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Encyclopedia > Joint Direct Attack Munition
GBU-31: Mk84 bomb fitted with JDAM
GBU-31: Mk84 bomb fitted with JDAM
Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)
Mission: Close air support, interdiction, offensive counterair, suppression of enemy air defense, naval anti-surface warfare, amphibious strike
Length: 9 ft 11 in–12 ft 8 in
(3.0–3.9 m)
Wingspan: 1 ft 7 in–2 ft 1 in
(483–635 mm)
Range: Up to 15 nmi (24 km)

The Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) is a low-cost guidance kit that converts existing unguided gravity bombs, or "dumb bombs", into accurate, all-weather "smart" munitions. JDAM equipped bombs are guided to their target by an integrated inertial guidance system coupled with a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver for enhanced accuracy, giving them a published range of up to 15 nautical miles from the release point. JDAM is a joint United States Air Force and United States Navy program. It is in service with the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy and the U.S. Marine Corps. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1072x227, 84 KB) GBU-31/32 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) Primary function: GPS/INS smart tailkit that fits on general purpose unguided bombs. ... A U.S. developed B-61 gravity bomb. ... B-61 gravity bomb; this nuclear munition has been identified as one that could be modified to hit hardened underground targets. ... BOLT-117 laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance, quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Global Positioning System (GPS) is currently the only fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ...

Contents

Overview

The JDAM is not a stand alone weapon system, rather it is a "bolt-on" upgrade for unguided gravity bombs that is installed in the field by aircraft armorers. JDAM equipped bombs range in size from 500 lbs (225 kg) to 2000 lbs (900 kg).[1] The kit is compatible with the entire Mk-80 family of general purpose bombs, as well as the corresponding BLU penetrator warheads. JDAM consists of a tail section with integrated aerodynamic control surfaces, a stabilizing strake kit, and a combined inertial guidance system and GPS guidance control unit. JDAM enables accurate delivery against high priority fixed and relocatable targets from both fighter and bomber aircraft. Military aircraft are airplanes used in warfare. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Global Positioning System (GPS) is currently the only fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). ...


History & Development

Desert Storm highlighted a shortfall in air-to-surface weapon capability. Limited visibility of the ground caused by smoke, fog, dust and cloud cover limited the employment of precision guided munitions. Unguided weapon accuracy was also degraded when delivered from medium and high altitudes. Research and development of an "adverse weather precision guided munition" began in 1992. The first JDAMs were delivered in 1997 with operational testing conducted in 1998 and 1999. More than 450 JDAMs were dropped during testing, recording an unprecedented 95 percent system reliability while achieving a 9.6 meter accuracy rate.[citation needed] JDAM performance has been demonstrated in operationally representative tests including drops through clouds, rain and snow. These tests included a B-2 Spirit releasing 16 JDAMs on a single pass against multiple targets in two separate target areas. See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit is a multi-role stealth bomber able to drop conventional and nuclear weapons. ...


JDAM and the B-2 made their combat debuts during Operation Allied Force. The B-2s, flying 30-hour, nonstop, roundtrip flights from Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri, delivered more than 600 JDAMs during Allied Force. Military sources say that "During Operation Allied Force, March 29 through June 9, 1999, B-2s launched 651 JDAMs with 96 percent reliability and hit 87 percent of intended targets..."[citation needed] Growth of the JDAM family of weapons expanded to the 500 pound (230 kg) Mark 82 bomb version, which began development in late 1999. Also, the Navy is currently studying the effects of adding enhancements such as improved GPS accuracy as well as a precision seeker for terminal guidance for use against moving targets and additional warheads. An USAF F-15E takes off from Aviano, Italy Operation Allied Force aka Kosovo-NATO War was NATOs military operation against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that lasted from 24 March to 11 June 1999 and is considered a major part of Kosovo War. ... Location of Whiteman AFB, Missouri. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis Metro[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... The Mark 82 (Mk 82) is an unguided, low-drag general-purpose bomb (dumb bomb), part of the U.S. Mark 80 series. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ...


On September 10, 2003, a B-2 Spirit bomber successfully released eighty (80) inert 500 pound (230 kg) JDAM munitions on a single sortie, demonstrating a saturation precision attack capability not thought possible in the early days of smart weapons. September 10 is the 253rd day of the Gregorian calendar (254th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sortie is a term for deployment of one military aircraft or a ship for the purposes of a specific mission, whether alone, or with other aircraft or vessels. ...


