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Encyclopedia > John Wayne
John Wayne

John Wayne in Wake of the Red Witch (1948).
Born Marion Robert Morrison
May 26, 1907(1907-05-26)
Winterset, Iowa
Died June 11, 1979 (aged 72)
Los Angeles, California
Other name(s) Marion Michael Morrison; Duke
Occupation actor
Years active 19261976
Spouse(s) Josephine Alicia Saenz (1933–1945)
Esperanza Baur (1946–1953)
Pilar Pallete (1954–1979)
Official website

John Wayne (May 26, 1907June 11, 1979) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor. He epitomized rugged masculinity, and has become an enduring American icon. He is famous for his distinctive voice, walk and physical presence. He was also known for his conservative political views and his support in the 1950s for anti-communist positions. John Wayne and similar names have been used by various people and groups: John Wayne, American actor John Wayne Airport, in Orange County, California Johnny Wayne, comedian Jon Wayne, Los Angeles cowpunk band John Wayne (album) by Terry Scott Taylor John Wayne Bobbitt, injured party in a famous 1993 court... Wake of the Red Witch is a 1948 film starring John Wayne and Gail Russell. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Madison County Courthouse Winterset is a city in Madison County, Iowa, United States. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... // August - Warner Brothers debuts the first Vitaphone film, Don Juan. ... The year 1976 in film involved some significant events. ... Josephine Alicia Saenz (also known as Josie Morrison[1]) was the first wife of legendary American film actor John Wayne, and is the mother of the late actor/film producer Michael Wayne and actor Patrick Wayne. ... Esperanza Baur (c. ... Maria del Pilar Pallette Weldy Wayne Upchurch (born 1933 in Paita, Peru) is a former Peruvian actress who was the third wife of the American film star John Wayne. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to recognize an actor who has delivered an outstanding performance while working within the film industry. ... True Grit by Charles Portis first appeared as a 1968 short story in The Saturday Evening Post. ... The Golden Globe Award The Golden Globe Awards are American awards for motion pictures and television programs, given out each year during a formal dinner. ... The Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievement in motion pictures has been given annually since 1952 by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association at the Golden Globe Award ceremonies in Hollywood, California. ... The Golden Globe Award for Best Actor - Motion Picture - Drama was first awarded by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association as a separate category in 1951. ... True Grit by Charles Portis first appeared as a 1968 short story in The Saturday Evening Post. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... American conservatism is a constellation of political ideologies within the United States under the blanket heading of conservative. ...


In 1999, the American Film Institute named Wayne thirteenth among the Greatest Male Stars of All Time. A Harris Poll released in 2007 placed Wayne third among America's favorite film stars,[1] the only deceased star on the list and the only one who has appeared on the poll every year. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Part of the AFI 100 Years. ...


His career began in silent movies in the 1920s and he was a major star from the 1940s to the 1970s. He is closely associated with Westerns and war movies, but he also made a wide range of films from various genres - biographies, romantic comedies, police dramas, and more. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Early life

Wayne was born Marion Robert Morrison in Winterset, Iowa,[2] but his name was changed to Marion Michael Morrison when his parents decided to name their next son Robert. His family was Presbyterian. His father, Clyde Leonard Morrison (1884–1937), was of Irish and Scots-Irish and English descent,[3] and the son of American Civil War veteran Marion Mitchell Morrison (20 January 184505 December 1915). Marion Mitchell was born in Cherry Fork, Adams, Ohio as the son of Robert Morrison and Mary Mitchell. Wayne's mother, Mary Alberta Brown, was also of Irish descent.[citation needed] The Madison County Courthouse Winterset is a city in Madison County, Iowa, United States. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Irish people (Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European ethnic group who originate in Ireland, in north western Europe. ... Scots-Irish (also called Ulster Scots) is a Scottish ethnic group that historically resided in Ireland which ultimately traces its roots back to settlers from Scotland, and to a lesser extent, England. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Wayne's family moved to Palmdale, California, and then to Glendale, California in 1911, where his father worked as a pharmacist in a drug store. A local fireman at the firehouse on his route to school in Glendale started calling him "Little Duke", because he never went anywhere without his huge Airedale Terrier dog, Duke.[4][5] He preferred "Duke" to "Marion", and the name stuck for the rest of his life. Motto: Aerospace Capital of America Location of Palmdale in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country United States of America State California County Los Angeles Government  - Mayor James C. Ledford Jr. ... Nickname: Location of Glendale within Los Angeles County and the State of California. ... The mortar and pestle is an international symbol of pharmacists and pharmacies. ... The Airedale Terrier (often shortened to Airedale) is a terrier dog breed originating from Airedale in Yorkshire, England. ...


As a teen, Wayne worked in an ice cream shop for a person who shoed horses for local Hollywood studios. He was also active as a member of the Order of DeMolay, a youth organization associated with the Freemasons, that he joined when he came of age. He attended Wilson Middle School in Glendale. He played football for the 1924 champion Glendale High School team. This box:      International Order of DeMolay (originally known as the Order of DeMolay), founded in Kansas City, Missouri in 1919, is an international youth fraternity for young men. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ...

