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Encyclopedia > John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt

John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (March 6, 1340February 3, 1399) was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He gained his name "John of Gaunt" because he was born in Ghent, then called Gaunt. The fabulously wealthy Gaunt exercised tremendous influence over the English throne during the minority reign of his nephew, Richard II, and during the ensuing periods of political strife, but took care not to be openly associated with opponents of the King. john of gaunt, son of edward iii of england, husband of katherine swynford, father of henry iv of england This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... john of gaunt, son of edward iii of england, husband of katherine swynford, father of henry iv of england This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links Johnofgaunt. ... Image File history File links Johnofgaunt. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... This article is about the King of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Philippa of Hainault Philippa of Hainault (~1314 - August 15, 1369) was the Queen consort of Edward III of England. ... This article is about the Belgian city. ... The term minority reign refers to the period of a sovereigns rule when he or she is legally a minor. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ...


John of Gaunt's legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, included Kings Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI. John of Gaunt's illegitimate descendants, who ultimately became legitimate by his marriage to Katherine Swynford in 1396, the Beauforts, later married into the House of Tudor, which ascended to the throne in the person of Henry VII. In addition, Gaunt's legitimate descendants included his daughters Philippa of Lancaster, Queen consort of John I of Portugal and mother of King Edward of Portugal ("Duarte", in Portuguese), Elizabeth, Duchess of Exeter, the mother of John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter, and Katherine of Lancaster, Queen consort of Henry III of Castile, a grand-daughter of Pedro of Castile and the mother of John II of Castile. The House of Lancaster is a dynasty of English kings. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... Coat of arms designed for Katherine Swynford: three gold Catherine wheels (roet means wheel) on a red background. ... John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (c. ... The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor (Welsh Twdwr) is a series of five monarchs of Welsh origin who ruled England from 1485 until 1603. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Philippa of Lancaster (1359 - July 19, 1415) was an English princess, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster by his wife and cousin Blanche of Lancaster. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Joao I KG (Portugues: João, IPA pron. ... Duarte of Portugal (Edward, in English), the Philosopher or the Eloquent, the 11th king of Portugal, was born in Viseu on October 31, 1391 and he died in Tomar on September 13, 1438. ... John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter (March 18, 1395 - 1447) was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years War. ... Katherine of Lancaster (also known as Catherine Plantagenet and as Queen Catalina of Castile and Leon) (1372/1373 – 2 June 1418) was the daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his second wife, Constance of Castile. ... Henry III (October 4, 1379 — 1406), sometimes known as Henry the Sufferer or Henry the Infirm (Spanish: Enrique el Doliente) was the son of John I and succeeded him as King of Castile and León in 1390. ... Pedro of Castile (1290, Valladolid – 1319), Infante of Castile and Lord of Los Cameros, was the son of Sancho IV of Castile and his wife Maria de Molina. ... Juan II (March 6, 1405 – July 20, 1454) was King of Castile from 1406 to 1454. ...


When John of Gaunt died in 1399, his estates were declared forfeit to the crown, as Richard II had exiled John's less diplomatic heir, Henry Bolingbroke, in 1398. Bolingbroke returned and deposed the unpopular Richard, to reign as King Henry IV of England (1399–1413), the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England. Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... Henry IV of England, depicted in Cassells History of England, Century Edition, published circa 1902 Henry IV King of England, Lord of Ireland. ... Events Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland destroyed. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... // March 21 - Henry V becomes King of England. ...


John of Gaunt was buried alongside his first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, in the nave of Old St. Paul's Cathedral in an alabaster tomb designed by Henry Yevele (similar to that of his son in Canterbury Cathedral). Blanche of Lancaster (March 25, 1345 - September 12, 1369) was an English noblewoman, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster by his wife Isabel de Beaumont. ... Old St. ... A modern uplighter lamp made completely from Italian alabaster (white and brown types). ... Henry Yevele (c. ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ...

