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Encyclopedia > Jolly Roger
Wingdings version of the Jolly Roger (character 'N'). Many pirates created their own individualized versions.
Wingdings version of the Jolly Roger (character 'N'). Many pirates created their own individualized versions.

The Jolly Roger is the name now given to any of various flags flown to identify the user as a pirate. The most famous Jolly Roger today is the Skull and Crossbones, a skull over two long bones set in an X arrangement on a black field. Historically, the flag was flown to induce pirates' victims to surrender readily. Image File history File links Jolly-roger. ... Image File history File links Jolly-roger. ... It has been suggested that the section intro from the article Civil flag be merged into this article or section. ... The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack Piracy is a robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. ... It has been suggested that temporal fenestra be merged into this article or section. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ...


Since the decline of piracy, various military units have used the Jolly Roger, usually in skull-and-crossbones design, as a unit identification insignia or a victory flag. Such use of the Jolly Roger is not intended to identify the users as piratical, but to ascribe to themselves the proverbial ferocity and toughness of pirates. ...

Contents

Origins of the term

Pirates and privateers

PiratesPrivateers
BuccaneersCorsairs
Barbary piratesWokou
The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack Piracy is a robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Edward_England. ... The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack Piracy is a robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. ... A privateer was a private ship (or its captain) authorized by a countrys government by letters of marque to attack foreign shipping. ... This article refers to the type of pirate. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Barbary pirates, also sometimes called Ottoman corsairs, were pirates and privateers that operated from north Africa (the Barbary coast). They operated out of Tunis, Tripoli, Algiers, Salé and ports in Morocco, preying on shipping in the western Mediterranean Sea from the time of the Crusades as well as on... Sixteenth century Japanese pirate raids. ...

Jolly Roger
Golden Age of Piracy
Timeline of piracy
List of pirate films
Places:

Piracy in the Caribbean
Piracy in the Strait of Malacca
Port RoyalTortugaSt-Malo
LibertatiaBarbary Coast
A painting depicting the era. ... This is a timeline of the history of piracy. ... List of pirate films is is an alphabetical list of films dealing with piracy, primarily during the Golden Age of Piracy in the Caribbean Sea in the 16th century to 18th century. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Piracy in the Strait of Malacca was common in the past, and is currently on the rise again in recent years possibly for terrorism-related reasons. ... Port-Royal was a Cistercian convent in the Vallée de Chevreuse southwest of Paris that launched a number of culturally important institutions. ... A map of Haiti with Île de la Tortue to the north. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Ille-et-Vilaine ... Libertatia (also known as Libertalia) was a legendary country, or free colony, forged by pirates, under the leadership of Captain Misson in the late 1600s. ... The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans till the 19th century to refer to the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. ...

Famous Pirates and Privateers:

Sir Francis DrakeSir Henry Morgan
Bartholomew RobertsGrace O'Malley
BlackbeardRedbeard
Anne BonnyMary Read
Robert Surcouf • René Duguay-Trouin
Stede BonnetJean Bart
François l'OllonaisWilliam Kidd
Calico Jack Rackham
List of pirates Sir Francis Drake, c. ... Sir Henry Morgan (c. ... Born John Roberts (May 17, 1682 - February 10, 1722), also known as Bart Roberts (Welsh: Barti Ddu), was a Welsh pirate who raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. ... The meeting of Grace OMalley and Queen Elizabeth I Gráinne Ní Mháille (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Baba Aruj Aruj, turkish Oruç (c. ... Anne Bonny from a Dutch version of Charles Johnsons book of pirates. ... For Mary Karen Read, see List of victims of the Virginia Tech massacre#Students killed in Room 211 Mary Read Mary Read ( 1690–1721) was a female English pirate. ... Statue of Robert Surcouf in Saint-Malo. ... Statue in St Malo René Trouin, Sieur du Gué, usually called Réné Duguay-Trouin, (Saint Malo, 10 June 1673 -- 1736) was a famous French privateer, Lieutenant-Général des armées navales du roi (admiral) and Commander in the Order of Saint-Louis. ... Stede Bonnet (1688?-December 10, 1718)[1] was a pirate captain from the English colony of Barbados. ... Jean Bart (October 21, 1651 - April 27, 1702) was a French naval commander of the 17th century. ... An illustration of François lOllonais from a 1684 edition of The History of the Bucaniers of America Jean-David Nau (c. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... John Rackham (died 17 November 1720), also known as Calico Jack Rackham or Calico Jack, was an English pirate captain during the early 18th century. ... This is a list of known pirates, buccaneers, corsairs, privateers, and others involved in piracy. ...

Naval officers:

Robert MaynardCaptain Ogle
William Rhett Blackbeards severed head hanging from Maynards bow Robert Maynard was a lieutenant in the British Royal Navy, captain of HMS Pearl, and is most famous for defeating the infamous pirate Blackbeard in battle. ... Sir Chalonor Ogle (1681-1750) was an Admiral of the Fleet in the British navy. ... Colonel William Rhett moved to South Carolina in 1698. ...

The name "Jolly Roger" goes back at least to Charles Johnson's A General History of the Pyrates, published in 1724. Johnson specifically cites two pirates as having named their flag "Jolly Roger": Bartholomew Roberts in June, 1721[1] and Francis Spriggs in July, 1723. While Spriggs and Roberts used the same name for their flags, their flag designs were quite different, suggesting that already "Jolly Roger" was a generic term for black pirate flags rather than a name for any single specific design. Neither Spriggs' nor Roberts' Jolly Roger consisted of a skull and crossbones. Author of A General History of the Robberies and Murders Of the most notorious Pyrates (1724), his true identity remains a mystery. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... Born John Roberts (May 17, 1682 - February 10, 1722), also known as Bart Roberts (Welsh: Barti Ddu), was a Welsh pirate who raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... Francis Spriggs (d. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ...


