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Encyclopedia > Johns Hopkins Hospital
The Dome of the Johns Hopkins Hospital as seen from Broadway. The main entrance for patients is on Wolfe Street, on the opposite side of the complex.
See also: Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and Greenspring Station

The Johns Hopkins Hospital is a teaching hospital in Baltimore, Maryland (USA). It was founded using money from a bequest by philanthropist Johns Hopkins. It is widely regarded as one of the world's greatest hospitals[1], and it has topped U.S. News and World Report's ranking of American hospitals for 17 consecutive years.[2] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixels, file size: 267 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) |Source=Originally from en. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixels, file size: 267 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) |Source=Originally from en. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland, is a highly regarded medical school and biomedical research institute in the United States. ... View of Greenspring Station complex from intersection of Falls and Greenspring Valley Roads Greenspring Station is an office complex located in Lutherville, Maryland, though it has a postal zone and post office of its own known as Brooklandville (zip code 21022). ... A Teaching hospital is a hospital which provides medical training. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... A philanthropist is someone who engages in philanthropy; that is, someone who donates his or her time, money, or reputation to a charitable cause. ... This article is about the person. ... U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ...


The hospital's main medical campus in East Baltimore is served by the easternmost station on the Baltimore Metro Subway. The Metro Subway[1] is a single-line rapid transit system serving the greater Baltimore, Maryland, United States area and operated by the Maryland Transit Administration. ...

Contents

History

Johns Hopkins, a Baltimore merchant and banker, left an estate of $7 million when he died on Christmas Eve 1873, at the age of seventy-eight. In his will, he asked that his fortune be used to found two institutions that would bear his name: "The Johns Hopkins University" and "The Johns Hopkins Hospital." At the time that it was made, Hopkins' gift was the largest philanthropic bequest in the history of the United States. Toward the end of his life, Hopkins selected twelve prominent Baltimoreans to be the trustees for the project and a year before his death, sent a letter telling them that he was giving "thirteen acres of land, situated in the city of Baltimore, and bounded by Wolfe, Monument, Broadway and Jefferson streets upon which I desire you to erect a hospital." He wished for a hospital "which shall, in construction and arrangement, compare favorably with any other institution of like character in this country or in Europe" and directed his trustees to "secure for the service of the Hospital, physicians and surgeons of the highest character and greatest skill." [3]


Most importantly, Hopkins told the trustees to "bear constantly in mind that it is my wish and purpose that the [hospital] shall ultimately form a part of the Medical School of that university for which I have made ample provision in my will." By calling for this integral relationship between patient care, as embodied in the hospital, and teaching and research, as embodied in the university, Hopkins laid the groundwork for a revolution in American medicine. Johns Hopkins' vision, of two institutions in which the practice of medicine would be wedded to medical research and medical education was nothing short of revolutionary.


Hopkins medicine counts many "firsts" among its achievements during its early years: the first major medical school in the United States to admit women; the first to use rubber gloves during surgery; the first to develop renal dialysis and CPR. This article is about clinical dialysis; for the laboratory technique, see Dialysis (biochemistry) In medicine, dialysis is a method for removing waste such as urea from the blood when the kidneys are incapable of this, i. ... For other meanings of CPR, see CPR (disambiguation). ...


Two of the most far-reaching advances in medicine during the last 25 years were made at Hopkins. The Nobel Prize-winning discovery of restriction enzymes [4] gave birth to the genetic engineering industry and can be compared, some say, to the first splitting of an atom. Also, the discovery of the brain's natural opiates has triggered an explosion of interest in neurotransmitter pathways and functions. Other accomplishments include the identification of the three types of polio virus and the first "blue baby" operation in 1944 [5], which opened the way to modern heart surgery. Hopkins also was the birthplace of many medical specialties, including neurosurgery, urology, endocrinology, and pediatrics. Additionally it was at Johns Hopkins that Leo Kanner wrote his 1943 paper providing the first description of autism. The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, are awarded for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. ... A restriction enzyme (or restriction endonuclease) is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA. The enzyme makes two incisions, one through each of the phosphate backbones of the double helix without damaging the bases. ... Poliomyelitis (polio) is a viral paralytic disease. ... ... Insertion of an electrode during neurosurgery for Parkinsons disease. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... Dr Leo Kanner MD Leo Kanner (June 13, 1894 - April 4, 1981) was an Austrian-American physician known for his work related to autism. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ...