JDAM bombs are inexpensive compared to alternatives such as cruise missiles. The original cost estimate was $40,000 each for the tail kits, but after competitive bidding, contracts were signed with McDonnell Douglas (later overtaken by Boeing) for delivery at $18,000 each. For instance, the newest Tomahawk, dubbed the Tactical Tomahawk, costs nearly $730,000 apiece, and despite its tremendous operational capabilities will not replace manned aircraft carrying JDAMs, and other "smart munitions."[2][3] DC-10, retired from American Airlines fleet at gate McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661 ) is an aerospace and defense corporation headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile with stubby wings. ...


Operational Use

JDAMs loaded under the left wing of a F-16 Fighting Falcon with a LITENING II Targeting Pod visible beneath the fuselage
JDAMs loaded under the left wing of a F-16 Fighting Falcon with a LITENING II Targeting Pod visible beneath the fuselage

Guidance is facilitated through a tail control system and a GPS-aided inertial navigation system (INS). The navigation system is initialized by transfer alignment from the aircraft that provides position and velocity vectors from the aircraft systems. Once released from the aircraft, the JDAM autonomously navigates to the designated target coordinates. Target coordinates can be loaded into the aircraft before takeoff, manually altered by the aircrew in flight prior to weapon release, or entered by datalink from onboard targeting equipment, such as the LITENING II Targeting Pod. In its most accurate mode, the JDAM system will provide a weapon Circular Error Probable (CEP) of 13 meters or less (some Boeing sources report less than 10 meters CEP) when a GPS signal is available. If the GPS signal is jammed or lost, the JDAM can still achieve a 30 meter CEP or less for free flight times up to 100 seconds.[4] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 1960 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 1960 pixel, file size: 1. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a multirole jet fighter aircraft developed by General Dynamics and Lockheed Martin for the United States Air Force. ... LITENING Pod mounted underneath a USMC F/A-18. ... The Global Positioning System (GPS) is currently the only fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). ... An inertial navigation system measures the position and altitude of a vehicle by measuring the accelerations and rotations applied to the systems inertial frame. ... LITENING Pod mounted underneath a USMC F/A-18. ... In the military science of ballistics, Circular Error Probability or circular error probable (CEP) is a simple measure of a weapon systems precision. ...


JDAM can be launched from very-low to very-high altitudes in a dive, toss-and-loft, or in straight-and-level flight, with an on-axis or off-axis delivery. JDAM enables multiple weapons to be directed against single or multiple targets on a single pass. The JDAM system permits variable fuzing, from air-burst through contact- and penetration-fuzing, making it a versatile guidance system.[4] Fuzing must be set prior to takeoff, as the aircrew have no way to adjust this in flight.


Despite their precision, JDAM employment is not without risk. On December 5 2001, a JDAM dropped by a B-52 in Afghanistan nearly killed Hamid Karzai, now the country's president, while he was leading anti-Taliban forces near Sayd Alim Kalay alongside a US Army Special Forces unit. A large force of Taliban had engaged Karzai's force and the Americans, nearly overwhelming them, and causing the American commander to request an air-strike to stop the Taliban advance. As a result a JDAM was delivered, but instead of striking the Taliban positions, it struck the Afghan/American position. In an investigation of the incident, the terminal attack controller attached to the Special Forces team admitted that he had changed the battery in the GPS receiver at some point during the battle. It was determined that this caused the device to return to default and "to display its own coordinates." As a result, the improper target coordinates were relayed to the delivery aircraft, causing the bomb to target the Afghans and Americans, rather than the Taliban forces.[5] In this "friendly fire" incident, three American soldiers and five allied Afghans were killed, with over forty others injured. December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hamid Karzai (Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ... This article is about the U.S. Special Operations Force. ... A Tactical Air Control Party, commonly abbreviated to TACP (pronounced TAC-P), is usually a team of two or more United States Air Force Tactical Air Controllers (AFSC 1C4X1), sometimes including an Air Liaison Officer (a qualified aviator), which is assigned to a U.S. Army combat maneuver unit, either... Two PLGRs, showing different color schemes The Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR) is a handheld, single frequency, military GPS receiver that incorporates the Precise Positioning Service - Security Module (PPS-SM) to access the encrypted P(Y)-code GPS signal. ...