Richard Hawkins, captured by pirates in 1724, reported that the pirates had a black flag bearing the figure of a skeleton stabbing a heart with a spear, which they named "Jolly Roger". [2] Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ...


About twenty years earlier, pirates were already flying the Roger, but it was not yet Jolly. John Quelch gave the name "Old Roger" to his pirate flag in 1703, which showed a figure piercing a heart with a spear.[3] John Quelch had a lucrative but very brief career of about one year. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ...


This would support the theory that the name "Jolly Roger" derives from the English word "roger", whence "rogue", meaning a wandering vagabond. "Old Roger" was a term for the devil.[4] Satan frozen at the center of Cocytus, the ninth circle of Hell in Dantes Inferno. ...


There are many other theories purporting to explain the derivation of the term "Jolly Roger". One theory is that it comes from the French term "joli rouge", ("pretty red") which the English corrupted into "Jolly Roger". While it is true that there were a series of "red flags" that were feared as much, or more, than "black flags", this seems unlikely for three reasons: firstly, the earliest known name for the black flag is "Old Roger", "Jolly" appearing later; secondly, the red flag was not adopted from the French and it is not likely that the black flag was either; thirdly, there is no evidence that the name "Joli Rouge" was ever used for either the "Bloody Red", the Red Ensign, or any other flag. The Red Ensign, as currently used by the United Kingdoms Merchant Navy The Red Ensign is a flag that originated in the early 1600s as an ensign flown by the Royal Navy. ...


Yet another theory states that "Jolly Roger" is an English corruption of "Ali Raja," the name of a Tamil pirate.[5] Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are an ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ...


Origins of the design

The piratical use of black flags, with skull and crossbones or other motifs upon them, predates the appearance of the term "Jolly Roger" by at least twenty years. The first known pirate use of the black flag with skull and crossbones is by Emanuel Wynne about 1700. Henry Every is frequently shown in secondary sources using the skull and crossbones on black in 1695 or 1696, but contemporary evidence for this is lacking. A piratical black flag is also attributed to Thomas Tew, who plundered Mughal shipping in 1693, but this design did not feature skull or crossbones, and its authenticity is dubious. The flag of Emanuel Wynne Emanuel Wynne was a French pirate captain. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Jan. ... The year 1696 had the earliest equinoxes and solstices for 400 years in the Gregorian calendar, because this year is a leap year and the Gregorian calendar would have behaved like the Julian calendar since March 1500 had it have been in use that long. ... The flag of Thomas Tew Thomas Tew aka the Rhode Island Pirate. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ...


From early Roman times on through the Middle Ages, skulls and long bones were associated with death, long before they became symbols of piracy. Skulls and long bones were displayed in catacombs, monasteries, churches, church crypts and graveyards. They are the bones that resist decay the longest, and remain long after the corpse has gone. They were then carefully laid out respecting the dead. Later, skull and long bones crossed were depicted or sculpted in said places, especially above the entrances to churches and graveyards. They served as a Memento Mori, meaning "remind yourself of your own death." It was a general warning against the sin of vanity, reminding bypassers of their mortality. Thus, it became at once a common symbol of death and decay and a warning against the vagaries of fortune, as well as a first hint of an emerging sense of egalitarianism: in death, we are all equal. Thus, when appearing on pirate flags, the allusion to death would be instantly understood by any observer. Catacombs Paris Catacombs Rome - entrance Catacombs Rome - entrance (detail) Catacombs Lima. ... Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ... This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ... Earthly Vanity and Divine Salvation by Hans Memling. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is the moral doctrine that people should be treated as equals, in some respect. ...


After 1700, the use of black flags by pirates proliferated; Johnson refers to at least a dozen pirate crews flying black flags. The piratical use of black flags was evidently far more common than the use of the skull and crossbones device upon them. Walter Kenedy is the only pirate documented by Johnson as using the skull and crossbones design without further adornment. From other sources it is known that Edward England and some 19th century Algerian corsairs used the skull and crossbones. Richard Worley may also have used the device; Johnson says that he "made a black Ensign, with a white Death’s Head in the middle of it, and other Colours suitable to it," which is consistent with, though not fully corroborative of, the skull on crossbones device traditionally attributed to Worley in secondary sources. Edward Englands flag Edward England, born Edward Seegar in Ireland, was a famous African coast and Indian Ocean pirate from 1717 to 1720. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Worley (d. ...


However, not all pirates used black flags, even during the 18th century. Red was also a frequently used color, as will be seen below, and during the buccaneering period of the 17th century, red flags were far more associated with pirates than black ones were. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This article refers to the type of pirate. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


Origins of red pirate flags

The origin of the red flag is likely that English privateers flew the red jack by order of the Admiralty in 1694. After England signed a separate peace in the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713, many British privateers turned to piracy and some retained the red flag, as red symbolized blood. No matter how much seamen dreaded the black pirate standard, all prayed they never encountered the "Bloody Red". This red flag boldly declared the pirates' intentions: that no life would be spared. In combat practice many merchants were surprised when a fast ship changed a fellow national flag for the more portentous Jolly Roger, which was the desired effect.[citation needed] A privateer was a private ship (or its captain) authorized by a countrys government by letters of marque to attack foreign shipping. ... The Red Ensign, as currently used by the United Kingdoms Merchant Navy The Red Ensign is a flag that originated in the early 1600s as an ensign flown by the Royal Navy. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... Combatants Holy Roman Empire, Great Britain,[1] Dutch Republic, Portugal, Others France, Spain, Bavaria, Others Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Earl of Galway, Count Overkirk, Marquês das Minas Duc de Villars, Duc de Vendôme, Duc de Boufflers, Duc de Villeroi, Duke... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... It has been suggested that the section intro from the article Civil flag be merged into this article or section. ...


