her children, Liane (21), Christa (11) and Martin (10), into a bathroom.[111] Wielding a kitchen knife, Sharon first killed Christa and then Martin. [112] Then Liane assisted Sharon to kill herself with the knife, followed by Liane killing herself with the knife.[113] is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Aftermath

At the airstrip, Journalist Tim Reiterman, photographed the aftermath of the violence. Dwyer assumed leadership at the scene, and at his recommendation, Layton was arrested by Guyanese state police. Dwyer was grazed by one bullet, in his buttock, at the airstrip. It took several hours before the 10 wounded and others in their party gathered themselves together and spent the night in a café, with the more seriously wounded in a small tent on the airfield. A Guyanese government plane came to evacuate the wounded the following morning. Five teenage members of the Parks and Bogue families, with one boyfriend, were told by defector Gerald Parks after the shooting to hide in the adjacent jungle until help arrived and their safety was assured. They went into the jungle but got lost for three days and nearly died, until they were found by Guyanese soldiers.


After escaping Jonestown, Rhodes arrived in Port Kaituma on the night of November 18, 1978.[114] Clayton stayed with a local Guyanese family on the night of November 18 and arrived in Port Kaituma in the morning of November 19, 1978.[115]


The Carter brothers and Michael Prokes were put into protective custody in Port Kaituma but were released in Georgetown. Rhodes, Clayton, and the two lawyers were also brought to Georgetown. Solitary confinement, colloquially referred to as the hole (or in British English the block), is a punishment in which a prisoner is denied contact with any other persons, excluding members of prison staff. ...


Michael Prokes committed suicide in March 1979, four months after the Jonestown incident. In the days leading up to his death, Prokes sent notes to several people, together with a thirty-page statement he had written about Peoples Temple. One note went to Herb Caen, who reprinted it in his column in the San Francisco Chronicle.[116] Prokes then arranged for a press conference, held in a motel room in Modesto, California, at which he read a statement to the eight reporters who attended. He then excused himself, went to the bathroom and fatally shot himself in the head.[116] Herbert Eugene Caen (April 3, 1916 – February 1, 1997) was a Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist working in San Francisco. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... Modesto is the county seat of Stanislaus County in the U.S. state of California. ...


Larry Layton, who had fired a gun at several people aboard the Cessna, was originally found not guilty of attempted murder in a Guyanese court, employing the defense that he was "brainwashed."[117] Layton could not be tried in the United States for the attempted murders of Vern Gosney, Monica Bagby, the Cessna pilot and Dale Parks on Guyanese soil and was, instead, tried under a federal statute against assassinating members of Congress and internationally protected people (Ryan and Dwyer).[118] He was convicted for conspiracy and aiding and abetting the murder of Congressman Leo Ryan and Richard Dwyer.[119]. He is the only person ever to have been held criminally responsible for the events at Jonestown. He was paroled in 2002. [120] It has been suggested that Medical parole be merged into this article or section. ...


The first headlines claimed that 407 Temple members had been killed and that the remainder had fled into the jungle. This death count was revised several times over the next week until the final total of 909 was reached.


According to various press reports,[121][122] surviving Temple members in the U.S. announced their fears of being targeted by a "hit squad" of Jonestown survivors. Similarly, in 1979, the Associated Press reported the claim of a U.S. Congressional aide that there were "...120 white, brainwashed assassins out from Jonestown awaiting the trigger word to pick up their hit."[123] The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...


President Bill Clinton signed a bill into law in the 1990s, mandating the expiration of secrecy in documents after 25 years. The majority of Jonestown documents remain classified, despite Freedom of Information requests from numerous people over the past three decades.[124][125][126] William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Freedom of information can mean: whether a particular piece of information can be freely created, read, modified, copied and distributed; see free content (as well as free culture and free software) freedom to express ones opinions or ideas, generally, within a society; see freedom of speech the accessibility of...


Allegations of CIA involvement

The sheer scale of the event, as well as Jones' socialist leanings, led some to suggest CIA involvement. In 1980 the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence investigated the Jonestown mass suicide and announced that there was no evidence of CIA involvement at Jonestown. Most government documents relating to Jonestown remain classified.[127][128] Houses in Jonestown Jonestown was the communal settlement made in northwestern Guyana by the Peoples Temple, a cult from California. ... Houses in Jonestown Jonestown was the communal settlement made in northwestern Guyana by the Peoples Temple, a cult from California. ...