Upgrades

U.S. military experience during Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom highlighted the need for an even more accurate delivery of bombs.[6] The Laser JDAM adds a laser seeker to the nose of a JDAM equipped bomb, allowing for highly precise terminal guidance, allowing for a CEP of 3 meters, with the ability to strike a moving target. During FY2004, the Boeing and the U.S. Air Force began testing of the laser guidance capability for JDAM. These tests demonstrated that the system is capable of targeting and destroying moving targets.[7] The weapon retains the ability to operate on GPS/INS alone, if laser guidance is unavailable, with the same accuracy of the earlier JDAM. The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Combatants United States Canada Australia United Kingdom Netherlands Philippines (in the Philippines theatre only) Northern Alliance GUAM Poland Italy Visegrad Group Hungary Ethiopia Somalia Estonia Latvia Lithuania Slovakia Vilnius group Croatia Albania Macedonia Romania Bulgaria Taliban al-Qaeda Abu Sayyaf Jemaah Islamiyah Islamic Courts Union Commanders General Tommy Franks Brig. ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq arguably without the explicit backing of the... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Laser guidance is a technique of guiding a missile or other projectile or vehicle to a target by means of a laser beam. ...


Integration

JDAMs loaded onto a Multiple Ejector Rack under the wing of a B-52H Stratofortress
JDAMs loaded onto a Multiple Ejector Rack under the wing of a B-52H Stratofortress

JDAM is currently compatible with: Image File history File linksMetadata JDAM_GBU30_MER.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Joint Direct Attack Munition Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize... Image File history File linksMetadata JDAM_GBU30_MER.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Joint Direct Attack Munition Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize... An A-10 Thunderbolt II showing numerous hardpoint mountings. ... The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range, jet strategic bomber flown by the United States Air Force (USAF) since 1954. ...

  • AV-8B Harrier II
  • B-1B Lancer
  • B-2A Spirit
  • B-52H Stratofortress
  • F-117 Nighthawk
  • F-14A/B/D Tomcat
  • F-15E Strike Eagle
  • F-16C/D Fighting Falcon
  • F/A-18C/D Hornet
  • F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
  • F-22 Raptor
  • F-35 Lightning II

Follow-on integration efforts are currently underway or planned to evaluate compatibility with: See also Hawker Siddeley Harrier The Harrier II is a second generation, vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) light_attack jet aircraft used by the United States Marine Corps, Royal Air Force, Spanish Armada and Italian navy. ... The Boeing (formerly Rockwell International) B-1B Lancer is a long-range strategic bomber in service with the United States Air Force (USAF). ... The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit is a multi-role stealth bomber able to drop conventional and nuclear weapons. ... The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range, jet strategic bomber flown by the United States Air Force (USAF) since 1954. ... This article is about the stealth fighter. ... The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is a supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, variable geometry wing aircraft. ... The Boeing (formerly McDonnell Douglas) F-15 Eagle is an all-weather tactical fighter designed to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a multirole jet fighter aircraft developed by General Dynamics and Lockheed Martin for the United States Air Force. ... The Boeing (formerly McDonnell Douglas) F/A-18 Hornet is a modern all-weather carrier-capable strike fighter jet, designed to attack both ground and aerial targets. ... The Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet is a carrier-based fighter/attack aircraft that entered service in 1999 with the United States Navy. ... The F-22 Raptor is a fifth generation stealth fighter aircraft. ... The F-35 Lightning II is a single-seat, single-engine, stealth-capable military strike fighter, a multi-role aircraft that can perform close air support, tactical bombing, and air-to-air combat. ...

The Fairchild-Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II is a single-seat, twin-engine jet aircraft designed to provide close air support (CAS) of ground forces by attacking tanks, armored vehicles, and other ground targets. ... An S-3B Viking launches from the catapult aboard USS Abraham Lincoln The Lockheed S-3 Viking is a United States Navy jet aircraft used to hunt and destroy enemy submarines and provide surveillance of surface shipping. ... -1... Official Eurofighter logo. ...

Export

The U.S. Government has approved the JDAM for export sale under the Arms Export Control Act, though in limited numbers to only a few countries. Outstanding requests for purchase are under review. The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... The Arms Export Control Act requires governments that receive weapons from the United States to use them for legitimate self-defense. ...