One idea to be presented goes back to the nature of flags during the age of the sail. A red flag was often flown as a sign to show that a particular signal had been denied or refused. For example a fleet would signal its flagship that it would like to stop for a meeting, if the Admiral was disagreeable his ship flew a red flag to show the request was denied. In a case of a surrendering ship a red flag meant no quarter would be given, meaning that, even though the ship was surrendering, her crew would not be spared. Executed pirates' bodies were often hung at the entrances to harbors so their bones would serve as a warning of the fate that awaited captured pirates. It is most likely the skull and crossbones motif was taken to show that there were pirates on board, placed on the red flag to show no quarter given to all ships. This is a possible origin of the "joli rouge" of France, because the skull was often smiling and placed on a red flag. Since the white cross began to be confused with the English Red Ensign, the flag was purportedly changed to black to show the nature of a pirate ship. This hasn't been confirmed by historical documents.


Templar hypothesis

In his book Pirates & The Lost Templar Fleet, David Hatcher Childress claims that the flag was named after the first man to fly it, King Roger II of Sicily (c.1095-1154). Roger was a famed Templar and the Knights Of The Temple were in conflict with the Pope over his conquests of Apulia and Salerno in 1127.[6] Childress claims that, many years later, after the Templars were disbanded by the church, at least one Templar fleet split into four independent flotillas dedicating themselves to pirating ships of any country sympathetic to Rome. The flag was thus an inheritance, and its crossed bones a reference to the original Templar logo of a red cross with blunted ends. But this seems unlikely, as the Knights Templar used a Greek cross and not the Andrew's cross (Χ) used on pirates' flags. In any case, neither Childress nor anybody else has ever produced the slightest actual evidence that the Templars ever flew such a flag, that the Templar fleet was ever seen again after the suppression of the Order, or that there is any connection whatever between the Templars and "Golden Age" piracy. David Hatcher Childress is an author of books on topics in alternative history. ... Roger II, from Liber ad honorem Augusti of Petrus de Ebulo, 1196. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ... The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici), popularly known as the Knights Templar or the Order of the Temple, were among the most famous of the Christian military orders. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope of Rome... This article is about the Italian region. ... Salerno is a town in Campania, south-western Italy, the capital of the province of the same name. ... Conrad III establishes the Hohenstaufen dynasty when he is crowned antiking to the Holy Roman Emperor, Lothair II. First coalition of the Norman princes against Roger II of Sicily. ... The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici), popularly known as the Knights Templar or the Order of the Temple, were among the most famous of the Christian military orders. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The arms of St Albans: Azure, a saltire Or (a gold saltire on a blue field) For The Saltire (proper noun) see Flag of Scotland. ...


It has been suggested that the skull and cross bones were intended as an insult to the Vatican and as a warning to sympathisers by mocking the Cardinal's Hat and Cross Keys symbol of the Vatican. The cross keys was certainly in use by vessels of the Vatican by the 17th Century. Many voyages to and from the 'New World' were sponsored by the Pope and European monarchs with the express purpose of acquiring gold. It must be remembered that some countries of Europe were in great religious turmoil by this time and it is possible that pirates were keen to display their neutrality to countries opposed to Rome whilst mocking the Vatican itself. The problem with this argument is that every contemporary reference to the skull and crossbones makes it clear that the sight was deservedly feared by Protestants as well as by Catholics. Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope of Rome... “King” redirects here. ...


Use in practice

Pirates did not fly the Jolly Roger at all times. Like other vessels, pirate ships usually stocked a variety of different flags, and would normally fly false colors or no colors until they had their prey in firing range. When the pirates' intended victim was within range, the Jolly Roger would be raised, often simultaneously with a warning shot. In military parlance false colors means flying some other flag than the one that identifies your own side. ...


At first sight, it might seem a bad idea to forewarn your quarry by flying the Jolly Roger. However, its use may be seen as an early form of psychological warfare. A pirate's primary aim is to capture the target ship intact along with any cargo it may be carrying. With a sufficiently bloodthirsty reputation, a pirate flying the Jolly Roger could intimidate the crew of a target ship into surrender, allowing the ship to be captured without firing a shot. For example in June 1720 when Bartholomew Roberts sailed into the harbour at Trepassey, Newfoundland with black flags flying, the crews of all 22 vessels in the harbour abandoned them in panic.[7] Typically, if a ship then decided to resist, the Jolly Roger was taken down and a red flag was then flown, indicating that the pirates intend to take the ship by force and without mercy, according to several historians and the History Channel; this idea appears largely based on Richard Hawkins' report that "When they fight under Jolly Roger, they give quarter, which they do not when they fight under the red or bloody flag." It has been suggested that infowars be merged into this article or section. ... Born John Roberts (May 17, 1682 - February 10, 1722), also known as Bart Roberts (Welsh: Barti Ddu), was a Welsh pirate who raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... The History Channel is a cable television channel, dedicated to the presentation of historical events and persons, often with frequent observations and explanations by noted historians as well as reenactors and witnesses to events, if possible. ...


Flying the Jolly Roger too early as the only flag has its drawbacks. The quarry might have sufficient warning to attempt an escape. Also, warships were often under standing orders to fire at will at a ship flying this flag according to National Geographic. Nevertheless, when fighting naval or militia ships, it is frequently reported that pirates hoisted the Jolly Roger during the battle, presumably to intimidate their opponents or inspire their own men.