Contents

Duke of Lancaster

Upon the death of his father-in-law Henry of Grosmont, he received half of Henry's lands, the title Earl of Lancaster, and the distinction as the greatest landowner in the north of England, because of his first marriage to his cousin, Blanche of Lancaster (1359), heiress to the Palatinate of Lancaster. He also became the 14th Baron of Halton. John received the rest of the inheritance only when Blanche's sister, Maud, Countess of Leicester (married to William V, Count of Hainaut), died on April 10, 1362. Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster (c. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Orhan I (1326-1359) to Murad I (1359-1389) Berlin joins the Hanseatic League. ... A County palatine is an area ruled by an count palatine (or earl palatine); with special authority and autonomy from the rest of the kingdom. ... The Barons of Halton numbered 15. ... Maud, Countess of Leicester (1339 - April 10, 1362), also known as Matilda, Countess of Hainault, was a 14th Century English noblewoman who married into the Bavarian royal family. ... William (May 12, 1330 Frankfurt am Main– April 15, 1388, Quesnoy) , was the son of the emperor Louis IV the Bavarian and Margaret of Holland and Hainaut. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, English replaces French as Englands national language, for the...

English Royalty
House of Plantagenet

Armorial of Plantagenet
Edward III
   Edward, Prince of Wales
   Lionel, Duke of Clarence
   John, Duke of Lancaster
   Edmund, Duke of York
   Thomas, Duke of Gloucester
   Joan of England
   Isabella, Countess of Bedford
Grandchildren
    Richard II
    Philippa, Countess of Ulster
    Philippa, Queen of Portugal
    Elizabeth, Baroness Fanhope and Milbroke
    Henry IV
    Katherine, Queen of Castile
    Edward, Duke of York
    Richard, Earl of Cambridge
    Constance of York
    Anne, Countess of Eu

Gaunt received the title "Duke of Lancaster" from Edward III on 13 November 1362. John was by then well-established as a fabulously wealthy prince, owning at least thirty castles and vast estates across England and France. His household was comparable in scale and organisation to that of a monarch. This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... Image File history File links John_of_Gaunt_Arms. ... // Categories: | ... This article is about the King of England. ... Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. ... Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, (November 29, 1338 – October 7, 1368) was the second son of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York (June 5, 1341 – August 1, 1402) was a younger son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, the fourth of the five sons of the Royal couple who lived to adulthood. ... Thomas of Woodstock redirects here. ... Joan of England (1335-1348) was the daughter of King Edward III of England and his queen, Philippa of Hainault. ... Isabella Plantagenet, also known as Dame Isabella de Coucy (16 June 1332- either April 1379, or 1382), was the daughter of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... Philippa Plantagenet, (16 August 1355 – 5 January 1380/1381), Countess of Ulster sui juris, was the daughter and only child of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence and Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster. ... Philippa of Lancaster (1359 - July 19, 1415) was an English princess, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster by his wife and cousin Blanche of Lancaster. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Katherine of Lancaster (also known as Catherine Plantagenet and as Queen Catalina of Castile and Leon) (1372/1373 – 2 June 1418) was the daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his second wife, Constance of Castile. ... Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York and 1st Duke of Aumale (1373 - 25 October 1415) died by drowning in mud at the Battle of Agincourt, the major English casualty in that battle. ... Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (c. ... Constance of York (c. ... Anne of Gloucester (1383-October 16, 1438) was the eldest daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester and Eleanor de Bohun. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, English replaces French as Englands national language, for the... A royal or noble court, as an instrument of government broader than a court of justice, comprises an extended household centered on a patron whose rule may govern law or be governed by it. ...


After the death of his elder brother, Edward of Woodstock (later known as The Black Prince), John of Gaunt became increasingly powerful. He contrived to protect the religious reformer John Wyclif, for reasons that cannot be determined, but possibly to counteract the growing secular power of the Roman Catholic Church. However, Gaunt's ascendancy to political power coincided with widespread resentment of his influence. At a time when English forces encountered setbacks in the Hundred Years' War against France, and Edward III's rule had started to become domestically unpopular, due to high taxation and to the king's affair with Alice Perrers, political opinion closely associated the Duke of Lancaster with the failing government of the 1370s. Furthermore, while the king and the Prince of Wales had the status of 'popular heroes' due to their success on the battlefield, John of Gaunt had never known equivalent military success, which might have bolstered his reputation. Although he did fight in the Battle of Nájera (Navarette), for example, his later military projects, such as his chevauchée of 1373 and his invasion of Castile in 1386, were unsuccessful. Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. ... Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. ... Wycliffe may also refer to Wycliffe Bible Translators John Wyclif (also Wycliffe or Wycliff) (c. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Alice Perrers (c. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s 1360s - 1370s - 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s 1420s Years: 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379 Events and Trends Mamai was a powerful military commander of Golden Horde, who resided in the western part of this... The Battle of Nájera from a fifteenth-century manuscript. ...