Legacy

After the deaths at the Peoples Temple compound, Jonestown was at first tended by the Guyanese government, which allowed its re-occupation by Hmong refugees from Laos, for a few years in the early 1980s, but it has since been altogether deserted.[129] The buildings and grounds were looted but not taken over by local Guyanese people because of their association with the mass killing. The buildings were mostly destroyed by a fire in the mid-1980s, after which the ruins were left to decay and be reclaimed by the jungle. There is now little left, including an old oil tank turned on its side and very little indication at all of the former settlement, other than aging fruit trees that were part of the Jonestown orchard.[130] A visit by Guyanese TV program "Let's Talk" in 2003, with a former pilot who had visited Jonestown in 1978, found a metal cut half-drum near the former entrance to the Pavilion that the pilot thought could have been the drum used to hold the poison and Flavor-Aid liquid used on November 18, 1978. They also found an abandoned truck that was presumably owned by Peoples Temple. The former pilot then led the host of the show where the pavilion once was and they found daisies growing where the bodies had once lain. While they were out in the jungle earlier in the show they had found a desk drawer while searching around. [131] The spot where the pavilion supposedly was located has been cleared in preparation for a marble monument, which, according to a local guide, is the project of an American affiliated with the People's Temple.[citation needed] Language(s) Hmong/Mong Religion(s) Shamanism, Buddhism, Christianity, others The terms Hmong (pronounced ) and Mong () both refer to an Asian ethnic group in the mountainous regions of southern China. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


See also

  • Jonestown: The Life and Death of Peoples Temple, a 2006 documentary film
  • Jonestown: Paradise Lost, a 2007 History Channel Documentary