It is not certain what material most pirates fashioned the Jolly Roger from, although Bartholomew Roberts had one made from silk. Howell Davis, however, was at one point required to fashion his flag from a tarpaulin. Pirates often flew multiple Jolly Rogers, often of different designs, on the same ship. Roberts, for example, was seen off Africa displaying various kinds of Jolly Rogers at his jackstaff (on the bow of the ship), at the mizzenmast peak, and at the top of the mainmast, while also showing an English flag at the ensign staff on the stern. Kennedy flew Jolly Rogers simultaneously from his ensign staff, jackstaff, and mainmast. Silk dresses Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... Howell Davis Howell Davis (born c. ... A tarpaulin or tarp (also known as hootchie) is a large sheet of strong, flexible, water resistant or waterproof material, often cloth such as canvas coated with plastic or latex. ...


There were many variations and additional emblems on actual Jolly Rogers. Calico Jack Rackham and Thomas Tew used variations with swords. Edward Teach (a.k.a. Blackbeard) used a skeleton holding an hourglass in one hand and a spear or dart in the other while standing beside a bleeding heart. Bartholomew Roberts (a.k.a. Black Bart) had two variations: a man and a skeleton, who held a spear or dart in one hand, holding either an hourglass or a cup while toasting death or an armed man standing on two skulls over the letters ABH (A Barbadian's Head) and AMH (A Martiniquais' Head -- a warning to residents of Barbados and Martinique that death awaited them). Dancing skeletons signified that the pirates cared little for their fate. John Rackham (died 17 November 1720), also known as Calico Jack Rackham or Calico Jack, was an English pirate captain during the early 18th century. ... The flag of Thomas Tew Thomas Tew aka the Rhode Island Pirate. ... Blackbeard (1680? – November 22, 1718) was the nickname of Edward Teach alias Edward Thatch, a notorious English pirate who had a short reign of terror in the Caribbean Sea between 1716 and 1718. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hourglass in 3-legged wooden stand. ... Hunting spear and knife, from Mesa Verde National Park. ... Look up dart in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Born John Roberts (May 17, 1682 - February 10, 1722), also known as Bart Roberts (Welsh: Barti Ddu), was a Welsh pirate who raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. ... For other uses of Fate, see Fate Destiny refers to a predetermined course of events. ...


Examples of Jolly Rogers

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Use by submarines

The Free Polish submarine ORP Sokół returning from a World War II patrol flying her Jolly Roger to signify a successful combat mission; the swastika flag indicates the sinking of a German ship

Admiral Sir Arthur Wilson VC, the Controller of the Royal Navy, summed up the opinion of the many in the Admiralty at the time when he said in 1901 "Submarines are underhand, unfair and damned un-English. The crews of all submarines captured should be treated as pirates and hanged." In response Lieutenant Commander (later Admiral Sir) Max Horton first flew the Jolly Roger on return to port after sinking the German cruiser SMS Hela and the destroyer SMS S-116 in 1914. Polish Navy WWII submarine ORP Sokol The swastika on the flag indicates that the submarine was successful in sinking German ships on its patrol. ... Polish Navy WWII submarine ORP Sokol The swastika on the flag indicates that the submarine was successful in sinking German ships on its patrol. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... -1... Arthur Knyvet Wilson (VC, GCB, OM, GCVO) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour in the face of the enemy to members of armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... Admiral Sir Max Kennedy Horton (29 November 1883 - 30 July 1951) was a British First World War submariner and commander-in-chief of the Western Aproaches in the latter half of the Second World War, responsible for British participation in the Battle of the Atlantic. ... Light Cruiser SMS Hela SMS Hela was a light cruiser of the German Imperial Navy prior to and during World War I. The only ship of her class, SMS Hela was built as an aviso and launched on 28 March 1895 in Bremen. ...


In the course of World War I, the submarine service came of age, winning five of the Royal Navy's fourteen Victoria Crosses, the first by Lieutenant Norman Holbrook, Commanding Officer of HMS B11. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour in the face of the enemy to members of armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. ... Norman Douglas Holbrook Norman Holbrook (born 9 July 1888 Southsea, Hampshire; died Midhurst, Sussex 3 July 1976) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... A scale model of the B11 in Holbrook HMS B11 was the last boat of the Royal Navys B class of submarines. ...


In World War II it became common practice for the submarines of the Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy to fly the Jolly Roger on completion of a successful combat mission where some action had taken place, but as an indicator of bravado and stealth rather than of lawlessness. The Jolly Roger is now the emblem of the Royal Navy Submarine Service.[8] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... The Royal Navy Submarine Service - sometimes known as the Silent Service, on account of a submarine being required to operate quietly in order to remain undetected by enemy SONAR (or ASDIC as it was known in the RN pre-1948) - is the collective name given to the submarine element of...


The Jolly Roger was brought to the attention of a post World War II public when HMS Conqueror flew the Jolly Roger on her return from the Falklands War having sunk ARA General Belgrano. In May 1991 Oberon class submarines HMS Opossum and her sister HMS Otus returned to the submarine base HMS Dolphin in Gosport from patrol in the Persian Gulf flying Jolly Rogers, the only indication that they had been involved in alleged SAS and SBS reconnaissance operations[9]. In 1999 HMS Splendid participated in the Kosovo Conflict and became the first Royal Navy submarine to fire a cruise missile in anger. On her return to Faslane, on July 9, 1999, Splendid flew the Jolly Roger.[10][11] HMS Conqueror was a Churchill-class nuclear-powered submarine that served in the Royal Navy from 1971 to 1990. ... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders Presidente Leopoldo Galtieri Vice Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier General Ernesto Crespo Brigade General Mario Menéndez Prime minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral Sandy Woodward Major General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed wing... For the Argentine politician and military leader, see Manuel Belgrano. ... The Oberon-class was a thirteen-ship class of diesel-electric submarines of the Royal Navy, and were based on the successful Porpoise-class submarine. ... HMS Opossum (S19) was an Oberon class submarine in service with the Royal Navy from 1964 to 1993. ... HMS OTUS Submarine of the O class. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Gosport is a town and district in Hampshire with around 77,000 inhabitants (including Lee-on-the-Solent), situated on the south coast of England. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... The Special Boat Service (SBS) is the British Royal Navys special forces unit. ... The HMS Splendid (S106) was a nuclear powered submarine of the Swiftsure class. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile with stubby wings. ... Location of Faslane and RNAD Coulport Faslane Naval Base, HMNB Clyde Her Majestys Naval Base (HMNB) Clyde (HMS Neptune), is one of three operating bases for the Royal Navy (the others being HMNB Devonport and HMNB Portsmouth). ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ...


