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Encyclopedia > John of England
John
King of England; Lord of Ireland (more...)
John from the Historia Anglorum by Henry of Huntingdon
John from the Historia Anglorum by Henry of Huntingdon
Reign 6 April 119918/19 October 1216 (17 years)
Predecessor Richard I
Successor Henry III
Spouse
Consort
Isabella of Gloucester (11891199)
Isabella of Angoulême (12001220)
Issue
Henry III
Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall
Joan, Queen of Scots
Isabella, Holy Roman Empress
Eleanor, Countess of Leicester
Titles and styles
The King
The Earl of Gloucester and Cornwall
The Earl of Cornwall
John Plantagenet
Royal house House of Plantagenet
Father Henry II
Mother Eleanor of Aquitaine
Born 24 December 1166(1166-12-24)
Beaumont Palace, Oxford
Died 18/19 October 1216 (aged 49)
Newark Castle, Newark-on-Trent, Nottinghamshire
Burial Worcester Cathedral, Worcester

John (24 December 116619 October 1216[1]) reigned as King of England from 6 April 1199, until his death. He succeeded to the throne as the younger brother of King Richard I (known in later times as "Richard the Lionheart"). John acquired the nicknames of "Lackland" (French: Sans Terre) for his lack of an inheritance as the youngest son and for his loss of territory to France, and of "Soft-sword" for his alleged military ineptitude.[2] He was a Plantagenet or Angevin king. The Life and Death of King John is one of the Shakespearean histories, plays written by William Shakespeare and based on the history of England. ... The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lackland_smaller. ... For Earl Henry, father of two Scottish kings, see Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon Henry of Huntingdon (c. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... (Redirected from 18 October) October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in Leap years). ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... Statue of Isabella of Angoulême, in front of the city hall of Angoulême Isabella of Angoulême (fr. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... Richard (5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272) was Count of Poitou (bef. ... Alexander II (August 24, 1198 – July 6, 1249), King of Scots, was the son of William the Lion and Ermengarde of Beaumont. ... The wedding of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and Isabella. ... Eleanor of England (also called Eleanor Plantagenet1 and Eleanor of Leicester) was born in the year 1215, in Gloucester. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Eleanor of Aquitaine (right) and John sans Terre Eleanor of Aquitaine (or Aliénor), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1]–April 1, 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Marko III succeeds Yoannis V as patriarch of Alexandria. ... Beaumont Palace Oxford was built by Henry I about 1130 to serve as a royal palace conveniently close to the royal hunting-lodge at Woodstock (now part of the park of Blenheim Palace. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... (Redirected from 18 October) October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in Leap years). ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... Note: This page refers to the Newark Castle of Newark, Nottinghamshire, not the Newark Castle of Port Glasgow, Inverclyde Newark Castle from the north Newark Castle from the south Newark Castle, supposed to have been founded by Egbert, king of the West Saxons, was partly rebuilt and greatly extended by... Newark (also Newark-on-Trent) is a town in Nottinghamshire, located on the River Trent. ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ... A plan of Worcester Cathedral made in 1836. ... This article is about the city of Worcester in England. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Marko III succeeds Yoannis V as patriarch of Alexandria. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ...


As a historical figure, John is best known for acquiescing to the nobility and signing Magna Carta, a document that limited his power and that is popularly regarded as an early first step in the evolution of modern democracy. He has often appeared in historical fiction, particularly as an enemy of Robin Hood. This article is about the English charter issued in 1215. ... For other uses, see Robin Hood (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Birth

John deer hunting, from a manuscript in the British Library.
John deer hunting, from a manuscript in the British Library.

Born at Beaumont Palace, Oxford, John was the fifth son and last of eight children born to Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was almost certainly born in 1166 instead of 1167, as is sometimes claimed.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Johndeerhunting. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Johndeerhunting. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... Beaumont Palace Oxford was built by Henry I about 1130 to serve as a royal palace conveniently close to the royal hunting-lodge at Woodstock (now part of the park of Blenheim Palace. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Eleanor of Aquitaine (right) and John sans Terre Eleanor of Aquitaine (or Aliénor), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1]–April 1, 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ...


John was a younger maternal half-brother of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France, his mother's children by her first marriage to Louis VII of France, which was later annulled. He was a younger brother of William, Count of Poitiers; Henry the Young King; Matilda, Duchess of Saxony; Richard I of England; Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany; Leonora, Queen of Castile; and Joan, Queen of Sicily Marie of France, or Marie Capet, Countess of Champagne (1145 – March 11, 1198), was the elder daughter of Louis VII of France and his first wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Alix of France (1150 – 1197/1198) was the second daughter born to Louis VII of France by his first wife Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... William (August 17, 1153 – 1156) was the first child of Henry Plantagenet (later Henry II of England) and Eleanor of Aquitaine, strangely born on the same day that his fathers rival Eustace IV of Boulogne died. ... Henry, the Young King Henry the Young King (February 28, 1155–June 11, 1183) was the second of five sons of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188) Matilda of England (1156 - June 28, 1189), also known as Maud, was the eldest daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... Geoffrey Plantagenet (September 23, 1158 – August 19, 1186) was Duke of Brittany between 1181 and 1186, through his marriage with the heiress Constance. ... Queen Leonora (October 13, 1162 – October 31, 1214), was born as Princess Eleanor of England (and Aquitaine) and became Leonora, Queen of Castile as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. ... Joan of England (October, 1165 – 4 September 1199) was the seventh child of King Henry II of England and his Queen consort, Eleanor of Aquitaine. ...


Early life

While John was his father's favourite son, as the youngest he could expect no inheritance, and thus came to receive the surname Lackland, before his accession to the throne. His family life was tumultuous, as his mother and older brothers all became involved in repeated rebellions against Henry. Eleanor was imprisoned by Henry in 1173, when John was a small boy. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Revolt of 1173–1174 was a rebellion against Henry II of England by three of his sons, his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine and rebel supporters. ...