On his marriage to Costanza of Castile in 1371, Gaunt assumed the title of King of Castile and Leon, and insisted that his fellow English nobles henceforth address him as 'my lord of Spain'. Constance of Castile (1354 – June 1394) was claimant of the Castilian throne after the death of her father Pedro the Cruel. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan, fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Start of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Charterhouse Carthusian Monastery founded in Aldersgate, London. ...


When King Edward III died in 1377 and John's ten-year-old nephew succeeded to the throne as Richard II of England, Gaunt's influence strengthened further. However, mistrust remained, and some suspected him of wanting to seize the throne for himself. Gaunt took pains to ensure that he never became associated with the opposition to Richard's kingship; but as the virtual ruler of England during Richard's minority, he made some unwise decisions on taxation that led to the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, during which the rebels destroyed his Savoy Palace in London. // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... The end of the revolt: Wat Tyler killed by Walworth while Richard II watches, and a second image of Richard addressing the crowd The Peasants Revolt, Tyler’s Rebellion, or the Great Rising of 1381 was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe and is a... Year 1381 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The Savoy Palace was considered the grandest noblemans residence of medieval London, until it was destroyed in the uprising of 1381. ...


In 1386, Gaunt left England to make good his claim to the throne of Castile. However, crisis ensued almost immediately, and in 1387, Richard's misrule brought England to the brink of civil war. Only John of Gaunt, upon his return to England in 1389, was able to bring about a compromise between the Lords Appellant and King Richard, ushering in a period of relative stability and harmony. During the 1390s, John of Gaunt's reputation of devotion to the well-being of the kingdom became much restored. Gaunt died of natural causes on February 3, 1399 at Leicester Castle, with his wife Katherine by his side. Year 1386 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... A former kingdom in modern-day Spain, Castile (Spanish: Castilla; usually pronounced Cast-EEL in English) now compromises the regions of Old Castile in the north-west, and New Castile in the center of the country. ... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... The Lords Appellant were a group of powerful barons who came together during the 1380s to seize political control of England from King Richard II. The group was so called because its members claimed simply to be appealing to the King for good government (their major complaint was Richards... Events and Trends 1392 Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General Yi Seonggye led a coup détat, overthrowing the kingdom of Goryeo and founding the kingdom of Joseon End of the reign of Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan 1394 Expulsion of Jews from France 1395 End of reign of... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leicester Castle is located in Leicester, England. ...


Marriages and descendants

On May 19, 1359, at Reading Abbey, Gaunt married his cousin, Blanche of Lancaster, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. Blanche died of bubonic plague in September 12, 1369 at Bolingbroke Castle whilst John was away at sea. It is believed the poet Geoffrey Chaucer, a friend and client of Gaunt, wrote and dedicated his "Book of the Duchess" to her, as the poem not only mentions a "Black Knight," but the "Lady White"; whom we can take to be Blanche, in allegory. At the end of the poem reference is made to Gaunt's marriage to Blanche by playing on the sound of their titles of Lancaster and Richmond in the form of "long castel" (line 1318) and "riche hil" (line 1319). Alternatively, the "long castel" could also refer to Constanza of Castile and the heraldic arms of Castile. Reading Abbey Reading Abbey is a large, ruined abbey in Reading, Berkshire, founded by Henry I in 1121 for the salvation of my soul, and the souls of King William, my father, and of King William, my brother, and Queen Maud, my wife, and all my ancestors and successors. // History... Blanche of Lancaster (March 25, 1345 - September 12, 1369) was an English noblewoman, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster by his wife Isabel de Beaumont. ... Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster (c. ... Bolingbroke Castle, at Bolingbroke (or Old Bolingbroke) in Lincolnshire was founded by Ranulf, Earl of Chester, during the early 13th century, and in 1311 passed to the House of Lancaster; its most famous owner was John of Gaunt. ... Chaucer redirects here. ... In ancient Roman society, a client (Latin, cliens) was a plebeian who was sponsored by a patron benefactor (patronus, a predecessor to the Italian padrino, godfather). ... The Book of the Duchess is a dream vision narrative written by Geoffrey Chaucer circa 1368/1369. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ...

coat of arms of John of Gaunt, when he claimed to be King of Castille and Leon
coat of arms of John of Gaunt, when he claimed to be King of Castille and Leon