After Operation Veritas, the attack on Al-Qaeda and Taliban forces following the 9/11 attacks in the United States, HMS Trafalgar entered Plymouth Sound flying the Jolly Roger on March 1, 2002. She was welcomed back by Admiral Sir Alan West, Commander-in-Chief of the fleet and it emerged she was the first Royal Navy submarine to launch tomahawk cruise missiles against Afghanistan.[12] HMS Triumph was also involved in the initial strikes and on returning to port had a Jolly Roger emblazoned with two crossed Tomahawks to indicate her opening missiles salvoes in the "war against terrorism" and HMS Superb's whose flag had a dagger, for force protection, a bee for her nickname (the Super B), and two communications flashes.[13] Operation Veritas was the codename used for British military operations against the Taliban government of Afghanistan in 2001. ... The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... {{Ship table| |Ship table fate=status |Ian McGhie, an instructor, both pleaded guilty at court-martial to contributing to the accident. ... Map of the UK showing the location of Plymouth Sound at 50. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... The Queen and Admiral Sir Alan West, then First Sea Lord embarked onboard HMS Endurance during the review of the international fleet Admiral Sir Alan West, GCB, DSC, DUniv (born 1948) was the First Sea Lord, the professional head of the Royal Navy, from 2002 to 2006. ... The current HMS Triumph (S93) is a Trafalgar-class fleet submarine of the Royal Navy. ... This article is about U.S. actions after September 11, 2001. ... The HMS Superb (S109) is a nuclear powered submarine of the Swiftsure class serving in the Royal Navy. ...


More recently, on April 16, 2003, HMS Turbulent, the first Royal Navy vessel to return home from the war against Iraq, arrived in Plymouth flying the Jolly Roger after launching thirty Tomahawk cruise missiles.[14] April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... HMS Turbulent (S87) is a Trafalgar-class submarine of the Royal Navy. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile with stubby wings. ...


Use by United States Army Air Corps

Four squadrons of the 90th Bombardment Group of the Fifth Air Force under General George C. Kenney, commanded by Colonel Art Rogers were known as the Jolly Rogers. Easily distinguished by the white skull and crossed bombs, from 1943, the four squadrons all displayed the insignia on the twin tail fins of their B-24 heavy bombers (heavies) with different color backgrounds for each squadron. The 319th's tail fin background was blue, the 320th's red, the 321st, green, and the 400th, the most graphic of the four, black.[15] In 1945 with the close of World War II, the squadrons were decommissioned. Some ten years later the United States Air Force 400th missile squadron, adopted their ancestral insignia and re-instituted the white Jolly Roger logo on a black background. The Fifth Air Force (5AF), with headquarters currently located at Yokota Air Base,Japan, is one of very few numbered air forces of the United States Air Force never to have been based in the United States itself. ... George Churchill Kenney, August 6, 1889-August 9, 1977, was a United States Army Air Force general during World War II and was commander of Allied air forces in the South West Pacific Area (SWPA) from August 1942 until 1945. ... Royal Canadian Air Force B-24 Liberator The Consolidated B-24 Liberator was produced in greater numbers than any other American combat aircraft, and was used by most of the Allied air forces in World War II. Designed as a heavy bomber, it served with distinction not only in that... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Sometimes referred to as the most colorful air group with the most distinguished war record behind the Flying Tigers, the squadrons of the 90th Bombardment Group saw action across the South Pacific. Notably, they were most effective in action in the air war against Japanese positions in and around New Guinea and the surrounding islands, the Dutch East Indies, Borneo, and the Philippines. Some units also took part in the China campaign as well as battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa. For the airline, see Flying Tiger Line. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kalimantan. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 22,000 Casualties 6,825 killed in action,[1] 1,401 died of wounds,[1] 19,189 wounded,[1] 494 missing[1] Total: 27,909 20,703 dead,[1] 216 captured[1] Total: 20,919 The... Combatants United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner†, Joseph W. Stilwell, Ray Spruance Mitsuru Ushijima† Isamu Cho† Strength 548,000 regulars, 1300 ships,  ? aircraft 100,000 regulars and militia,  ? ships,  ? aircraft Casualties 12,513 dead or missing, 38,916 wounded, 33,096...


One of their most successful air operations (directed by Kenney) was the destruction of a major Japanese reinforcement fleet during the Battle of the Bismarck Sea in 1943. The loss of this huge armada, loaded with supplies and troops, ended Japanese hopes of retaining control of New Guinea. Combatants United States, Australia Empire of Japan Commanders George C. Kenney Masatomi Kimura Strength 39 heavy bombers; 41 medium bombers; 34 light bombers; 54 fighters 8 destroyers, 8 troop transports, 100 aircraft Casualties 2 bombers, 3 fighters destroyed 8 transports, 4 destroyers sunk 20 fighters destroyed, 5,000 troops killed...