Revolution in American medicine

At the end of the 19th century, American medical education was in chaos; most medical schools were little more than trade schools, established primarily to turn a profit, often accepting high school graduates who would have had trouble getting into a liberal arts college. After two, at most three, years of attending typically repetitious lectures by part-time teachers, students were free to apprentice themselves to older doctors or simply hang out a shingle, even if they had never laid a hand on a patient. With the opening of The Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889, followed four years later by The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, a new era in medical education began, marked by rigid entrance requirements for entering students, a vastly upgraded medical school curriculum with emphasis on the scientific method, the incorporation of bedside teaching and laboratory research as part of the instruction, and integration of the School of Medicine with the Hospital through joint appointments. The new model also created standardized advanced training in specialized fields of medicine with the creation of the first house staff fellowships and post graduate internships. Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ...


To wage this revolution, Hopkins recruited four impressive young physicians, William H. Welch, William Osler, William S. Halsted, and Howard Kelly - the so-called Big Four - by offering them rare and tempting research opportunities. The basic scientists and later the clinicians were free to do research by having a full-time salary, a departure from the tradition of employing part-time local practitioners to teach classes. Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Sir William Osler Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet (July 12, 1849 – December 29, 1919) was a Canadian-born physician. ... The Four Doctors by John Singer Sargent, 1905. ... Howard Atwood Kelly (Feb, 20 1858 - Jan, 12 1943) was a distinguished American gynecologist, born at Camden, N. J., and educated at the University of Pennsylvania, where he graduated B.A. in 1877 and M.D. in 1882, and where he was associate professor of obstetrics in 1888-89. ...


Another innovation assured higher quality applicants: rigid entrance examinations after prerequisite college education, heavy on basic science -- chemistry, physics, biology -- were expected of all students who ventured into a Hopkins medical school classroom. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ...


Classes were small and involved hands-on training with patients, a departure from the old lecture format. From the start, talented women were permitted to enroll, breaking a prohibition that many older schools held for decades. Medical research by both faculty and students was fostered as part of the educational process and as integral to patient care. The "clinician-scientist" became a Hopkins hallmark.


Study was rigorous and lasted four years, including unprecedented hours of bedside learning at the side of experts, original research projects guided by respected clinicians, and extensive laboratory training. Then came postgraduate education in the Hospital for interns and residents, an innovation that became the model for the postgraduate clinical education of the 20th century. Hopkins' "products" soon were in demand across the country.


The Hopkins reforms in American medical education were pushed further after 1910, when the Carnegie Foundation asked educator Abraham Flexner to survey the 150 medical schools then operating in the United States and Canada. Flexner found only five that he thought were adequate, and he held up Hopkins as the model. Abraham Flexner (November 13, 1866-September 21, 1959) was an American educator. ...


"The influence of this new foundation can hardly be overstated," Flexner wrote. "It has finally cleared up the problem of standards and ideas and its graduates have gone forth in small bands to found new institutions or to reconstruct old ones."


In fact, Washington University, Vanderbilt University, Iowa, Duke, and Rochester universities (as well as Peking Union Medical School)patterned their medical schools directly after Hopkins; Duke went so far as to hire all but one of its first chairmen and chiefs of service from the Hopkins faculty. Washington University in St. ... Vanderbilt University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in Nashville, Tennessee. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... Duke University School of Medicine The Medical School of Duke University. ... The University of Rochester (UR) is a private, coeducational and nonsectarian research university located in Rochester, New York. ...