Notes

  1. ^ a b CNN - Jonestown massacre + 20: Questions linger. CNN.com. Accessed on 9 April 2007.
  2. ^ a b The Religious Movements Homepage Project: Peoples Temple
  3. ^ Race and the People's Temple. PBS. Retrieved on 2007-05-21.
  4. ^ Jones, Jim. "Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 1023." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  5. ^ a b Jones, Jim. "Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 1053." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  6. ^ Layton, Deborah. Seductive Poison. Anchor, 1999. ISBN 0-3854-8984-6. p. 53.
  7. ^ Jones, Jim. "Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 757." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  8. ^ Catherine Wessinger (2000) "How the Millennium Comes Violently: From Jonestown to Heaven's Gate" ISBN 978-1889119243
  9. ^ Catherine Wessinger (2000) "How the Millennium Comes Violently: From Jonestown to Heaven's Gate" ISBN 978-1889119243
  10. ^ Catherine Wessinger (2000) "How the Millennium Comes Violently: From Jonestown to Heaven's Gate" ISBN 978-1889119243
  11. ^ Moore, Rebecca (2000). American as Cherry Pie. Millennialism, Persecution, and Violence: Historical Cases. Syracuse University Press. Retrieved on 2007-05-21.
  12. ^ Reiterman, Tim, Tom Reiterman, and John Jacobs. Raven: The Untold Story of Reverend Jim Jones and His People. Dutton, 1982. ISBN 0-525-24136-1. p. 302-304.
  13. ^ Layton, Deborah. Seductive Poison. Anchor, 1999. ISBN 0-3854-8984-6. p. 64-5.
  14. ^ a b Reiterman, Tim, Tom Reiterman, and John Jacobs. Raven: The Untold Story of Reverend Jim Jones and His People. Dutton, 1982. ISBN 0-525-24136-1. p. 302-304.
  15. ^ Jones, Jim. "Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 799." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  16. ^ KilDuff, Marshall, and Phil Tracy. "Inside Peoples Temple." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University. 1 August 1977.
  17. ^ Layton, Deborah. Seductive Poison. Anchor, 1999. ISBN 0-3854-8984-6. p. 105.
  18. ^ Kinsolving, Kathleen and Tom. "Madman in Our Midst: Jim Jones and the California Cover Up." RickRoss.com. 1998.
  19. ^ Nancy Dooley & Tim Reiterman, "Jim Jones: Power Broker", San Francisco Examiner, August 7, 1977
  20. ^ Layton, Deborah. Seductive Poison. Anchor, 1999. ISBN 0-3854-8984-6. p. 105.
  21. ^ Jonestown: The Life and Death of Peoples Temple. PBS.org.
  22. ^ a b Timeline: The Life and Death of Jim Jones. PBS.org. Accessed 9 April 2007.
  23. ^ a b c Carter, Tim. Interview on Oregon Public Broadcasting Radio (Clip#3), 9 April 2007.
  24. ^ a b Jones, Jim. "Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 50." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  25. ^ Jones, Jim. "Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 833." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  26. ^ Reiterman, Tim, Tom Reiterman, and John Jacobs. Raven: The Untold Story of Reverend Jim Jones and His People. Dutton, 1982. ISBN 0-525-24136-1. p. 451.
  27. ^ a b Layton, Deborah. (1998) Seductive Poison. Anchor, 1999. ISBN 0-3854-8984-6. p. 113.
  28. ^ Kilduff, Marshall and Phil Tracy. "Inside Peoples Temple." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University. August 1, 1977.
  29. ^ Tim Reiterman (1982) "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverand Jim Jones and His People" ISBN 0-525-24136-1 page 322
  30. ^ Layton, Deborah (1998). Seductive Poison. New York: Doubleday, 53. ISBN 0-385-48983-8. 
  31. ^ Jones, Jim. FBI tape Q 320.
  32. ^ Martin, Bradley K. Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2004. ISBN 0-312-32221-6. p. 159.
  33. ^ "FBI Summaries of Peoples Temple Tapes Q 155, Q 160, Q 190, Q 198, Q 200 and Q 203." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  34. ^ "Jonestown: The Life and Death of Peoples Temple" (Documentary also airing on PBS including numerous interviews).
  35. ^ Jim Jones, Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 216; Q 322; Q 161
  36. ^ a b c Layton, Deborah (1998). Seductive Poison. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-48983-8. 
  37. ^ King, Peter. "How Jones used drugs." San Francisco Examiner. 28 December 1978. Archived.
  38. ^ Reiterman, Tim, Tom Reiterman, and John Jacobs. Raven: The Untold Story of Reverend Jim Jones and His People. Dutton, 1982. ISBN 0-525-24136-1. p. 502.
  39. ^ Layton, Deborah. (1998) Seductive Poison. Anchor, 1999. ISBN 0-3854-8984-6. p. 176
  40. ^ An Analysis of Jonestown. Guyana.org. Accessed 9 April 2007.
  41. ^ New York Times Nov 29, 1978
  42. ^ Richard Pear, Washington Star News, "State Explains Response to Cult Letters", November 26, 1978
  43. ^ Catherine Wessinger (2000) "How the Millennium Comes Violently: From Jonestown to Heaven's Gate" ISBN 978-1889119243; Richard Pear, Washington Star News, "State Explains Response to Cult Letters", November 26, 1978
  44. ^ New York Times Nov 29, 1978
  45. ^ See, e.g., Jim Jones, Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 234, Q 322, Q 051