Use by United States Navy aviators

In the U.S. Navy, the Jolly Roger is associated with aviation. The use of the Jolly Roger by U.S. naval aviation dates back to the formation of VF-17 in January of 1943. Flying the Chance Vought F4U "Corsair," VF-17 produced more aces than any other squadron and many top aces. VF-17 initiated the use of the Jolly Roger, and it is still in use at present. For several decades, the "Bones" used a distinctive black-and-gold paint scheme that was instantly identifiable from a great distance, and feared by their foes. During the 1990s, under official orders, the Bones experimented with a low-visibility paint scheme, trading their bold colors for subdued greys. However, they eventually returned their fighters to their classic colors. VFA-103 is the current "Bones" fighter squadron of the U.S. Navy. The Fighting Eighty-Four carried the Jolly Rogers name for 40 years before being deactivated on September 29, 1995. Two days later, the Fighting 103 (formerly the Sluggers) would become the fourth fighter squadron to carry the Skull and Crossbones. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... An F-14A Tomcat of VF-84, in the old color scheme from the beginning of its service. ... Vought is the name of several related aerospace firms. ... Chance Vought F4U Corsair The Chance Vought F4U Corsair was a fighter aircraft that saw service in World War II and the Korean War. ... The Red Baron, Manfred von Richthofen, perhaps the most famous ace of all. ... Strike Fighter Squadron 103 (the Jolly Rogers) as a Strike Fighter Squadron flying the F/A-18F Super Hornet and is based at NAS Oceana. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ...


Jolly Roger Squadron history:

An F-14A of VF-84 Jolly Rogers in its original color scheme.
An F-14A of VF-84 Jolly Rogers in its original color scheme.
  • VF-84 ("Fighting 84")
  • VFA-103 ("Fighting 103")
    • Activated: September, 1952
      • Acquired Jolly Rogers name: October 1, 1995
      • Re-designated VFA-103 from VF-103 February, 2005
    • Still active as of 2007
    • Aircraft: F-14 Tomcat, F/A-18F Super Hornet

is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Chance Vought F4U Corsair was an American fighter aircraft that saw service in World War II and the Korean War (and in isolated local conflicts). ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Grumman F6F-3 Hellcats on 1 January 1943 F6F-5 ready in catapult on USS Randolph Grumman F6F-3 Hellcat on the flight deck of USS Yorktown (CV-10) prior to take off, having its wings extended Grumman F6F-3 Hellcats in tricolor scheme on the flight deck The Grumman... The Grumman F8F Bearcat (affectionately called Bear) was the companys final piston engined fighter aircraft. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Grumman F9F Cougar (redesignated the F-9 Cougar in the 1962 joint service aircraft designation system) was a aircraft carrier-based fighter aircraft for the United States Navy. ... Download high resolution version (1191x626, 56 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1191x626, 56 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sailors prepare an F-14 Tomcat for flight on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln, in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003). ... An F-14A Tomcat of VF-84, in the old color scheme from the beginning of its service. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... North American FJ-4 Fury. ... The F-8 Crusader (originally F8U) was a single-engine aircraft carrier-based fighter aircraft built by Chance-Vought of Dallas, Texas, USA. It replaced the Vought F-7 Cutlass. ... The McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II[2] is a two-seat supersonic long-range all-weather fighter-bomber originally developed for the U.S. Navy by McDonnell Douglas. ... The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is a supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, variable geometry wing aircraft. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Four F/A-18 E/F Super Hornets assigned to the Black Aces of Strike Fighter Squadron Forty One (VFA-41) fly over the Western Pacific Ocean in a stack formation. ...