In 1371, John married Constance of Castile, daughter of King Pedro of Castile, thus giving him a claim to the kingdom of Castile, which he would pursue. Though Gaunt was never able to make good his claim, his daughter by Constanza, Katherine of Lancaster, became Queen of Castile by marrying Henry III of Castile. Image File history File links John_of_Gaunt-Castile_Arms. ... Image File history File links John_of_Gaunt-Castile_Arms. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan, fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Start of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Charterhouse Carthusian Monastery founded in Aldersgate, London. ... Constance of Castile (1354 – June 1394) was claimant of the Castilian throne after the death of her father Pedro the Cruel. ... Pedro of Castile (1290, Valladolid – 1319), Infante of Castile and Lord of Los Cameros, was the son of Sancho IV of Castile and his wife Maria de Molina. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... Katherine of Lancaster (also known as Catherine Plantagenet and as Queen Catalina of Castile and Leon) (1372/1373 – 2 June 1418) was the daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his second wife, Constance of Castile. ... Henry III (October 4, 1379 — 1406), sometimes known as Henry the Sufferer or Henry the Infirm (Spanish: Enrique el Doliente) was the son of John I and succeeded him as King of Castile and León in 1390. ...


In the meantime, John of Gaunt had fathered four children by a mistress, Katherine Swynford (whose sister Philippa de Roet was married to Chaucer). Constance died in 1394. He married Katherine in 1396, and their children, the Beauforts, were 'legitimised' but barred from inheriting the throne. From the eldest son, John, came a granddaughter, Margaret Beaufort, whose son, later King Henry VII of England, would nevertheless claim the throne. Coat of arms designed for Katherine Swynford: three gold Catherine wheels (roet means wheel) on a red background. ... Philippa Roet was the second daughter of Payne (Gilles) Roet of Hainault. ... Chaucer redirects here. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... Events September 25 - Bayazid I defeats Sigismund of Hungary and John of Nevers at the Battle of Nicopolis. ... John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (c. ... Margaret Beaufort, Mother of Henry VII, at prayer, by an anonymous artist, about 1500 Margaret Beaufort (May 31, 1443 – June 29, 1509) was the daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, granddaughter of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset and great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt and his mistress... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ...


John of Gaunt's legitimate son from his first marriage, Henry Bolingbroke, proved less of a diplomat than his father; and Richard II banished Henry from the kingdom in 1398. When John of Gaunt died in 1399, his estates were declared forfeit to the crown. This caused Bolingbroke to return. He deposed the unpopular Richard, to reign as King of England (1399–1413). Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ...