As a child, John was betrothed to Alys (pronounced 'Alice'), daughter and heiress of Humbert III of Savoy. It was hoped that by this marriage the Angevin dynasty would extend its influence beyond the Alps because, through the marriage contract, John was promised the inheritance of Savoy, the Piemonte, Maurienne, and the other possessions of Count Humbert. King Henry promised his youngest son castles in Normandy which had been previously promised to his brother Geoffrey, which was for some time a bone of contention between King Henry and his son Geoffrey. Alys made the trip over the Alps and joined Henry's court, but she died before the marriage occurred. Humbert III (b. ... Alp redirects here. ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne is a commune in the upper valley of the River Arc, and the capital and name of a canton and an arrondissement (formerly in the in the Départment of Haute Savoie) of the present Savoie département, in the southeastern Rhône-Alpes region of... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ...


Gerald of Wales relates that King Henry had a curious painting in a chamber of Winchester Castle, depicting an eagle being attacked by three of its chicks, while a fourth chick crouched, waiting for its chance to strike. When asked the meaning of this picture, King Henry said: Giraldus Cambrensis (c. ... A castle in Winchester called Winchester Castle ...

The four young ones of the eagle are my four sons, who will not cease persecuting me even unto death. And the youngest, whom I now embrace with such tender affection, will someday afflict me more grievously and perilously than all the others.

Before his accession, John had already acquired a reputation for treachery, having conspired sometimes with and sometimes against his elder brothers, Henry, Richard, and Geoffrey. In 1184, John and Richard both claimed that they were the rightful heir to Aquitaine, one of many unfriendly encounters between the two. In 1185, John became the ruler of Ireland, whose people grew to despise him, causing John to leave after only eight months. The year 1185 saw John of Englands first expedition to Ireland and there has been much debate in historical scholarship as to its success as an expedition. ...


Education and literacy

Henry II had at first intended that John would receive an appropriate education to enter into the Church, which would have meant Henry did not have to apportion him land or other inheritance. In 1171, however, Henry began negotiations to betroth John to the daughter of Count Humbert III of Savoy (who had no son yet and so wanted a son-in-law.) After that, talk of making John a cleric ceased. John's parents had both received a good education — Henry spoke some half dozen languages, and Eleanor had attended lectures at what would soon become the University of Paris — in addition to what they had learned of law and government, religion, and literature. John himself had received one of the best educations of any king of England. Some of the books the records show he read included: De Sacramentis Christianae Fidei by Hugh of St. Victor, Sentences by Peter Lombard, The Treatise of Origen, and a history of England—potentially Wace's Roman de Brut, based on Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae. Humbert III (b. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Hugh of St. ... Peter Lombard (c. ... Origen Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ... Wace (c. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: History of the Kings of Britain Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136. ...


Schoolchildren have at times been taught that King John had to approve the Magna Carta by attaching his seal to it because he lacked the ability to read or write. This textbook inaccuracy ignored the fact that King John had a large library he treasured until the end of his life.[4] It is unknown whether the authors of these errors knew better and oversimplified because they wrote for children or whether they were simply misinformed. As a result of this error, generations of adults remembered mainly two things about "wicked King John," both of them wrong; his illiteracy and his supposed association with Robin Hood. This article is about the English charter issued in 1215. ... World illiteracy rates by country Literacy is the ability to read and write. ... For other uses, see Robin Hood (disambiguation). ...


King John did actually sign the draft of the Charter that the negotiating parties hammered out in the tent on Charter Island at Runnymede on 15 June18 June 1215, but it took the clerks and scribes working in the royal offices some time after everyone went home to prepare the final copies, which they then sealed and delivered to the appropriate officials. In those days, legal documents were made official by seals, not by signatures. When William the Conqueror (and his wife) signed the Accord of Winchester (Image) in 1072, for example, they and all the bishops signed with crosses, as illiterate people would later do, but they did so in accordance with current legal practice, not because the bishops could not write their own names. Magna Carta Island is an island in the River Thames, adjoining the water meadows at Runnymede, but in the English county of Berkshire. ... Location of Runnymede at grid reference SU998727 in the United Kingdom Runnymede is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames in the county of Surrey, England, associated with the signing of the Magna Carta and today the site of a collection of memorials. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A certified copy of the Magna Carta March 4 - King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III. June 15 - King John of England was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning... William I of England (c. ... The signatures of William I and Maud (beside the first two large Xs) on the Accord of Winchester from 1072. ...


Richard's absence

During Richard's absence on the Third Crusade from 1190 to 1194, John attempted to overthrow William Longchamp, the Bishop of Ely and Richard's designated justiciar. John was more popular than Longchamp in London, and in October 1191 the leading citizens of the city opened the gates to him while Longchamp was confined in the tower. John promised the city the right to govern itself as a commune in return for recognition as Richard's heir presumptive.[5] This was one of the events that inspired later writers to cast John as the villain in their reworking of the legend of Robin Hood. The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... William Longchamp (died 1197), chancellor of England and bishop of Ely, entered public life at the close of Henry IIs reign as official to the kings son Geoffrey, for the archdeaconry of Rouen. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... For other uses, see Robin Hood (disambiguation). ...


While returning from the Crusade, Richard was captured by Leopold V, Duke of Austria, and imprisoned by Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor. Eleanor was forced to pay a large ransom for Richard's release. On his return to England in 1194, Richard forgave John and named him as his heir. Leopold V (1157 – December 31, 1194), the Virtuous, was a Babenberg duke of Austria from 1177 to 1194 and Styria from 1192 to 1194. ... Henry VI (November 1165 – 28 September 1197) was King of Germany from 1190 to 1197, Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 to 1197 and King of Sicily from 1194 to 1197. ...