In turn, Johns Hopkins had modeled itself largely after German universities, where medical science was highly valued and laboratories were well equipped. Few facilities like this were available in the United States in the late 19th century, but slowly, with Hopkins in the vanguard, the belief spread that medicine would not advance unless doctors were firmly grounded in basic science and applied research methods to the study of disease.


It was perhaps fortunate[citation needed] that the opening of The Johns Hopkins Hospital was delayed for 13 years after the opening of the University in 1876. These years gave Daniel Coit Gilman, the University's first president, a chance to get a program of postgraduate education well established.


The delay also gave William H. Welch, the first professor at the School of Medicine, time to get Pathology up and running before the wards opened. The emphasis on research was well established before a single patient was admitted. The bacteriologic era came into full bloom during those years, as well. Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis organism in 1881, launching a new awareness of the role of germs in disease, which strongly influenced the practice of medicine. Categories: Possible copyright violations ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... The germ theory of disease states that many diseases are caused by microorganisms, and that microorganisms grow by reproduction, rather than being spontaneously generated. ...


The School of Medicine opened four years after the Hospital and, in retrospect, this gap, too, was an advantage, for it gave the innovative residency system time to get firmly established. When the first medical students came along, they could easily be incorporated into the wards. More significantly still, the delays gave William Osler the time he needed to write his classic textbook, The Principles and Practice of Medicine. Sir William Osler Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet (July 12, 1849 – December 29, 1919) was a Canadian-born physician. ... The Principles and Practice of Medicine: designed for the use of practitioners and students of medicine is a medical textbook by Sir William Osler. ...


For years, Hopkins has been the top medical school in the amount of competitive research grants awarded by the National Institutes of Health. National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical research. ...


Rankings

U.S. News & World Report - 2007 Rankings by Medical Specialty[6]

Specialty Rank
Urology 1
Gynecology 1
Ear, nose, and throat 1
Rheumatology 1
Ophthalmology 2
Psychiatry 2
Geriatrics 2
Neurology and Neurosurgery 2
Respiratory Disorders 3
Pediatrics 3
Endocrinology 3
Digestive Disorders 3
Cancer 3
Heart 4
Orthopedics 5
Kidney Disease 6
Rehabilitation 21

External links

  • The Johns Hopkins Hospital and Health System website
  • Johns Hopkins Medicine website

Citations and footnotes

  1. ^ http://www.amazon.com/Here-My-Hope-Inspirational-Hospital/dp/product-description/0385500327
  2. ^ http://health.usnews.com/usnews/health/best-hospitals/honorroll.htm
  3. ^ Harvey, A.M., Brieger, G.H., Abrams, S. L., McKusick, V.A., A Model of Its Kind, A Centennial History of Medicine at Johns Hopkins, Johns Hopkins University Press (Baltimore) 1989.
  4. ^ Facts and Figures 2004-2005, Page 45. Johns Hopkins Medicine 2005. http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/about/factsfigures05.pdf
  5. ^ Facts and Figures 2004-2005, page 33. Johns Hopkins Medicine 2005. http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/about/factsfigures05.pdf
  6. ^ "America's Best Hospitals 2007: Johns Hopkins Hospital" U.S. News & World Report, Accessed October 8, 2007.

  Results from FactBites:
 
New contracts at Johns Hopkins Hospital pave way for higher wages - Examiner.com (362 words)
Wages for employees currently on the job at Hopkins will increase between 10 percent to 15 percent during the first year of the contract, and new employees will earn a minimum of $10 per hour, Dixon said.
The contract also means that the 7,100 members of the union, which include 1,700 members at Johns Hopkins Hospital, can expect to see an increase in wages once contract negotiations take place at Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Maryland General Hospital and Sinai Hospital.
Union Executive Vice President John Reid said he, too, is hopeful the Hopkins contract will lead to better wages for health care workers throughout the area.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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