Children of John of Gaunt

Blanche of Lancaster (March 25, 1345 - September 12, 1369) was an English noblewoman, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster by his wife Isabel de Beaumont. ... Philippa of Lancaster (1359 - July 19, 1415) was an English princess, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster by his wife and cousin Blanche of Lancaster. ... Events October 24 - The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Joao I KG (Portugues: João, IPA pron. ... // May 28 - Peter I becomes King of Portugal after the death of his father, Alfonso IV. July 9 - Charles Bridge in Prague is founded King David II of Scotland is released by the English in return for a ransom. ... Year 1433 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, English replaces French as Englands national language, for the... Events Foundation of the University of Vienna Births John de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros (died 1394) Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk (died 1399) Deaths May 17 - Louis VI the Roman, elector of Brandenburg (born 1328) July 27 - Duke Rudolf IV of Austria (born 1339) Categories: 1365 ... St. ... Elizabeth Plantagenet (1364 - 1426) was the third child of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Blanche of Lancaster. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 - 1364 - 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 See also: 1364 state leaders Events Charles V becomes King of France. ... Events March 6 - Battle of St. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... John Hastings, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (October 1372 – December 30, 1389), was the son of John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke and Anne Manny, 2nd Baroness Manny. ... In this year, the city of Aachen, Germany begins adding a Roman numeral Anno Domini date to a few of its coins. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Year 1383 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1386 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Coat of arms of John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter Big John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter (c. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... John Cornwall, 1st Baron Fanhope and Milbroke KG (c. ... Events Albanians, under Skanderbeg, defeat the Turks John Hunyadi defeats Turks at the Battle of Nis Vlad II Dracul begins his second term as ruler of Wallachia, succeeding Basarab II. Births January 27 - Albert, Duke of Saxony (died 1500) February 23 - Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (died 1490) May 17 - Edmund... Events Foundation of the University of Vienna Births John de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros (died 1394) Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk (died 1399) Deaths May 17 - Louis VI the Roman, elector of Brandenburg (born 1328) July 27 - Duke Rudolf IV of Austria (born 1339) Categories: 1365 ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... St. ... Events Births Anne of Bohemia, Queen consort of Richard II of England. ... Events Battle of Najera, Peter I of Castile restored as King. ... St. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Events Births Anne of Bohemia, Queen consort of Richard II of England. ... // March 21 - Henry V becomes King of England. ... Mary de Bohun (~1369 - June 4, 1394) was the first wife of King Henry IV of England and the mother of King Henry V, but was never queen. ... Events King Charles V of France renounces the treaty of Brétigny and war is declared between France and England. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... Joanna of Navarre (1370? - 1437) was the daughter of Charles the Bad, King of Navarre. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... // Events foundation of All Souls College, University of Oxford. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... Constance of Castile (1354 – June 1394) was claimant of the Castilian throne after the death of her father Pedro the Cruel. ... Katherine of Lancaster (also known as Catherine Plantagenet and as Queen Catalina of Castile and Leon) (1372/1373 – 2 June 1418) was the daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his second wife, Constance of Castile. ... In this year, the city of Aachen, Germany begins adding a Roman numeral Anno Domini date to a few of its coins. ... Events May 19 - Capture of Paris by John, Duke of Burgundy September - Beginning of English Siege of Rouen Mircea the Old, ruler of Wallachia dies and is succeeded by Vlad I Uzurpatorul. ... Henry III (October 4, 1379 — 1406), sometimes known as Henry the Sufferer or Henry the Infirm (Spanish: Enrique el Doliente) was the son of John I and succeeded him as King of Castile and León in 1390. ... Year 1379 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... Events June 24 - Dancing mania begins in Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), possibly due to ergotism King Gongmin is assassinated and King U ascends to the Goryeo throne Births April 11 - Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, heir to the throne of England (died 1398) Leonardo Bruni, Italian humanist (died 1444... Events October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by his grandson Olaf III of Denmark. ... Coat of arms designed for Katherine Swynford: three gold Catherine wheels (roet means wheel) on a red background. ... John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (c. ... Events Bristol is made an independent county. ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... Margaret Holland (1385 - 30 Dec 1429) was the daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, who was the son of Joan the Fair Maid of Kent, (wife of Edward the Black Prince and mother of Richard II of England) and grandson of Edward I of England. ... Year 1385 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... January 10 - Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, founds the European Order of the Golden Fleece February 12 - Battle of Rouvray (or of the Herrings). English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army of William de la Pole, 4th Earl of Suffolk at... Henry Beaufort, the second son of John of Gaunt and his mistress Katherine Swynford, was born in Anjou (France) in about 1374 and educated for a career in the Church. ... Events October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by his grandson Olaf III of Denmark. ... Events March 6 - Nicholas V becomes Pope. ... Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter (c. ... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... Events Lincoln College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... The title of Duke of Exeter was created several times in England in the later Middle Ages, when Exeter was the main town of Devon. ... Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland, (c. ... Year 1379 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Events September 25 - Bayazid I defeats Sigismund of Hungary and John of Nevers at the Battle of Nicopolis. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 - 1364 - 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 See also: 1364 state leaders Events Charles V becomes King of France. ... Events Foundation of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Births John II, Duke of Lorraine (died 1470) Edmund Sutton, English nobleman (died 1483) Deaths January 18 - Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, English politician (born 1391) March 17 - Ashikaga Yoshikazu, Japanese shogun (born 1407) May 24 - Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of...

Popular culture

The Lancaster city centre has a pub called The John O'Gaunt. An administrative ward on the city council also bears the name. A view of Lancaster showing the Lune, the Millennium Bridge and the Ashton Memorial Lancaster (2001 census population 45,952: source ONS) is a city in Lancashire, in the north-west of England, UK. It is a commercial, cultural and educational centre. ... An amusingly named pub (the Old New Inn) at Bourton-on-the-Water, in the Cotswold Hills of South West England A pub in the Haymarket area of Edinburgh, Scotland A public house, usually known as a pub, is a drinking establishment found mainly in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada... A ward is an electoral district used in local politics, most notably in England, Scotland, and Wales, as well as Australia, Canada, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and many cities in the United States and the federal district of Washington, DC. Wards are usually named after neighbourhoods...