Reign

English Royalty
House of Plantagenet

Armorial of Plantagenet
John
   Henry III
   Richard, Earl of Cornwall
   Joan, Queen of Scots
   Isabella, Holy Roman Empress
   Eleanor, Countess of Leicester

This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... The House of Plantagenet (IPA: ), also called the House of Anjou, or Angevin dynasty was originally a noble family from France, which ruled the County of Anjou. ... Image File history File links England_COA.svg‎ Source own work created in Inkscape, based on Image:EnglishcoatofarmsGFDL.png Date 2006-11-21 Author MesserWoland Permission Own work, copyleft: Multi-license with GFDL and Creative Commons CC-BY-SA-2. ... // Categories: | ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... Richard (5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272) was Count of Poitou (bef. ... Alexander II (August 24, 1198 – July 6, 1249), King of Scots, was the son of William the Lion and Ermengarde of Beaumont. ... The wedding of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and Isabella. ... Eleanor of England (also called Eleanor Plantagenet1 and Eleanor of Leicester) was born in the year 1215, in Gloucester. ...

Dispute with Arthur

When Richard died, John did not gain immediate universal recognition as king. Some regarded his young nephew, Arthur of Brittany, the son of John's late brother Geoffrey, as the rightful heir. Arthur fought his uncle for the throne, with the support of King Philip II of France. The conflict between Arthur and King John had fatal consequences. By the May 1200 Treaty of Le Goulet, Philip recognised John over Arthur, and the two came to terms regarding John's vassalage for Normandy and the Angevin territories. However, the peace was ephemeral. This article is about the domestic group. ... Arthur I, Duke of Brittany (1187 – 1203), was the posthumous son of Geoffrey Plantagenet and Constance, Duchess of Brittany, and designated heir to the throne of England, originally intended to succeed Richard I. While Richard was away on crusade, Constance took more independence for Brittany, and in 1194 had the... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... The Treaty of Le Goulet was signed by the kings John of England and Philip II of France in May 1200. ...


The war upset the barons of Poitou enough for them to seek redress from the King of France, who was King John's feudal overlord with respect to certain territories on the Continent. In 1202, John was summoned to the French court to answer to certain charges, one of which was his kidnapping and later marriage to Isobel of Angouleme, who was already engaged to Guy de Lusignan. John was called to Phillip's court after the Lusignans pleaded for his help. John refused, and, under feudal law, because of his failure of service to his lord, the French King claimed the lands and territories ruled by King John as Count of Poitou, declaring all John's French territories except Gascony in the southwest forfeit. The French promptly invaded Normandy; King Philip II invested Arthur with all those fiefs King John once held (except for Normandy) and betrothed him to his daughter Marie. Coat of arms of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, Plantagenet claimant to the county of Poitou, now favored as the coat of arms of Poitou by people in Poitou Poitou was a province of France whose capital city was Poitiers. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Needing to supply a war across the English Channel, in 1203 John ordered all shipyards (including inland places such as Gloucester) in England to provide at least one ship, with places such as the newly-built Portsmouth being responsible for several. He made Portsmouth the new home of the navy. (The Anglo-Saxon kings, such as Edward the Confessor, had royal harbours constructed on the south coast at Sandwich, and most importantly, Hastings.) By the end of 1204, he had 45 large galleys available to him, and from then on an average of four new ones every year. He also created an Admiralty of four admirals, responsible for various parts of the new navy. During John's reign, major improvements were made in ship design, including the addition of sails and removable forecastles. He also created the first big transport ships, called buisses. John is sometimes credited with the founding of the modern Royal Navy. What is known about this navy comes from the Pipe Rolls, since these achievements are ignored by the chroniclers and early historians. For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... This article is about the city of Gloucester in England; for other uses see Gloucester (disambiguation). ... Portsmouth Naval Dockyard. ... The foremost of the kings of Anglo-Saxon England was Ælle of Sussex in 477, who was much later followed by Alfred the Great (who took the place of Ethelred) in 871. ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... For other uses, see Sandwich (disambiguation). ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... forecastle with figurehead Grand Turk Focsle of the Prince William, a modern square rigged ship, in the North Sea. ... The British Royal Navy does not have a well-defined moment of formation; it started out as a motley assortment of Kings ships during the Middle Ages, assembled only as needed and then dispersed, began to take shape as a standing navy during the 16th century, and became a... The Pipe Rolls are a series of financial records from England, beginning in 1130 and lasting, mostly complete, until 1833. ...


In the hope of avoiding trouble in England and Wales while he was away fighting to recover his French lands, in 1205, John formed an alliance by marrying off his illegitimate daughter, Joan, to the Welsh prince Llywelyn the Great. Joan, Lady of Wales, or Joan of England (died March 1236) was the wife of Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Gwynedd and effective ruler of most of Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ( 1173–April 11, 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd and eventually ruler of much of Wales. ...


During the conflict, Arthur attempted to kidnap his own grandmother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, at Mirebeau, but was defeated and captured by John's forces. Arthur was imprisoned first at Falaise and then at Rouen. No one is certain what ultimately happened to Arthur. According to the Margam Annals, on 3 April 1203: Kidnapper redirects here. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 16 - Philip II of France enters Rouen, leading to the eventual unification of Normandy and France. ...

After King John had captured Arthur and kept him alive in prison for some time in the castle of Rouen... when [John] was drunk he slew [Arthur] with his own hand and tying a heavy stone to the body cast it into the Seine.

However, Hubert de Burgh, the officer commanding the Rouen fortress, claimed to have delivered Arthur around Easter 1203 to agents of the King who had been sent to castrate him. He reported that Arthur had died of shock. de Burgh later retracted his statement and claimed Arthur still lived, but no one saw Arthur alive again. The supposition that he was murdered caused Brittany, and later Normandy, to rebel against King John. This article is about the river in France. ... Hubert de Burgh (~1165 - May 12, 1243) was Earl of Kent, Justiciar of England and Ireland, and one of the most influential men in England during the reigns of John and Henry III. De Burgh came from a minor gentry family about which little is known. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Castration (also referred as: gelding, neutering, orchiectomy, orchidectomy, and oophorectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testes or a female loses the functions of the ovaries. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ...


In addition to capturing Arthur, John also captured Arthur's sister, his niece Eleanor, Fair Maid of Brittany. Eleanor remained a prisoner until her death in 1241. Through deeds such as these, John acquired a reputation for ruthlessness. Eleanor the Fair Maid of Brittany ( 1184–1241) was the daughter of Geoffrey Plantagenet and Constance, Duchess of Brittany. ...