  46. ^ a b c Moore, Rebecca. A Sympathetic History of Jonestown. Lewiston: E. Mellen Press. ISBN 0-8894-6860-5. p. 165.
  47. ^ Layton, Deborah (1998). Seductive Poison. New York: Doubleday, 178. ISBN 0-385-48983-8. 
  48. ^ Jones, Jim. "Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 642." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  49. ^ a b c Milk, Harvey Letter Addressed to President Jimmy Carter, Dated February 19, 1978
  50. ^ "Accusation of Human Rights Violations by Rev. James Warren Jones. April 11, 1978." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  51. ^ "Affidavit of Deborah Layton Blakey." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  52. ^ Tim Reiterman (1982) "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverand Jim Jones and His People" ISBN 0-525-24136-1 page 440
  53. ^ Tim Reiterman (1982) "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverand Jim Jones and His People" ISBN 0-525-24136-1 page 440
  54. ^ Tim Reiterman (1982) "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverand Jim Jones and His People" ISBN 0-525-24136-1 page 440
  55. ^ Tim Reiterman (1982) "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverand Jim Jones and His People" ISBN 0-525-24136-1 page 440
  56. ^ Tim Reiterman (1982) "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverand Jim Jones and His People" ISBN 0-525-24136-1 page 441
  57. ^ a b c d Jones, Jim. "Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 352." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  58. ^ Rebecca Moore, American as Cherry Pie, 2000, Jonestown Institute, San Diego State University
  59. ^ Tim Reiterman (1982) "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverand Jim Jones and His People" ISBN 0-525-24136-1 pages 299-300 & 457
  60. ^ Tim Reiterman (1982) "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverand Jim Jones and His People" ISBN 0-525-24136-1 pages 299-300 & 458
  61. ^ Dr. by Carlton B. Goodlett, Notes on Peoples Temple, Jonestown Institute, San Diego State University, excerpted from The Need For A Second Look At Jonestown, ed. Rebecca Moore and Fielding M. McGehee, III (Lewiston NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1989)
  62. ^ Tim Reiterman (1982) "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverand Jim Jones and His People" ISBN 0-525-24136-1 page 446
  63. ^ Tim Reiterman (1982) "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverand Jim Jones and His People" ISBN 0-525-24136-1 page 446
  64. ^ Kahalas, Laurie. "Was There A C.I.A. Conspiracy?" Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University. Accessed 2007-04-24.
  65. ^ Hunter, Kathy. "Seven Mysterious Deaths." Ukiah Press-Democrat. 1978.
  66. ^ Jonestown: Paradise Lost. The History Channel.
  67. ^ Don Knapp, Jonestown massacre memories linger amid rumors of CIA link, CNN, November 19, 1998; Obituary announcement of Julius Evans (references his esacpe with family), Jonestown Institute, San Diego State University
  68. ^ Stephenson, Denice. Dear People: Remembering Jonestown. Heyday Books, 2005. ISBN 1597140023.
  69. ^ John R. Hall (1989), "Gone from the Promised Land: Jonestown in American Cultural History" ISBN 978-0887388019 page 273
  70. ^ The Congregation of Peoples Temple. PBS.org.
  71. ^ Who Died at Jonestown? RickRoss.com.
  72. ^ Jonestown. shillax.com.
  73. ^ a b The Events of November 18, 1978, PBS: American Experience, Jonestown, 2-20-2007, <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/jonestown/peopleevents/e_nov.html>. Retrieved on 7 December 2007 
  74. ^ a b Milhorn, H. Thomas (2004). Crime: Computer Viruses to Twin Towers. Universal-Publishers.com, 392. ISBN 1581124899. 
  75. ^ a b c d United States House of Representatives; Foreign Affairs Committee (15 May 1979). "Congressional Foreign Affairs Committee report on Ryan's assassination". Report of a Staff Investigative Group to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, United States Congress. 
  76. ^ Jeff Brazil, Jonestown's Horror Fades but Mystery Remain, Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1999
  77. ^ John R. Hall (1989), "Gone from the Promised Land: Jonestown in American Cultural History" ISBN 978-0887388019 page 275-76
  78. ^ Deborah Layton (1998) "Seductive Poison" ISBN 0-3854-8984-6 page xix (Krause forward)
  79. ^ John R. Hall (1989), "Gone from the Promised Land: Jonestown in American Cultural History" ISBN 978-0887388019 page 273-74
  80. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Jonestown Audiotape Primary Project." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. San Diego State University.
  81. ^ Reiterman, p. 178.
  82. ^ Guyana Inquest - Interview of Odell Rhodes
  83. ^ Guyana Inquest - Interview of Odell Rhodes
  84. ^ Guyana Inquest - Interview of Stanley Clayton
  85. ^ Guyana Inquest - Interview of Stanley Clayton
  86. ^ Another Day of Death Time Magazine, December 11, 1978
  87. ^ Guyana Inquest - Interview of Odell Rhodes
