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Encyclopedia > Joliet Army Ammunition Plant
Proposed redevelopment of Joliet Arsenal, February 2002. Drawn with North at the top, the arsenal was bisected by Illinois Route 53 with Kankakee Ordinance Works in the west portion and Elwood Ordinance Plant on the east.
Proposed redevelopment of Joliet Arsenal, February 2002. Drawn with North at the top, the arsenal was bisected by Illinois Route 53 with Kankakee Ordinance Works in the west portion and Elwood Ordinance Plant on the east.

Joliet Army Ammunition Plant formerly known as the Joliet Arsenal was a United States Army arsenal located in Will County, Illinois, near Elwood, Illinois, south of Joliet, Illinois. Opened in 1940 during World War II, the facility consisted of the Elwood Ordinance Plant and the Kankakee Ordinance Works. In 1945, the two were deactivated and combined forming the Joliet Arsenal. Reactivated for the Korean War and renamed Joliet Army Ammunition Plant during the Vietnam War. Production of TNT ended in 1976, and the plant closed shortly after in the late 1970s. Portions of the site have been redeveloped forming an Intermodal freight transport hub, Abraham Lincoln National Cemetery and Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie. See also U.S. 50 U.S. 51 U.S. 52 Illinois Route 53 is an arterial north-south state highway in northeast Illinois. ... The United States Army is one of the armed forces of the United States and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... View of the Entrance to the Arsenal, by Canaletto, 1732. ... Will County is a county located in the northern part of the state of Illinois. ... Elwood is a village in Will County, Illinois, United States. ... The city of Joliet is located 40 miles southwest of Chicago. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... An intermodal train carrying both shipping containers and highway semi-trailers in piggyback service, on flatcars, passes through the Cajon Pass in February, 1995. ... The Abraham Lincoln National Cemetery covers 982 acres in Elwood, Illinois. ... The Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie is a prairie reserve operated by the United States Forest Service. ...

Contents

World War II

The United States had very little capacity for manufacturing military munitions in 1939 when World War II broke out. Since the manufacture of munitions required specialized equipment and techniques there were no existing plants that could be converted. The solution to the lack of capacity, was to create a large network of interlocking ammunition plants. They would be government-owned, but contractor-operated (GOCO). More than 60 plants would be constructed between Jun 1940 and December 1942. The Elwood Ordnance Plant, named for Elwood, Illinois and the Kankakee Ordnance Works, named for the Kankakee River, were two of the first five to be constructed. In September 1940, Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation of New York was awarded the contract to construct the Kankakee Ordnance Works. Another New York firm, Sanderson and Porter, received the contract for the Elwood Ordnance Plant soon after. Construction on both plants began November 1940, with Elwood beginning production July 12, 1941 followed by Kankakee in September. The plants were separate since they had different purposes, Kankakee manufactured various types of explosives for use at other plants and Elwood loaded artillery shells, bombs, mines and other munitions.[1] Munition is often defined as a synonyn for ammunition. ... Boxes of ammunition clog a warehouse in Baghdad Ammunition is a generic military term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... Elwood is a village in Will County, Illinois, United States. ... The Kankakee River is a tributary of the Illinois River, approximately 90 mi (144 km) long, in northwestern Indiana and northeastern Illinois in the United States. ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, an experienced explosives manufacturer, was selected to operate the Kankakee plant while Sanderson and Porter would operate the Elwood facility. In April 1944, United States Rubber Company would replace Du Pont as contractor at the Kankakee facility. TNT production at the Kankakee works occurred until August 1945 with a peak output of 5.5 million short tons (5 million metric tons) per week. In November 1945, Elwood and Kankakee were combined to form the Joliet Arsenal. Following the war the site was not completely inactive, DuPont leased space to manufacture ammonium nitrate for fertilizer.[1] Over 10,425 people were employed at the two plants during the peak production of the World War II. Elwood loaded more than 926 million bombs, shells, mines, detonators, fuzes, and boosters, and Kankakee produced over one billion pounds (450 million metric tons) of TNT.[2] This article is about the DuPont company. ... The United States Rubber Company was a rubber manufacturer founded by Charles R. Flint in 1892. ... The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Though both plants were designed with safety as a primary concern,[1] at 2:45 AM, June 5, 1942, a large explosion on the assembly line at the Elwood facility resulted in 56 dead or missing and was felt as far as Waukegan, Illinois over 60 miles north.[3] Lines were located in separate buildings which were separated by substantial distances limiting major damage to the facility as a whole. June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Waukegan is a city in Lake County, Illinois, of which it is the county seat. ...