Dealings with Bordeaux

In 1203, John exempted the citizens and merchants of Bordeaux from the Grande Coutume, which was the principal tax on their exports. In exchange, the regions of Bordeaux, Bayonne and Dax pledged support against the French Crown. The unblocked ports gave Gascon merchants open access to the English wine market for the first time. The following year, John granted the same exemptions to La Rochelle and Poitou.[6] For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... The Grande Coutume (English Great Custom) was a principal export tax imposed by the British on products from the Gascony, Bordeaux and Poitou regions. ... Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Dax is a commune of Aquitaine in southwestern France, sous-préfecture of the Landes département. ... For other uses, see La Rochelle (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, Plantagenet claimant to the county of Poitou, now favored as the coat of arms of Poitou by people in Poitou Poitou was a province of France whose capital city was Poitiers. ...


Dispute with the Pope

Pope Innocent III and King John had a disagreement about who would become Archbishop of Canterbury which lasted from 1205 until 1213.
Pope Innocent III and King John had a disagreement about who would become Archbishop of Canterbury which lasted from 1205 until 1213.

When Archbishop of Canterbury Hubert Walter died on 13 July 1205, John became involved in a dispute with Pope Innocent III. The Canterbury Cathedral chapter claimed the sole right to elect Hubert's successor and favoured Reginald, a candidate out of their midst. However, both the English bishops and the king had an interest in the choice of successor to this powerful office. The king wanted John de Gray, one of his own men, so he could influence the church more.[7] When their dispute could not be settled, the Chapter secretly elected one of their members as Archbishop. A second election imposed by John resulted in another nominee. When they both appeared in Rome, Innocent disavowed both elections, and his candidate, Stephen Langton, was elected over the objections of John's observers. John was supported in his position by the English barons and many of the English bishops and refused to accept Langton. Image File history File links Pope Innocent III from de:Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Pope Innocent III ... Image File history File links Pope Innocent III from de:Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Pope Innocent III ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Hubert Walter (died July 13, 1205), chief justiciar of England and archbishop of Canterbury, was a relative of Ranulf de Glanvill, the great justiciar of Henry II, and rose under the eye of his kinsman to an important position in the Curia Regis. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire April 1 - King Amalric II of Jerusalem (born 1145) May 7... Pope Innocent III (c. ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... John de Gray (d. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Stephen Langton (c. ... For other uses, see Baron (disambiguation). ...


John expelled the Chapter in July 1207, to which the Pope reacted by imposing the interdict on the kingdom. John immediately retaliated by seizure of church property for failure to provide feudal service. The Pope, realizing that too long a period without church services could lead to loss of faith, gave permission for some churches to hold Mass behind closed doors in 1209. In 1212, they allowed last rites to the dying. While the interdict was a burden to many, it did not result in rebellion against John. For other meanings see Interdict The word interdict usually refers to an ecclesiastical penalty in the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Extreme Unction, part of The Seven Sacraments (1445) by Roger van der Weyden. ...


In November 1209 John was excommunicated, and in February 1213, Innocent threatened England with a Crusade led by Philip Augustus of France. Philip had wanted to place his son Louis, the future Louis IX on the English throne. John, suspicious of the military support his barons would offer, submitted to the pope. Innocent III quickly called off the Crusade as he had never really planned for it to go ahead. The papal terms for submission were accepted in the presence of the papal legate Pandulph in May 1213 (according to Matthew Paris, at the Templar Church at Dover);[8] in addition, John offered to surrender the Kingdom of England to God and the Saints Peter and Paul for a feudal service of 1,000 marks annually, 700 for England and 300 for Ireland.[9] With this submission, formalised in the Bulla Aurea (Golden Bull), John gained the valuable support of his papal overlord in his new dispute with the English barons. Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... Pandulph (or Pandolfo) (d. ... Self portrait of Matthew Paris from the original manuscript of his Historia Anglorum (London, British Library, MS Royal 14. ... Main article: Knights Templar The history of the Knights Templar in England began when the French nobleman Hughes de Payens, the founder and Grand Master of the order of the Knights Templar, visited the country in 1118 to raise men and money for the Crusades. ... , Dover is a major channel port in the English county of Kent. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... St Peter redirects here. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ...


Dispute with the barons

John signing Magna Carta
John signing Magna Carta

Having successfully put down the Welsh Uprising of 1211 and settling his dispute with the papacy, John turned his attentions back to his overseas interests. The European wars culminated in defeat at the Battle of Bouvines (1214), which forced the king to accept an unfavourable peace with France. This article is about the English charter issued in 1215. ... The Battle of Bouvines, July 27, 1214, was the first great international conflict of alliances among national forces in Europe. ...


The defeat finally turned the largest part of his barons against him, although some had already rebelled against him after he was excommunicated by the Pope. The nobles joined together and demanded concessions. John met their leaders at Runnymede, near London on 15 June 1215 to seal the Great Charter, called in Latin Magna Carta. Because he had signed under duress, however, John received approval from his overlord the Pope to break his word as soon as hostilities had ceased, provoking the First Barons' War and an invited French invasion by Prince Louis of France (whom the majority of the English barons had invited to replace John on the throne). John travelled around the country to oppose the rebel forces, including a personal two month siege of the rebel-held Rochester Castle. Location of Runnymede at grid reference SU998727 in the United Kingdom Runnymede is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames in the county of Surrey, England, associated with the signing of the Magna Carta and today the site of a collection of memorials. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A certified copy of the Magna Carta March 4 - King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III. June 15 - King John of England was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... This article is about the English charter issued in 1215. ... Combatants Pro-Angevin forces Pro-Capetian forces, and Kingdom of France Commanders Hubert de Burgh Prince Louis The First Barons War (1215–1217) was a combination of a civil war in England between the forces of a number of rebellious barons and King John, and a foreign invasion invited by... Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... Rochester Castle seen from the cathedral door, showing the four-turreted keep. ...