  88. ^ Guyana Inquest - Interview of Odell Rhodes
  89. ^ "Some of 780 Forced To Drink Witness Says Most Waited Turn Quietly." Los Angeles Herald Examiner. November 25, 1978.
  90. ^ a b c Reiterman, pp 561-580
  91. ^ Tim Reiterman (1982) "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverand Jim Jones and His People" ISBN 0-525-24136-1 page 562-3
  92. ^ a b "November 18, 1978 Letter to Feodor Timofeyev." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  93. ^ Tim Reiterman (1982) "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverand Jim Jones and His People" ISBN 0-525-24136-1 page 562-3
  94. ^ "November 18, 1978 Letter from Annie McGowan." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  95. ^ "Another November 18, 1978 Letter from Annie McGowan." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  96. ^ Lane, Mark. Strongest Poison. Hawthorn Books, 1979. ISBN 080153206X.
  97. ^ a b c d e "Last Rites." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. 2007-03-08
  98. ^ Guyana Inquest - Interviews of Cecil Roberts & Cyril Mootoo
  99. ^ Guyana Inquest - Interview of Cyrill Mootoo
  100. ^ "November 18, 1978 Letter from Marceline Jones." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  101. ^ a b c d "Last Words - Annie Moore." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  102. ^ a b "Last Words - Richard Tropp." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  103. ^ "Tish Leroy Suicide Note." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  104. ^ "November 18, 1978 letter from Maria Katsaris." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  105. ^ "November 18, 1978 Letter from Carolyn Layton." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Jonestown Project: San Diego State University.
  106. ^ "Guyana Operations," After-Action Report, 18-27 November, 1978, prepared by the Special Study Group, Operations Directorate, USMC Directorate, Joint Chiefs of Staff (distributed 31 January, 1979). Appendix B, "Chronology of Events."
  107. ^ Hougan, Jim, Jonestown – Adkins and the NOIWON report, Jonestown Report, November 2006
  108. ^ Guyana Inquest - Interviews of Cecil Roberts & Cyril Mootoo
  109. ^ Jonestown: Paradise Lost, Interview of Stephan Jones, Documentary airing on Discovery Networks, 2007
  110. ^ Tim Reiterman (1982) "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverand Jim Jones and His People" ISBN 0-525-24136-1 page 522-3
  111. ^ Tim Reiterman (1982) "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverand Jim Jones and His People" ISBN 0-525-24136-1 page 544-5
  112. ^ Tim Reiterman (1982) "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverand Jim Jones and His People" ISBN 0-525-24136-1 page 544-5
  113. ^ Tim Reiterman (1982) "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverand Jim Jones and His People" ISBN 0-525-24136-1 page 544-5
  114. ^ Guyana Inquest - Interview of Odell Rhodes
  115. ^ Guyana Inquest - Interview of Stanley Clayton
  116. ^ a b "Statement of Michael Prokes." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. San Diego State University: Jonestown Project. Accessed 22 September 2007
  117. ^ New York Times, Katherine Bishop, 1978 CULT FIGURE GETS LIFE TERM IN CONGRESSMAN'S JUNGLE SLAYING, March 4, 1987
  118. ^ New York Times, Katherine Bishop, 1978 CULT FIGURE GETS LIFE TERM IN CONGRESSMAN'S JUNGLE SLAYING, March 4, 1987
  119. ^ New York Times, Katherine Bishop, 1978 CULT FIGURE GETS LIFE TERM IN CONGRESSMAN'S JUNGLE SLAYING, March 4, 1987
  120. ^ Loren Coleman (2004), The Copycat Effect: How the Media and Popular Culture Trigger the Mayhem in Tomorrow's Realities, ISBN 1416505547
  121. ^ Los Angeles Times, Dec 18, 1978
  122. ^ New York Times, December 14, 1978
  123. ^ Steel, Fiona. Jonestown Massacre: A 'Reason' to Die. CrimeLibrary.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  124. ^ Taylor, Michael and Don Lattin. "Most Peoples Temple Documents Still Sealed." San Francisco Chronicle. 13 November 1998. Archived.
  125. ^ Scholars Present Requet to Declassify Jonestown Documents. Center for Studies on New Religions. 1998.
  126. ^ McGehee, Fielding M. III. "Attempting to Document the Peoples Temple Story: The Existence and Disappearance of Government Records." Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. San Diego State University: Jonestown Project.
  127. ^ Richardson, James. Jonestown 25 Years Later: Why All The Secrecy?. Retrieved on 2007-03-08.
  128. ^ Taylor, Michael. "Most Peoples Temple Documents Still Sealed", San Francisco Examiner, 1998. Retrieved on 2007-03-08. 
  129. ^ "What happened to Jonestown?" Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. San Diego State University: Jonestown Project. 2007-03-08
  130. ^ Guyana TV (2003), "Lets Talk", Jonestown, 25 Years Later (clip #2), including interview with pilot Gerry Gouveia and visit to former Jonestown site
  131. ^ Guyana TV (2003), "Lets Talk", Jonestown, 25 Years Later (clip #3), including interview with pilot Gerry Gouveia and visit to former Jonestown site