Hungerford in Berkshire also has ancient links to the Duchy, the manor becoming part of John of Gaunt's estate in 1362 before James I passed ownership to two local men in 1612 (which subsequently became Hungerford Town & Manor). The links are visible today in the Town and Manor-owned John O'Gaunt pub, the John O'Gaunt state secondary school, as well as various street names. It is also customary for the Loyal Toast to be given by residents as "The Queen, the Duke of Lancaster". , Hungerford is a market town and civil parish in Berkshire, England, 10 miles (16 km) west of Newbury. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... The Loyal Toast is the first toast to be given at a formal gathering to the presiding person. ...


There is also a secondary school in Trowbridge, Wiltshire bearing the same name, which is built upon land that he once owned.


The remnants of the castle at Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire, once owned by Gaunt, sit on John o' Gaunt's Street. , For the larger local government district, see Borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme. ...


In William Shakespeare's play Richard II, the famous England speech is attributed to John of Gaunt as he lay on his deathbed. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Title page of Richard II, from the fifth quarto, published in 1615. ...

This royal throne of kings, this scepter'd isle,
This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars,
This other Eden, demi-paradise,
This fortress built by Nature for herself
Against infection and the hand of war,
This happy breed of men, this little world,
This precious stone set in the silver sea,
Which serves it in the office of a wall,
Or as a moat defensive to a house,
Against the envy of less happier lands,
This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England,
This nurse, this teeming womb of royal kings,
Fear'd by their breed and famous by their birth
—Act II, scene i, 42–54

The Tragedy of King Richard II at Wikisource


Anya Seton's bestselling 1954 novel Katherine depicts Gaunt's long-term affair and eventual marriage to Katherine Swynford. Anya Setons Katherine is a historical novel based largely on facts. ...


The eponymous character of the US comic book series GrimJack is legally named John Gaunt; according to author John Ostrander, he took the name from the historical figure simply because it sounded impressive, without any specific historical reference. GrimJack is the main character of a comic book published by First Comics. ... John Ostrander is an American writer of comics. ...


Further reading

  • Armitage-Smith, Sydney. John of Gaunt, King of Castile and Leon, Duke of Lancaster, &c.. Constable, 1904.
  • Cantor, Norman F. The Last Knight: The Twilight of the Middle Ages and the Birth of the Modern Era. Free Press, 2004.
  • Goodman, Anthony. John of Gaunt: The Exercise of Princely Power in Fourteenth-Century Europe. St. Martin, 1992.
  • Walker, Simon. The Lancastrian Affinity, 1361– 1399. Clarendon Press, 1990.

External links

  • Information about John of Gaunt
  • Tudor Place's John of Gaunt page
  • John's will and great seal

Ancestors

John of Gaunt, titular King of Castile and León's ancestors in three generations
John of Gaunt, titular King of Castile and León
Father:
Edward III of England
Paternal grandfather:
Edward II of England
Paternal great-grandfather:
Edward I of England
Paternal great-grandmother:
Eleanor of Castile
Paternal grandmother:
Isabella of France
Paternal great-grandfather:
Philip IV of France
Paternal great-grandmother:
Joan I of Navarre
Mother:
Philippa of Hainault
Maternal grandfather:
William I, Count of Hainaut
Maternal great-grandfather:
John II, Count of Holland
Maternal great-grandmother:
Philippine of Luxemburg
Maternal grandmother:
Jeanne of Valois
Maternal great-grandfather:
Charles of Valois
Maternal great-grandmother:
Marguerite of Anjou and Maine
Political offices
Preceded by
Henry of Grosmont
Lord High Steward
1362–1399
Succeeded by
Henry Bolingbroke
Peerage of England
Preceded by
(new creation)
Duke of Lancaster
1362–1399
Succeeded by
Henry Bolingbroke
Preceded by
(new creation)
Duke of Aquitaine
1390–1399
Preceded by
Henry of Grosmont
Earl of Leicester, Lancaster, Lincoln and Derby
1361–1399
Preceded by
John IV de Montfort
Earl of Richmond
1342–1372
Succeeded by
John V de Montfort

  Results from FactBites:
 
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster at AllExperts (1281 words)
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (June 24 1340 – February 3 1399) was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault.
John of Gaunt was buried in the nave in an alabaster tomb designed by Henry Yevele (similar to that of his son in Canterbury Cathedral) in the nave of Old St Paul's.
John of Gaunt's legitimate son from his first marriage, Henry Bolingbroke, proved less of a diplomat than his father; and Richard II banished Henry from the kingdom in 1398.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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