Death

John's tomb effigy
John's tomb effigy

Retreating from the French invasion, John took a safe route around the marshy area of the Wash to avoid the rebel held area of East Anglia. His slow baggage train (including the Crown Jewels), however, took a direct route across it and was lost to the unexpected incoming tide. This loss dealt John a terrible blow, which affected his health and state of mind. Succumbing to dysentery and moving from place to place, he stayed one night at Sleaford Castle before dying on 18 October (or possibly 19 October) 1216, at Newark Castle (then in Lincolnshire, now on Nottinghamshire's border with that county). Numerous, possibly fictitious, accounts circulated soon after his death that he had been killed by poisoned ale, poisoned plums or a "surfeit of peaches". Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (755x1246, 115 KB) John of England tomb effigy The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (755x1246, 115 KB) John of England tomb effigy The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... The Wash, as seen looking west from Heacham, Norfolk The Wash is also the name of a 2001 film. ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... Coronation Chair and Regalia of England The collective term Crown Jewels denotes the regalia and vestments worn by the sovereign of the United Kingdom during the coronation ceremony and at various other state functions. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ... // Sleaford Castle, medieval castle in Sleaford, Lincolnshire, England. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... Newark Castle, in Newark, Nottinghamshire, England, is said to have been founded by Egbert, king of the West Saxons, was partly rebuilt and greatly extended by Alexander, consecrated Bishop of Lincoln in 1123, who established it as a mint. ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ...


He was buried in Worcester Cathedral in the city of Worcester. A plan of Worcester Cathedral made in 1836. ... The city of Worcester (pronounced Wuh-ster) is the county town of Worcestershire in England; the river Severn runs through the middle, with the citys large Worcester Cathedral overlooking the river. ...


His nine-year-old son succeeded him and became King Henry III of England (1216–72), and although Louis continued to claim the English throne, the barons switched their allegiance to the new king, forcing Louis to give up his claim and sign the Treaty of Lambeth in 1217. Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... The Treaty of Lambeth was signed in 1217 by Louis VIII of France, ending his campaign in the First Barons War, and his claim to the throne of England. ...


Legacy

King John's tomb
King John's tomb

King John's reign has been traditionally characterised as one of the most disastrous in English history: it began with defeats—he lost Normandy to Philip Augustus of France in his first five years on the throne—and ended with England torn by civil war (The First Barons' War), the Crown Jewels lost and himself on the verge of being forced out of power. In 1213, he made England a papal fief to resolve a conflict with the Roman Catholic Church, and his rebellious barons forced him to sign the Magna Carta in 1215. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2673x1953, 3422 KB) King Johns tomb in Worcester Cathedral. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2673x1953, 3422 KB) King Johns tomb in Worcester Cathedral. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... Combatants Pro-Angevin forces Pro-Capetian forces, and Kingdom of France Commanders Hubert de Burgh Prince Louis The First Barons War (1215–1217) was a combination of a civil war in England between the forces of a number of rebellious barons and King John, and a foreign invasion invited by... Coronation Chair and Regalia of England The collective term Crown Jewels denotes the regalia and vestments worn by the sovereign of the United Kingdom during the coronation ceremony and at various other state functions. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article is about the English charter issued in 1215. ...


As far as the administration of his kingdom went, John functioned as an efficient ruler, but he lost approval of the English barons by taxing them in ways that were outside those traditionally allowed by feudal overlords. The tax known as scutage, payment made instead of providing knights (as required by feudal law), became particularly unpopular. John was a very fair-minded and well informed king, however, often acting as a judge in the Royal Courts, and his justice was much sought after. Also, John's employment of an able Chancellor and certain clerks resulted in the continuation of the administrative records of the English exchequer - the Pipe Rolls. The tax of scutage or escuage in the law of England involved the pecuniary commutation, under the feudal system, of the military service due from the holder of a knights fee. ... The Pipe Rolls are a series of financial records from England, beginning in 1130 and lasting, mostly complete, until 1833. ...


Medieval historian C. Warren Hollister called John an "enigmatic figure":

...talented in some respects, good at administrative detail, but suspicious, unscrupulous, and mistrusted. He was compared in a recent scholarly article, perhaps unfairly, with Richard Nixon. His crisis-prone career was sabotaged repeatedly by the halfheartedness with which his vassals supported him—and the energy with which some of them opposed him. Nixon redirects here. ...

Winston Churchill summarised the legacy of John's reign: "When the long tally is added, it will be seen that the British nation and the English-speaking world owe far more to the vices of John than to the labours of virtuous sovereigns".[10] Churchill redirects here. ...


In 2006, he was selected by the BBC History Magazine as the 13th century's worst Briton.[11] BBC History is a magazine devoted to history enthusiasts of all levels of knowledge and interest. ... A list of the worst Britons in history, according to ten English historians, was compiled by the BBC History Magazine in late 2005. ...


Marriage and issue

In 1189, John was married to Isabel of Gloucester, daughter and heiress of William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester (she is given several alternative names by history, including Avisa, Hawise, Joan, and Eleanor). They had no children, and since her paternal grandfather was the illegitimate son of Henry I of England, John had their marriage annulled on the grounds of consanguinity, some time before or shortly after his accession to the throne, which took place on 6 April 1199, and she was never acknowledged as queen. (She then married Geoffrey FitzGeoffrey de Mandeville, 2nd Earl of Essex as her second husband and Hubert de Burgh as her third). Isabel of Gloucester (d. ... William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester (died 1183) was the son and heir of Sir Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester, and Mabel of Gloucester, daughter of Robert Fitzhamon. ... Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (c. ... Henry I (c. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... Consanguinity, literally meaning common blood, describes how close a person is related to another in the sense of a family. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... Hubert de Burgh (~1165 - May 12, 1243) was Earl of Kent, Justiciar of England and Ireland, and one of the most influential men in England during the reigns of John and Henry III. De Burgh came from a minor gentry family about which little is known. ...