Other uses

  • Jolly Roger is an undead pirate in the game Pirates of the Caribbean Online, the enemy of Jack Sparrow.
  • World War I French flying ace Charles Nungesser always used a jolly roger insignia, along with a European style coffin and two candlesticks, depicted within a black heart shaped field, on the sides of his combat aircraft.
  • A skull with crossbones on a black background is also the flag of the Chetniks.
  • The textfile version of the Anarchist Cookbook VI v4.44 was maintained by a man who identified himself as "the Jolly Roger". The version number was kept for several subsequent additions in honor of a group of phreaks called the 414's, after their phone number area code.
  • The Jolly Roger was the name of Captain Hook's pirate ship in Peter Pan.
  • Jolly Rogers was the name of a 1970s record label, owned by country singer Kenny Rogers and distributed by MGM.
  • The Jolly Rogers is a successful Renaissance Faire performance group based out of Kansas City.[3]
  • Jolly Roger was also the pseudonym disc jockey Eddie Richards used when he released his seminal 80's acid house track "Acid Man", which samples Dennis Hopper's character from the film Easy Rider.
  • Jolly Roger is one of the characters of the cartoons, I Am Weasel and Cow and Chicken.
  • When entering the Persian Gulf, some U.S. Navy ships will display the Jolly Roger on a yardarm, much like their British counterparts (they never haul down the national ensign).
  • Llanera's Skull - a Katipunan battle flag from Philippine history
    During the Philippine Revolution against Spain in the late 1890s, a version of the skull and crossbones was incorporated as one of the battle flags of the revolutionary society Katipunan; specifically, that used by General Mariano Llanera and his troops when they fought in the provinces of Bulacan, Tarlac, Pampanga, and Nueva Ecija. It is a black flag with a white letter "K" and the Jolly Roger side-by-side. It was known as "Bungo ni Llanera" or "Llanera's Skull". [4]
  • "Under Jolly Roger" is a song (and album) by the speed/power metal band Running Wild.
  • There is a level called "Jolly Roger's Lagoon" in the Nintendo 64 game Banjo-Tooie. One of the non-player characters in the level, an anthropomorphic frog, even bears the name Jolly Roger. This character later returned as a playable character in the Game Boy Advance spin-off Banjo-Pilot.
  • Brett Helquist wrote and illustrated Roger, the Jolly Pirate in 2004.
  • Modified Jolly Rogers form part of the logos for the Oakland Raiders and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers of the National Football League.
  • There is a Jolly Roger painted over the cockpit of the VF1-S piloted by Roy Focker in the animated series Macross (aka Roy Fokker in Robotech). His squadron is called Skull Squadron, and their colors and insignia are based on the VFA-103 Jolly Rogers described above. (This is partly because the VF-1 resembles the F-14s that the Jolly Rogers are famous for.)
  • There are various movies of this name, including one publicized by Science Fiction Channel in June, 2006, & July, 2006: Search IMDb.
  • The Jolly Roger is the fans' logo for FC St Pauli, currently in the German Third Division Regionalliga Nord.
  • Not always taken seriously: here's a photo of megayacht Capri flying the Jolly Roger in Monaco.
  • "Jolly Roger" was the name of the leader of an all-lesbian cell of The Invisibles, a comic book by Grant Morrison.
  • In the video game Super Mario 64, there is a level called Jolly Roger Bay.
  • Jolly Roger is the tenth track on Adam & the Ants' Kings of the Wild Frontier album
  • The 400th Missile Squadron (Warren AFB, WY) a.k.a "Black Pirates" used a version of the 'Jolly Roger' flag, replacing the bones with bombs. The 400th MS was the only squadron to operate the Peacekeeper ICBM.
  • The monster truck Grave Digger commonly bears a Jolly Roger flag at the rear of the truck.
  • Under the Jolly Roger is the third in a series of historical fiction novels written by L.A. Meyer.
  • In the manga series One Piece by Eiichiro oda, Each Pirate Crew has his own version of the Jolly Roger, apparently based on the personal preferences and/or abilities of each crew's captain.
  • Under Jolly Roger is the fourth track on Therion's album Atlantis Lucid Dreaming.
  • Steve Capps, from the original Macintosh development team, hoisted a Jolly Roger flag designed by Susan Kare on the newly founded Macintosh Division HQ, after a meeting where Steve Jobs said that it was better to be a pirate than join the navy.
  • When The Pittsburgh Pirates win, the trademark line is "You Can Raise The Jolly Roger."
  • The Jolly Roger is referenced as a virus in the movie Independence Day (film) that David Levinson uploads onto the alien spacecraft. As a result, the computers on the spaceship fail, and a new image of a Jolly Roger, laughing, appears on their monitors.
  • The logo for the television show (and subsequent movies) Jackass is a modified Jolly Roger, with crutches instead of bones beneath the skull.
  • A version of the Jolly Roger is used by the robo-pirate enemies in the videogame Rayman 2, the difference being that instead of a skull and crossbones, a robo-pirate head/helmet and two spanners are used.
  • The Jolly Rogers is the nickname of Engine 255 & Ladder 157 of the New York Fire Department, located at 1367 Rogers Avenue in the Flatbush section of Brooklyn.
  • In the fighting game Soul Calibur 2, dread pirate Cervantes has a throw named "Hoist the Jolly Roger".