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Seductive Poison: A Jonestown Survivors Story of Life and Death in the Peoples Temple is a first-hand account of the incidents surrounding Peoples Temple, written by survivor Deborah Layton. ... Seductive Poison: A Jonestown Survivors Story of Life and Death in the Peoples Temple is a first-hand account of the incidents surrounding Peoples Temple, written by survivor Deborah Layton. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Seductive Poison: A Jonestown Survivors Story of Life and Death in the Peoples Temple is a first-hand account of the incidents surrounding Peoples Temple, written by survivor Deborah Layton. ... Seductive Poison: A Jonestown Survivors Story of Life and Death in the Peoples Temple is a first-hand account of the incidents surrounding Peoples Temple, written by survivor Deborah Layton. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Further reading

  • Barden, Renardo Barden. Cults (Troubled Society series). Rourke Pub Group. ISBN 0-86593-070-8. 
  • Dolan, Sean (2000). Everything You Need to Know About Cults. New York: Rosen Pub. Group. ISBN 0-8239-3230-3. 
  • Galanter, M. (1999). Cults: Faith, Healing, and Coercion. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Kerns, Phil. (1978). People's Temple, People's Tomb. Logos Associates. ISBN 0-88270-363-3. 
  • Kilduff, Marshall and Ron Javers. (1978). The Suicide Cult: The Inside Story of the Peoples Temple Sect and the Massacre in Guyana. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-12920-1. 
  • Klineman, George and Sherman Butler. (1980). The Cult That Died. G.P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 0-399-12540-X. 
  • Krause, Charles A. with Laurence M. Stern, Richard Harwood and the staff of The Washington Post (1978). Guyana Massacre: The Eyewitness Account. [New York]: Berkley Pub. Corp. ISBN 0-425-04234-0. 
  • Moore, Rebecca. (1985). A Sympathetic History of Jonestown: the Moore Family Involvement in Peoples Temple. Lewiston: E. Mellen Press. ISBN 0-88946-860-5. 
  • Naipaul, Shiva. (1982). Journey to Nowhere: A New World Tragedy. Harmondsworth [Eng.]: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-006189-4.  (published in the UK as Black and White)
  • Reiterman, Tim, Tom Reiterman, and John Jacobs. Raven: The Untold Story of Reverend Jim Jones and His People. Dutton, 1982. ISBN 0-525-24136-1.
  • Sargeant, Jack. (2002). Death Cults: Murder, Mayhem and Mind Control (True Crime Series). Virgin Publishing. ISBN 0-7535-0644-0. 
  • Sorell, W. E. (1978). Cults and Cult Suicide. International Journal of Group Tensions. 

Jack Sargeant (12 March 1968) is the author of several books on underground film, including: Deathtripping: The Cinema of Transgression, about Cinema of Transgression filmmakers such as Richard Kern and Nick Zedd, Naked Lens: Beat Cinema, and Cinema Contra Cinema, a collection of essays on alternative film. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Jonestown (6785 words)
The deaths at the Jonestown kibbutz served as the excuse for a massive influx of U.S. military personnel into Guyana, and concealed the casualties that resulted from the military operation, which involved both U.S. and Israeli forces.
He remained behind in Jonestown when the congressman left for the airstrip, and fled into the jungle with another Temple attorney, Charles Garry, as the deaths were beginning.
Jonestown was essentially a prototype for small fascist groups which are targeting certain races and religions for elimination.
Jonestown (2122 words)
The Jonestown cult was born of that culture and in turn reflects back upon it, that is, the Peoples Temple was effected (created) by mainstream American culture of its time and in turn affected that same culture.
A complete examination into the events and meanings of the Jonestown cult would entail leafing through many pages of letters and documents, listening to taped conversations, and researching the histories of each of that cults followers.
In her book, Making Sense of the Jonestown Suicides, Judith Weightman suggests that the Temple members may have seen the new religion as a viable option to the more radical counter-culture and anti-racist movements (such as the Black Panthers) that seemed to be cropping up in greater and greater numbers at that time.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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