John remarried, on 24 August 1200, Isabella of Angoulême, who was twenty years his junior. She was the daughter of Aymer Taillefer, Count of Angouleme. John had kidnapped her from her fiancé, Hugh X of Lusignan. is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... Statue of Isabella of Angoulême, in front of the city hall of Angoulême Isabella of Angoulême (fr. ... Hugh X of Lusignan (c. ...


Isabella bore five children:

John is given a great taste for lechery by the chroniclers of his age, and even allowing some embellishment, he did have many illegitimate children. Matthew Paris accuses him of being envious of many of his barons and kinsfolk, and seducing their more attractive daughters and sisters. Roger of Wendover describes an incident that occurred when John became enamoured of Margaret, the wife of Eustace de Vesci and an illegitimate daughter of King William I of Scotland. Eustace substituted a prostitute in her place when the king came to Margaret's bed in the dark of night; the next morning, when John boasted to Vesci of how good his wife was in bed, Vesci confessed and fled. Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... Richard (5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272) was Count of Poitou (bef. ... Joan of England (July 22, 1210 – March 4, 1238), was the first legitimate daughter and third child of King John of England and Isabella of Angoulême. ... Alexander II (August 24, 1198 – July 6, 1249), king of Scotland, son of William I, the Lion, and of Ermengarde of Beaumont, was born at Haddington, East Lothian, in 1198, and succeeded to the kingdom on the death of his father on 4 December 1214. ... The wedding of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and Isabella. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Eleanor of England (also called Eleanor Plantagenet1 and Eleanor of Leicester) was born in the year 1215, in Gloucester. ... William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (c. ... From the Chamber of the United States House of Representatives Simon V de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (1208 – August 4, 1265) was the principal leader of the baronial opposition to King Henry III of England. ... Self portrait of Matthew Paris from the original manuscript of his Historia Anglorum (London, British Library, MS Royal 14. ... Roger of Wendover (d. ... Eustace de Vesci (1169-1216) was lord of Alnwick Castle, and a Magna Carta surety. ... William I the Lion ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ...


John had the following illegitimate children (unless otherwise stated by unknown mistresses):

  • Joan, Lady of Wales, the wife of Prince Llywelyn Fawr of Wales, (by a woman named Clemence)
  • Richard Fitz Roy, (by his cousin, Adela, daughter of his uncle Hamelin de Warenne)
  • Oliver FitzRoy, (by a mistress named Hawise) who accompanied the papal legate Pelayo to Damietta in 1218, and never returned.
  • Geoffrey FitzRoy, who went on expedition to Poitou in 1205 and died there.
  • John FitzRoy, a clerk in 1201.
  • Henry FitzRoy, who died in 1245.
  • Osbert Gifford, who was given lands in Oxfordshire, Norfolk, Suffolk, and Sussex, and is last seen alive in 1216.
  • Eudes FitzRoy, who accompanied his half-brother Richard, Earl of Cornwall on Crusade and died in the Holy Land in 1241.
  • Bartholomew FitzRoy, a member of the order of Friars Preachers.
  • Maud FitzRoy, Abbess of Barking, who died in 1252.
  • Isabel FitzRoy, wife of Richard Fitz Ives.
  • Philip FitzRoy, found living in 1263.

(The surname of FitzRoy is Norman-French for son of the king.) Joan, Lady of Wales, or Joan of England (died March 1236) was the wife of Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Gwynedd and effective ruler of most of Wales. ... Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ( 1173–April 11, 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd. ... This article is about the country. ... Richard Fitz Roy (died 1246) or de Warenne, Baron of Chilham, Kent, was the illegitimate son of King John of England. ... Hamelin de Warenne (d. ... Pelayo (690–737) was the first King of Asturias, ruling from 718 until his death. ... Damietta is a port in Dumyat, Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea at the Nile delta, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... This article refers to the historic county in England. ... Richard (5 January 1209 - 2 April 1272) was Count of Poitou (bef. ... ... For other uses, see Barking (disambiguation). ... Fitzroy or FitzRoy is an Anglo-Norman name originally meaning son of the king - it usually refers to a bastard son of the king, or a descendant thereof. ...


Ancestry

Fulk IV of Anjou (1043-1109), also known as Fulk le Réchin, was count of Anjou from 1068 to 1109. ... Fulk of Anjou (1092 – November 10, 1143), king of Jerusalem from 1131, was the son of Fulk IV, count of Anjou, and his wife Bertrada (who ultimately deserted her husband and became the mistress of Philip I of France). ... Bertrade de Montfort (died 1117) was the daughter of Simon de Montfort-lAmaury and Agnes, Countess of Evreux. ... Geoffrey of Anjou Geoffrey V (Godefroi) (August 24, 1113 – September 7, 1151), Count of Anjou, Touraine and Maine, and later Duke of Normandy by marriage, called Le Bel (The Fair), Martel (The Hammer) or Plantagenet, was the father of King Henry II of England, and thus the forefather of the... Ermengarde of Maine (died 1126) married Fulk V of Anjou in 1110. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... William I of England (c. ... Henry I (c. ... Matilda of Flanders (c. ... Empress Matilda (February 1102 – September 10, 1167; sometimes Maud or Maude), also called Matilda, Countess of Anjou or Matilda, Lady of the English, was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ... Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... Edith of Scotland, (c. ... Saint Margaret (c. ... William VIII of Aquitaine, (Guillaume VIII in French) (1025 – September 25, 1086), whose name was Guy-Geoffroy before becoming Duke of Aquitaine, was Duke of Gascony (1052-1086), and then Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitiers (as William VI of Poitiers) between 1058 and 1086, succceeding his brother William... William IX of Aquitaine (October 22, 1071 – February 10, 1126, also Guillaume or Guilhem dAquitaine), nicknamed the Troubador was Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitiers as William VII of Poitiers between 1086 and 1126. ... William X of Aquitaine (1099 – April 9, 1137), nicknamed the Saint was Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitiers as William VIII of Poitiers between 1126 and 1137. ... William IV of Toulouse (c. ... Philippa Maude of Toulouse (c. ... Eleanor of Aquitaine (right) and John sans Terre Eleanor of Aquitaine (or Aliénor), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1]–April 1, 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ... Aenor of Châtellerault, duchess of Aquitaine (c. ...