Sample screenshot from Pirates of the Caribbean Online. ... Jack Sparrow is a fictional character in the Pirates of the Caribbean universe. ... Charles Nungesser (1892-1927) was a French aviator and adventurer who is best known as a rival of Charles A. Lindbergh in the race to be first to fly non-stop between New York and Paris. ... For the WWII guerilla force, see Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland. ... The Anarchist Cookbook is an instructional book written by William Powell. ... Phreaking is a slang term for the action of making a telephone system do something that it normally should not allow—in the words of one former practitioner, making the phone company bend over and grab its ankles. Sometimes, phreaking will be considered illegal, like in the act of... Captain James Hook is the magnificent villain of J. M. Barries play and novel Peter Pan. ... Statue of Peter Pan in Bowring Park, St. ... Kenneth Donald Kenny Rogers (born August 21, 1938, in Houston, Texas) is a prolific American country music singer, photographer, producer, songwriter, actor and businessman. ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... Eddie Richards is a British DJ, sometimes known as Britains godfather of house and techno (Mixmag). ... Dennis Lee Hopper (born May 17, 1936) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor and film-maker. ... Wyatt, Mary (Toni Basil), Billy and Karen wandering the streets of a parade filled New Orleans. ... Cartoons started in the 1930s and 40s. ... I Am Weasel was an American animated television series, created by David Feiss and broadcast on the Cartoon Network. ... Cow and Chicken is an American animated television series, created by David Feiss, first broadcast on the Cartoon Network from 1997 to the year 2000. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... Image File history File links LlaneraSkull. ... Image File history File links LlaneraSkull. ... The Katipunan was a secret society founded in the Philippines by Andrés Bonifacio aimed towards liberating the country from the Spanish colonizers. ... A war flag (or military flag) is a variant of a national flag for use by the nations military forces on land. ... Combatants Filipino independence movement Spanish Empire Commanders Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Aguinaldo Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines Strength 80,000 soldiers unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Philippine Revolution (1896—1898) was an armed conflict between the Spanish colonial regime and the Katipunan, which sought Philippine independence from Spain. ... A war flag (or military flag) is a variant of a national flag for use by the nations military forces on land. ... The Katipunan was a secret society founded in the Philippines by Andrés Bonifacio aimed towards liberating the country from the Spanish colonizers. ... Provincial Capitol of Bulacan. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Tarlac Region: Central Luzon (Region III) Capital: Tarlac City Founded: 1872 Population: 2000 census—1,068,783 (23rd largest) Density—350 per km² (14th highest) Area: 3,053. ... Pampanga is a [[]] and Nueva Ecija to the north, and Bulacan to the southeast. ... Nueva Ecija is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. ... Under Jolly Roger is the third album by Running Wild and established their pirate theme, even if only one track on this album is about the topic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Power metal is a style of heavy metal music typically with the aim of evoking an epic feel, combining characteristics of traditional metal with thrash metal or speed metal, often within symphonic context. ... Running Wild is one of several German power metal bands to emerge in the mid/late 1980s (along with Iced Earth, Helloween, Rage, Blind Guardian, Grave Digger, etc). ... This section needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Banjo-Tooie is the sequel to the 1998 Nintendo 64 game Banjo-Kazooie. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Banjo-Pilot (originally Diddy Kong Pilot) is a video game for the Game Boy Advance featuring characters from the Banjo-Kazooie series of video games. ... Link titleBold text--82. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... City Oakland, California Other nicknames The Silver and Black, Da Raidahs Team colors Silver and Black Head Coach Lane Kiffin Owner Al Davis General manager Al Davis League/Conference affiliations American Football League (1960–1969) Western Division (1960–1969) National Football League (1970–present) American Football Conference (1970–present) AFC... City Tampa Bay, Florida Other nicknames The Bucs, Pewter Pirates Team colors Buccaneer Red, Pewter, Black, and Orange Head Coach Jon Gruden Owner Malcolm Glazer General manager Bruce Allen Mascot Captain Fear League/Conference affiliations National Football League (1976–present) American Football Conference (1976) AFC West (1976) National Football Conference... The National Football League (NFL) is the largest and most prestigious professional American football league, consisting of thirty-two teams from American cities and regions. ... In the fictional series Macross and its English adaptation Robotech: The Macross Saga, the first mass-produced variable fighter (Macross) or Veritech fighter (Robotech) is called the VF-1 Valkyrie. ... Roy Focker Roy Focker ) is a character from the Japanese anime science fiction series Macross (which was loosely adapted as the first story arc of Robotech) and the prequel OVA Macross Zero. ... The Super Dimension Fortress Macross (Japanese: 超時空要塞マクロス, Chou Jikuu Yousai Macross) is an anime television series. ... Robotech is a science fiction franchise that was launched by an 85-episode adaptation of three different anime television series. ... FC St. ... The Fußball-Regionalliga (regional league) is the name of the 3rd division football league in Germany. ... A lesbian is a woman who is romantically and sexually attracted only to other women. ... Cover to The Invisibles (v2) #1. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... Grant Morrison (born January 31, 1960) is a Scottish comic book writer and artist. ... Super Mario 64 ) is a top-selling video game for the Nintendo 64. ... Adam and the Ants were a new wave band during the late 1970s and early 1980s. ... Kings of the Wild Frontier is a New Wave-punk album by Adam & the Ants, released in 1980 (see 1980 in music). ... 2005 Bigfoot monster truck racing in Arizona A monster truck is an automobile, typically a pickup truck, which has been modified or purposely built with extremely large wheels and suspension. ... Grave Digger (often referred to as simply Digger) is the name of a team of monster trucks currently racing in the USHRA Monster Jam series. ... Serialized in Weekly Shonen Jump Monthly Shonen Jump Carlsen-Verlag Original run August 4, 1997 – (ongoing) No. ... Therion is a Swedish symphonic metal band. ... Steve Capps is a computer programmer and engineer who is best known for his work on the Apple Macintosh computer and Newton OS during the 1980s and 1990s. ... For in-depth technical information, see Macintosh 128K technical details. ... Susan Kare (born 1954) is an artist and graphic designer who created many of the interface elements for the Apple Macintosh in the 1980s. ... Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is the co-founder and CEO of Apple and was the CEO of Pixar until its acquisition by Disney. ... Major league affiliations National League (1887–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 4, 8, 9, 20, 21, 33, 40, 42 Name Pittsburgh Pirates (1891–present) Pittsburgh Innocents (1890) Pittsburg Alleghenies (1882–1889) (Also referred to as Infants in 1890) Ballpark PNC Park (2001–present) Three Rivers... Independence Day (also known as its promotional abbreviation ID4) is an Academy Award winning 1996 science fiction film directed by Roland Emmerich. ... Look up jackass in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rayman_2:_Revolution. ... The Fire Department, City of New York (FDNY) has the responsibility of protecting the New York Citys five boroughs from fires and fire hazards, as well as preventing disasters like The Station nightclub fire in nearby Rhode Island, and the trampling deaths at an overcrowded building in Chicago. ... Flatbush is a neighborhood of the Borough of Brooklyn, a part of New York City. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Soul Calibur is a 3D, weapon-based fighting game franchise, similar in basic mechanics to Virtua Fighter and Tekken. ... Cervantes de Leon (セルバンテス・デ・レオン Serubantesu de Reon) is a fictional character designed for the Soul Series of fighting games. ...

See also

A skull and crossbones is a symbol consisting of a human skull and two bones crossed together under the skull. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ [1] Charles Johnson (1724), A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates.
  2. ^ David Cordingly (1995). Under the Black Flag: The Romance and Reality of Life Among the Pirates, New York: Random House, p. 117.
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ Cordingly, p. 118.
  5. ^ Cordingly, p. 118.
  6. ^ http://www.templarhistory.com
  7. ^ Burl, Aubery Black Bart pp. 133-4
  8. ^ General information on the Royal Navy Submarine Service use and history of the Jolly Roger
  9. ^ Opossum and Otus were seen returning to HMS Dolphin ... with a jolly roger
  10. ^ Barton Gellman U.S., NATO Launch Attacks on Yugoslavia Washington Post 25 March 1999
  11. ^ Swiftsure Class Nuclear Fleet Submarines
  12. ^ Trafalgar Returns March 1, 2002
  13. ^ HMS Triumph and HMS Superb
  14. ^ Cruise missile sub (HMS Turbulent) back in UK by Richard Norton-Taylor in The Guardian April 17, 2003
  15. ^ * Birdsall, Steve. Flying Buccaneers. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1977. ISBN 0385032188

 
 

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