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Encyclopedia > Joint

A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact.[1] They are constructed to allow movement and provide mechanical support, and are classified structurally and functionally.[2] Look up joint in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In music an articulation is a sign, direction, or performance technique which indicates or affects the transition or continuity between notes or sounds. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ...

Contents

Classification

Depiction of an intervertebral disk, a cartilaginous joint.
Depiction of an intervertebral disk, a cartilaginous joint.
Diagram of a synovial (diarthrosis) joint.
Diagram of a synovial (diarthrosis) joint.

Joints are mainly classified structurally and functionally. Structural classification is determined by how the bones connect to each other, while functional classification is determined by the degree of movement between the articulating bones. In practice, there is significant overlap between the two types of classifications. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Illu_synovial_joint. ... Image File history File links Illu_synovial_joint. ...


Terms ending in the suffix -sis are singular and refer to just one joint, while -ses is the suffix for pluralization. Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Structural classification

Structural classification names and divides joints according to how the bones are connected to each other.[3] There are three structural classifications of joints:

... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... Synovial joints (or diarthroses, or diarthroidal joints) are the most common and most moveable type of joints in the body. ...

Functional classification

Joints can also be classified functionally, by the degree of mobility they allow:[4]

  • synarthrosis - permits little or no mobility. Most synarthrosis joints are fibrous joints.
  • amphiarthrosis - permits slight mobility. Most amphiarthrosis joints are cartilaginous joints.
  • diarthrosis - permits a variety of movements. All diarthrosis joints are synovial joints, and the terms "diarthrosis" and "synovial joint" are considered equivalent by Terminologia Anatomica.[5]

In Amphiarthroses (slightly movable articulations), the contiguous bony surfaces are either: symphysis: connected by broad flattened disks of fibrocartilage, of a more or less complex structure, as in the articulations between the bodies of the vertebrae. ... A joint is the location at which two bones make contact. ... Synovial joints (or diarthroses, or diarthroidal joints) are the most common and most moveable type of joints in the body. ... The Nomina Anatomica was one of the most popular systems for providing topographical codes in the 20th century. ...

Biomechanical classification

Joints can also be classified based on their anatomy or on their biomechanical properties. According to the anatomic classification, joints are subdivided into simple and compound, depending on the number of bones involved, and into complex and combination joints:[6]

  1. Simple Joint: 2 articulation surfaces (eg. shoulder joint, hip joint)
  2. Compound Joint: 3 or more articulation surfaces (eg. radiocarpal joint)
  3. Complex Joint: 2 or more articulation surfaces and an articular disc or meniscus (eg. knee joint)

This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Bones of the Hip In anatomy, the hip is the bony projection of the femur, known as the greater trochanter, and the overlying muscle and fat. ... Diagrammatic section of a diarthrodial joint, with an articular disk. ... In anatomy, a meniscus is a moon-shaped figure. ... An x-ray of a human knee Grays Fig. ...

Anatomical

The joints may be classified anatomically into the following groups:

  1. articulations of hand
  2. wrists
  3. elbows
  4. axillary articulations
  5. sternoclavicular joints
  6. vertebral articulations
  7. temporomandibular joints
  8. sacroiliac joints
  9. hip joints
  10. knee
  11. articulations of foot

For the municipality in Germany, see Wrist, Germany. ... For the band, see Elbow (band). ... The sternoclavicular articulation is a double arthrodial joint. ... The temporomandibular joint (From the Latin for too much jaw) is a diarthrodial joint that connects the condyle of the mandible (lower jaw) to the temporal bone at the side of a skull. ... The sacroiliac joint is the joint between the sacrum, at the base of the spine, and the ilium of the pelvis, which are joined by ligaments. ... Bones of the Hip In anatomy, the hip is the bony projection of the femur, known as the greater trochanter, and the overlying muscle and fat. ... For other uses, see Knee (disambiguation). ...

Arthritis

Main article: Arthritis

Arthritis and direct physical trauma to a joint are the causes of joint damage. Arthritis is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in people over the age of 55. Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ...


There are many different forms of arthritis, each of which has a different cause. The most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis (also known as degenerative joint disease) occurs following trauma to the joint, following an infection of the joint or simply as a result of aging. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence that abnormal anatomy may contribute to early development of osteoarthritis. Other forms of arthritis are rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, which are autoimmune diseases in which the body is attacking itself. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection. Gouty arthritis is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint that results in subsequent inflammation. Additionally, there is a less common form of gout that is caused by the formation of rhomboidal shaped crystals of calcium pyrophosphate. This form of gout is known as pseudogout. Osteoarthritis (OA, also known as degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease), is a condition in which low-grade inflammation results in pain in the joints, caused by abnormal wearing of the cartilage that covers and acts as a cushion inside joints and destruction or decrease of synovial fluid that lubricates those... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ... Psoriatic arthritis (or Arthropathic psoriasis) is a type of inflammatory arthritis that affects around 20% of people suffering from the chronic skin condition Psoriasis. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... Septic arthritis is the invasion of a joint by an infectious agent which produces arthritis. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Gout (also called metabolic arthritis) is a disease created by a build up of uric acid. ... Uric acid (or urate) is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. ...


References

  1. ^ eMedicine/Stedman Medical Dictionary Lookup!. Retrieved on 2008-01-29.
  2. ^ Ellis, Harold; Susan Standring; Gray, Henry David (2005). Gray's anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical practice. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 38. ISBN 0-443-07168-3. 
  3. ^ Module - Introduction to Joints. Retrieved on 2008-01-29.
  4. ^ Module - Introduction to Joints. Retrieved on 2008-01-29.
  5. ^ d_15/12293929 at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  6. ^ Introductory Anatomy: Joints. Retrieved on 2008-01-29.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dorlands Medical Dictionary was first published in 1890 as the American Illustrated Medical Dictionary including 770 pages. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
joints

Arthrology is the science concerned with the anatomy, function, dysfunction and treatment of joints. ... Look up kinesiology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

External links

The interphalangeal articulations of the foot (articulations of the phalanges) are ginglymoid joints, and each has a plantar and two collateral ligaments. ... In order to allow it to support the weight of the body in the erect posture with the least expenditure of material, the foot is constructed of a series of arches formed by the tarsal and metatarsal bones, and strengthened by the ligaments and tendons of the foot. ... The Longitudinal arch of the foot can be broken down into several smaller arches: // The main arches are the antero-posterior arches, which may, for descriptive purposes, be regarded as divisible into two types—a medial and a lateral. ... In addition to the longitudinal arches the foot presents a series of transverse arches. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jointing (sharpening) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (211 words)
The purpose of jointing is to ensure that all surfaces to be sharpened are of a consistent size and all imperfections have been removed.
Circular saw blades are jointed prior to sharpening so that all teeth protrude from the blade the same distance from the centre.
Jointing is usually carried out infrequently as it removes a lot of material from the edge of the blade.
Jointing structure of rotor and shaft - Patent 5158390 (4401 words)
A rotor and shaft jointing structure as set forth in claim 1, wherein the diameter of said through hole is 15-20 mm and the outside diameter of said humps is larger by 50-100.mu.m than the diameter of said through hole.
The present invention relates to a jointing structure of a rotor and a shaft which is suitable for jointing, for example, a rotor for use in a cooling medium compressor, and more particularly to a jointing structure, in which a rotor and a shaft can be firmly jointed.
Above all, the jointing structure obtained by press fitting the shaft 3 with the hump portion 4 formed thereon into the rotor 1 made of Al alloy formed by a powder extrusion, was confirmed to have a significantly large strength.
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