See also

  • Cultural depictions of John of England

Notes

  1. ^ Some sources indicate he died on 18 October
  2. ^ King John was not a Good Man. Icons of England. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  3. ^ Meade, Marion, Eleanor of Aquitaine, pp.283-285
  4. ^ King John and the Magna Carta BBC, accessed 01/01/08
  5. ^ Stephen Inwood, A History of London, London: Macmillan, 1998, p.58.
  6. ^ Hugh Johnson, Vintage: The Story of Wine p.142. Simon and Schuster 1989
  7. ^ Haines, Roy Martin (2004). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: John de Gray. Oxford University Press. 
  8. ^ Knights Templar Church at English Heritage website
  9. ^ See Christopher Harper-Bull's essay "John and the Church of Rome" in S. D. Church's King John, New Interpretations, p. 307.
  10. ^ Humes, James C. (1994). The Wit & Wisdom of Winston Churchill: p.155
  11. ^ BBC

is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • King John, by W.L. Warren ISBN 0-520-03643-3
  • The Feudal Kingdom of England 1042–1216, by Frank Barlow ISBN 0-582-49504-0
  • Medieval Europe: A Short History (Seventh Edition), by C. Warren Hollister ISBN 0-07-029637-5

External links

John of England
Born: 1166 24 December Died: 1216 19 October
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Richard I
King of England
11991216
Succeeded by
Henry III¹
French nobility
Preceded by
Richard I
Duke of Aquitaine
11991216
Succeeded by
Henry III¹
Duke of Normandy
11991204
Succeeded by
Philip II of France²
Count of Maine
11991203
Peerage of Ireland
New title
Lord of Ireland
11851216
Succeeded by
Henry III
Notes and references
1. Louis VIII of France was proclaimed king after the First Barons' War but was never crowned. Having been accepted as king by the barons4 as well as by Alexander II of Scotland5, there is a good case for acknowledging Louis as King of England, though he gave up his claim in 1217 with the Treaty of Lambeth.
2. The County of Maine and the Duchy of Normandy were annexed by the Kingdom of France — and permanently lost to the Kingdom of England — in 1203 and 1204, respectively.
3. The Lordship of Ireland nominally took over the island, with Papal approval (see the Papal bull Laudabiliter), from the High Kings of Ireland, the title being lost by Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair in the late 12th century. The English retained only nominal overlordship of Ireland (see The Pale) until the Tudor re-conquest of Ireland in the 16th century.
4. Carpenter, David, The Struggle for Mastery, The Penguin History of Britain 1066–1284 page 300: “Louis, eldest son of the king of France, to whom the rebels had offered the throne, held London and the allegiance of nineteen of the twenty-seven greatest barons.”
5. ibid in The Struggle for Mastery, page 299: “…Carlisle was surrendered to Alexander who then came south to do homage to Louis for the Northern Counties.”
Family information
Geoffrey V of Anjou
House of Anjou
Henry II
John of England
Matilda of England
House of Normandy
William X of Aquitaine
House of Poitiers
Eleanor
Duchess Regnant of Aquitaine
Aenor de Châtellerault
Notes and references
1. Tompsett, Brian, Directory of Royal Genealogical Data (Hull, UK: University of Hull, 2005).
2. Ross, Kelley L., The Proceedings of the Friesian School (Los Angeles, US: Los Angeles Valley College, 2007).
Genealogics is a free genealogical, historical website run by Leo van de Pas [1] and Ian Fettes. ... The House of Plantagenet (IPA: ), also called the House of Anjou, or Angevin dynasty was originally a noble family from France, which ruled the County of Anjou. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... // Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... Coat of arms of the duchy of Aquitaine. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... // Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... This is a list of counts and dukes of Maine, France. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... Events April 16 - Philip II of France enters Rouen, leading to the eventual unification of Normandy and France. ... The Peerage of Ireland the term used for those peers created by British monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland. ... Combatants Normans: Leinster,  England,  Fleming,  Welsh, Irish Kingdoms: Ulster, Munster Connaught  Norsemen Commanders Dermot MacMurrough, King Henry II, Strongbow, Raymond Carew, Richard Fitz Godbert Rhys ap Gruffydd, Maurice Fitz Gerald, Robert Fitz Stephen, Rory OConnor Askuluv Strength Note: All figures may vary according to source. ... Coat of arms1 Capital Dublin Language(s) Norman French, Irish, Welsh, English Government Monarchy Lord of Ireland  - 1171-1189 Henry II  - 1509-1541 Henry VIII Lord Lieutenant  - 1528-1529 Piers Butler  - 1540–1548 Anthony St Leger Legislature Parliament of Ireland  - Upper house Irish House of Lords  - Lower house Irish House... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... // Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... Combatants Pro-Angevin forces Pro-Capetian forces, and Kingdom of France Commanders Hubert de Burgh Prince Louis The First Barons War (1215–1217) was a combination of a civil war in England between the forces of a number of rebellious barons and King John, and a foreign invasion invited by... Alexander II (August 24, 1198 – July 6, 1249), king of Scotland, son of William I, the Lion, and of Ermengarde of Beaumont, was born at Haddington, East Lothian, in 1198, and succeeded to the kingdom on the death of his father on 4 December 1214. ... April 9 - Peter of Courtenay crowned emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople at Rome, by Pope Honorius III May 20 - First Barons War, royalist victory at Lincoln. ... The Treaty of Lambeth was signed in 1217 by Louis VIII of France, ending his campaign in the First Barons War, and his claim to the throne of England. ... Flag of Maine Location of Maine in France Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France. ... The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... The borders of modern France closely align with those of the ancient territory of Gaul, inhabited by Celts known as Gauls. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Events April 16 - Philip II of France enters Rouen, leading to the eventual unification of Normandy and France. ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... Coat of arms1 Capital Dublin Language(s) Norman French, Irish, Welsh, English Government Monarchy Lord of Ireland  - 1171-1189 Henry II  - 1509-1541 Henry VIII Lord Lieutenant  - 1528-1529 Piers Butler  - 1540–1548 Anthony St Leger Legislature Parliament of Ireland  - Upper house Irish House of Lords  - Lower house Irish House... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... In 1155, Pope Adrian IV issued a papal bull Laudabiliter giving the Norman King Henry II lordship over Ireland. ... The High Kingship of Ireland was a pseudohistorical construct of the eighth century AD, a projection into the distant past of a political entity that did not become reality until the ninth century. ... Ruaidri Ua Conchobair (d. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The Pale or the English Pale comprised a region in a radius of twenty miles around Dublin which the English in Ireland gradually fortified against incursion from Gaels. ... The Tudor re-conquest of Ireland took place under the English Tudor dynasty during the 16th century. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... For other uses, see Carlisle (disambiguation). ... Alexander II (August 24, 1198 – July 6, 1249), king of Scotland, son of William I, the Lion, and of Ermengarde of Beaumont, was born at Haddington, East Lothian, in 1198, and succeeded to the kingdom on the death of his father on 4 December 1214. ... Geoffrey of Anjou Geoffrey V (Godefroi) (August 24, 1113 – September 7, 1151), Count of Anjou, Touraine and Maine, and later Duke of Normandy by marriage, called Le Bel (The Fair), Martel (The Hammer) or Plantagenet, was the father of King Henry II of England, and thus the forefather of the... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Empress Matilda (February 1102 – September 10, 1167; sometimes Maud or Maude), also called Matilda, Countess of Anjou or Matilda, Lady of the English, was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ... Norman conquests in red. ... William X of Aquitaine (1099 – April 9, 1137), nicknamed the Saint was Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitiers as William VIII of Poitiers between 1126 and 1137. ... Coat of arms of the duchy of Aquitaine. ... Eleanor of Aquitaine (right) and John sans Terre Eleanor of Aquitaine (or Aliénor), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1]–April 1, 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ... Coat of arms of the duchy of Aquitaine. ... Aenor of Châtellerault, duchess of Aquitaine (c. ... Châtellerault is a commune in the Vienne département, in the Poitou-Charentes région of France. ... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... Bretwalda is an Anglo-Saxon term, the first record of which comes from the late ninth-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Northumberland. ... Ælle was king of the South Saxons from 477 to perhaps as late as 514, and was named Bretwalda by Bede, who adds that he was overlord of the English south of the Humber river. ... Ceawlin of Wessex (also spelled Ceaulin or Caelin) is recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as being king of the West Saxons, or Wessex from 560 to 591, and named by Bede in his Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum as the second king to hold imperium over other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. ... Ethelbert (or Æthelbert, or Aethelberht) (means roughly Magnificent Noble) (c. ... Rædwald, son of Tytila, was King of the East Angles from c 600 AD until his death in c 624 AD. From c 616 he became the most powerful of the English rulers south of the River Humber, and by military action installed a Northumbrian ruler acquiescent to his... Saint Edwin (alternately Eadwine or Æduini) (c. ... Oswald (c. ... Oswiu (612–February 15, 670), also written as Oswio, Oswy, and Osuiu was an Anglo-Saxon Bretwalda. ... Wulfhere (d. ... For the later earl, see Earl Aethelred of Mercia. ... Ethelbald (or Æthelbald) (died 757) was the King of Mercia in England from 716 until his death. ... This article is about Offa of Mercia. ... Coenwulf (or Cenwulf) (died 821) was King of Mercia from 796 to 821. ... Egbert (also Ecgbehrt or Ecgbert, means roughly The shining edge of a blade) (c. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Image File history File links Wyvern. ... For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ... Edward the Elder (Old English: Ä’adweard se Ieldra) (c. ... Ælfweard (died 2 August 924) was the second known son of Edward the Elder. ... Athelstan redirects here. ... Edmund I (or Eadmund, 921 – May 26, 946), called the Elder, the Deed-Doer, or the Just, was King of England from 939 until his death. ... “Eadred” redirects here. ... Edwy All-Fair or Eadwig (941? – October 1, 959) was the King of England from 955 until his death. ... King Edgar or Eadgar I ( 942 – July 8, 975) was the younger son of King Edmund I of England. ... Not to be confused with Edmund the Martyr. ... Ethelred II (c. ... Sweyn I Forkbeard (actually Svein Otto Haraldsson; in Danish, Svend Tveskæg, originally Svend Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg) (circa 960 - February 3, 1014). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Canute the Great, or Canute I, also known as Cnut in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den Store, Danish: Knud den Store) (died November 12, 1035) was a Viking king of England and Denmark, and Norway, and of... Harold I Harefoot (c. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. ... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... William I of England (c. ... William II (c. ... Henry I (c. ... Stephen (c. ... Empress Matilda (February 1102 – September 10, 1167; sometimes Maud or Maude), also called Matilda, Countess of Anjou or Matilda, Lady of the English, was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great English warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... This article is about King Richard III of England. ... The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor, was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Edward Tudor redirects here. ... Lady Jane Grey, formally Jane of England (1537 — 12 February 1554), a grand-niece of Henry VIII of England, reigned as uncrowned Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days[1] in July 1553. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. ... The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule in the land occupied by modern-day England and Wales after the English Civil War. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scotland,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ... For an explanation of terms such as Great Britain, British, United Kingdom, England, Scotland and Wales, see British Isles (terminology). ... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ...

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England Dan and John Ford Coley (1388 words)
John Colley, born October 13th 1951, was a classically trained pianist.
England Dan & John Ford Coley not only flowed well, but was unusual enough to merit a second look from programmers, reviewers, and promoters, as well as the general public, even if they'd never heard any of the duo's music.
As "England Dan & John Ford Coley", they were signed to A&M Records in 1970, with the assistance of guitarist Louis Shelton, who'd played with Jim Seals in The Dawnbreakers (and would be part of Seals & Croft's band), and who had brought the duo's demo to Herb Alpert.
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