Korean War

Following rehabilitation of the facility by the United States Army Corps of Engineers production resumed in 1952. The Kankakee portion was used to manufacture TNT under the control of contractor United States Rubber Company while Elwood operated under US Government control. Following the Korean war, Elwood would continue production in a limited capacity until deactivated in 1965.[1] Kankakee production would end in 1957.[2] United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ...


Vietnam War

The Elwood unit was reopened in 1966 and would produce artillery rounds, supplementary charge assemblies and cluster bomb units. The Kankakee unit was reopened in 1965 and would manufacture TNT until 1976.[1] During the Vietnam War the Joliet Arsenal was renamed Joliet Army Ammunition Plant. The most operations at the facility were terminated by the late 1970s.[2] A US B-1 Lancer releasing its payload of cluster bombs Cluster munitions are air-dropped or ground launched shells that eject multiple small submunitions (bomblets) and that primarily hit civilians. ...


Redevelopment

In 1993, 23,500 acres (36.7 mi², 95.1 km²) of land was declared to be excess.[2] Redevelopment plans included around 3,000 acres for two industrial parks, 455 acres for the Will County Landfill, 982 acres for the Abraham Lincoln National Cemetery and 19,000 acres for the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie. The government retained a portion as the Joliet Army Training Area.[2] As of 2006, the industrial parks include a 621-acre Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway Co. intermodal facility,[4] and a 3.4 million square foot Wal-mart distribution facility.[5] The Abraham Lincoln National Cemetery covers 982 acres in Elwood, Illinois. ... The Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie is a prairie reserve operated by the United States Forest Service. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ...


Environmental issues

The EPA maintains portions of the property on the Superfund national priorities list. Clean up includes composting by the Army Corps of Engineers. The cemetery and industrial parks were on the buffer portion of the facility, and there was little or no cleanup required. However, portions of the site that became Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie were heavily contaminated, the EPA expects that cleanup will be required until 2010.[6] Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11... The Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie is a prairie reserve operated by the United States Forest Service. ...


See also

The Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAAP or Badger) or Badger Ordnance Works (B.O.W.) is an excess, non-BRAC, US Army facility located in Baraboo, Sauk County, Wisconsin, United States. ... The Alabama Army Ammunition Plant (ALAAP), was a United States munitions plant built and operated during World War II. The facility is located a four miles north of Childersburg, Alabama in Talladega County, Alabama. ... RIA is a company located in the Phillipines. ... The Sunflower Army Ammunition Plant (SFAAP) was a smokeless powder and propellant manufacturing facility in Northwest Johnson County, Kansas owned by the U.S. Government and operated under contract, primarily by Hercules Aerospace Company. ... The Green River Ordnance Plant is a large munitions factory complex between Dixon and Amboy in Lee County, Illinois that was hastily constructed in 1942 and just as quickly shut down in 1945. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e HAER Survey number HAER IL-18
  2. ^ a b c d e GlobalSecurity.org. Joliet Army Ammunition Plant.
  3. ^ Joliet Library. The 1940s.
  4. ^ Chicago Tribune. Joliet Arsenal plans unveiled. September 28, 2006.
  5. ^ Weller press release. Weller Welcomes Wal-Mart Mega-Facility to Joliet Arsenal. August 30, 2005.
  6. ^ EPA District 5 Superfund list. Joliet Army Ammunition Plant.

September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links



Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11... Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Flag of Illinois Municipalities and Communities of Will County, Illinois
(County Seat: Joliet)
Cities, Towns and Villages Andres | Aurora | Beecher | Bolingbrook | Braidwood | Channahon | Crest Hill | Crete | Crystal Lawns | Elwood | Fairmont | Frankfort | Frankfort Square | Goodings Grove | Homer Glen | Ingalls Park | Joliet | Lakewood Shores | Lockport | Manhattan | Mokena | Monee | Naperville | New Lenox | Park Forest | Peotone | Plainfield | Preston Heights | Rockdale | Romeoville | Shorewood | Steger | Symerton | University Park | Willowbrook | Wilmington | Wilton center | Woodridge
Townships Channahon | Crete | Custer | DuPage | Florence | Frankfort | Green Garden | Homer | Jackson | Joliet | Lockport | Manhattan | Monee | New Lenox | Peotone | Plainfield | Reed | Troy | Washington | Wesley | Wheatland | Will | Wilmington | Wilton

 
 

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