Export Customers

Export Requests

General characteristics

  • Primary function: Guided air-to-surface weapon
  • Contractor: Boeing
  • Length: (JDAM and warhead) GBU-31 (v) 1/B: 152.7 in (3879 mm); GBU-31 (v) 3/B: 148.6 in (3774 mm); GBU-32 (v) 1/B: 119.5 in (3035 mm)
  • Launch weight: (JDAM and warhead) GBU-31 (v) 1/B: 2,036 lb (925 kg); GBU-31 (v) 3/B: 2,115 lb (961 kg); GBU-32 (v) 1/B: 1,013 lb (460 kg)
  • Wingspan: GBU-31: 25 in (635 mm); GBU-32: 19.6 in (498 mm)
  • Range: Up to 15 miles (24 km)
  • Ceiling: 45,000 ft (13,700 m)
  • Guidance system: GPS/INS
  • Unit cost: Approximately $21,000 per tailkit (FY 01 dollars)
  • Date deployed: 1999
  • Inventory: The tailkit is in full-rate production. Projected inventory is approximately 240,000 total, 158,000 for the US Air Force and 82,000 for the US Navy. (As of October 2005)

The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661 ) is an aerospace and defense corporation headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ...

Variants

USAF artist rendering of JDAM kits fitted to Mk 84, BLU-109, Mk 83, and Mk 82 iron bombs.
USAF artist rendering of JDAM kits fitted to Mk 84, BLU-109, Mk 83, and Mk 82 iron bombs.
  • GBU-31(V)1/B (USAF) Mk-84
  • GBU-31(V)2/B (USN/USMC) Mk-84
  • GBU-31(V)3/B (USAF) BLU-109
  • GBU-31(V)4/B (USN/USMC) BLU-109
  • GBU-32(V)1/B (USAF) Mk-83
  • GBU-32(V)2/B (USN/USMC) Mk-83
  • GBU-35(V)1/B (USN/USMC) BLU-110
  • GBU-38/B (USAF) Mk-82,(USN/USMC)Mk-82 and BLU-111

Image File history File links JDAM_family_(1). ... Image File history File links JDAM_family_(1). ...

See also

The GBU-39 small-diameter bomb (SDB) is a 250 pound (110 kg) class guided bomb that is intended to provide aircraft with the ability to carry more weapons per sortie, thus increasing the number of kills possible. ... HOPE (HOchleistungs-PEnetrator = High Power Penetrator) and HOSBO (HOchleistungs-Spreng-BOmbe = High Power Explosive Bomb) are a new familiy of smart bombs, currently under development by Diehl BGT Defence for the German Luftwaffe. ...

Notes

  1. ^ JDAM continues to be warfighter's weapon of choice
  2. ^ "The JDAM Revolution" article by Peter Grier in Air Force Online, the journal of the Air Force Association, September, 2006
  3. ^ "BGM-109 Tomahawk: Variants"
  4. ^ a b USAF Factsheet: JOINT DIRECT ATTACK MUNITIONS
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ Dual Mode Guided Bomb
  7. ^ Boeing Scores Direct Hit in Laser JDAM Moving Target Test
  8. ^ First International JDAM Sale: Boeing to Integrate Weapon on Israeli Aircraft
  9. ^ global security.org
  10. ^ boeing.com Boeing JDAM Wins Australian Competition
  11. ^ Norway Signs Contract for Boeing JDAM
  12. ^ Dutch secretary of defense details plan for purchase of JDAM's
  13. ^ Gates says Washington to sell smart bombs to Saudi Arabia
  14. ^ FMS: Third Phase of Finnish F/A-18 MLU
  15. ^ FMS: Pakistan New F-16C/D Block 50/52 Aircraft
  16. ^ FMS: Greece - F-16C/D Munitions

References

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Joint Direct Attack Munition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (832 words)
JDAM is a joint United States Air Force and United States Navy program.
JDAM is a guided air-to-surface weapon that uses either the 2,000 pound (900 kg) BLU-109/Mark 84 bomb or the 1,000 pound (450 kg) BLU-110/Mark 83 bomb warheads as the payload.
JDAM can be launched from very low to very high altitudes in a dive, toss and loft or in straight and level flight with an on-axis or off-axis delivery.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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