John Wayne's birthplace in Winterset
John Wayne's birthplace in Winterset

Wayne applied to the U.S. Naval Academy, but was not accepted. He instead attended the University of Southern California (USC), majoring in pre-law. He was a member of the Trojan Knights and joined the Sigma Chi fraternity. Wayne also played on the USC football team under legendary coach Howard Jones. An injury curtailed his athletic career; Wayne later noted he was too terrified of Jones' reaction to reveal the actual cause of his injury, which was bodysurfing at the “Wedge” at the tip of the Balboa Peninsula in Newport Beach. He lost his athletic scholarship and without funds had to leave school.[6] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 579 pixel Image in higher resolution (1983 × 1434 pixel, file size: 769 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo Taken by Author I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 579 pixel Image in higher resolution (1983 × 1434 pixel, file size: 769 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo Taken by Author I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The United States Naval Academy (USNA) is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps and is in Annapolis, Maryland . ... The Trojan Shrine, better known as Tommy Trojan located in the center of University of Southern California campus. ... The Trojan Knights are the Guardians of Tradition for the University of Southern California. ... Sigma Chi (ΣΧ) is one of the largest and oldest all-male, college, Greek-letter social fraternities. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Howard Jones (born August 23, 1885 in Excello, OH and died July 27, 1941 in Toluca Lake, CA) was a football coach for the University of Southern California, Syracuse University, Yale, Ohio State, University of Iowa, and Duke University. ... Bodysurfing in La Jolla California Bodysurfing is the art and sport of riding a wave without the assistance of any buoyant device such as a surfboard or bodyboard. ... The Wedge The Wedge is a world-famous bodysurfing spot located at the extreme south end of the Balboa Peninsula in Newport Beach, California. ... The Balboa Peninsula is the part of Newport Beach, California people from outside the area probably think about most often when they see the words Newport Beach. ... Newport Harbor redirects here. ...


While at the university, Wayne began working at the local film studios. Western star Tom Mix got him a summer job in the prop department in exchange for football tickets, and Wayne soon moved on to bit parts, establishing a long friendship with director John Ford, who provided most of those bit parts. Early in this period, Wayne appeared with his USC teammates playing on-screen football in The Dropkick, Brown of Harvard, and Salute, and was one of the featured football players in Columbia Pictures' Maker of Men (filmed in 1930 and released in 1931).[7] Broncho Billy Anderson, from The Great Train Robbery The Western movie is one of the classic American film genres. ... Thomas Edwin Mix (born Thomas Hezikiah Mix; January 6, 1880 – October 12, 1940) was an American film actor and the star of many early Western movies. ... For other persons named John Ford, see John Ford (disambiguation). ... The film starred Richard Barthelmess as a college football player The Drop Kick (also known as Glitter in the UK) was a 1927 silent film directed by Millard Webb written by Katherine Brush about a college football player (Richard Barthelmess) who finds his reputation on the line when he pays... Brown of Harvard is a 1926 film and is the better known of the three Brown of Harvard films, having been film legend John Waynes screen debut. ... Salute was a 1929 in film motion picture directed by John Ford, starring George O’Brien, Helen Chandler, William Janney, Stepin Fetchit (Lincoln Perry), and Frank Albertson about the football rivalry of the Army-Navy Game. ... The Columbia Pictures logo from 1993 to the present Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. ... Maker of Men (a. ...


Film career

See: John Wayne filmography (1926-1940), (1941-1960) and (1961-1976)

After two years working as a prop man at the Fox Film Corporation for $75 a week, his first starring role was in the 1930 movie The Big Trail. The first western epic sound motion picture established his screen credentials, although it was a commercial failure. Before this film, Wayne had only been given on-screen credit once (in Words and Music), as "Duke Morrison". The director Raoul Walsh, who "discovered" Wayne, suggested giving him the stage name "Anthony Wayne", after Revolutionary War general "Mad Anthony" Wayne. Fox Studios chief Winfield Sheehan rejected "Anthony Wayne" as sounding "too Italian." Walsh then suggested "John Wayne." Sheehan agreed and the name was set. Wayne himself was not even present for the discussion.[8] His pay was raised to $105 a week. For main details see: John Wayne John Wayne with Marguerite Churchill in The Big Trail (1930). ... For main details see: John Wayne John Wayne with Gail Russell in Angel and the Badman (1946), a film Wayne also produced. ... For main details see: John Wayne John Wayne with Elsa Martinelli and Red Buttons in Hatari! (1962). ... The Fox Film Corporation was an American company which produced motion pictures, formed in 1915 when founder William Fox merged two companies he had established in 1913: Greater New York Film Rental, a distribution firm, which was part of the Independents; and Fox (or Box, depending on the source) Office... The Big Trail was a 1930 film starring John Wayne in his first leading role and was also the first widescreen movie, appearing decades before The Robe. ... Words and Music is a 1929 American musical comedy motion picture, directed by James Tinling, and starring Lois Moran, David Percy, Helen Twelvetrees, and Frank Albertson. ... Raoul Walsh as John Wilkes Booth in Birth of a Nation Raoul Walsh (March 11, 1887 – December 31, 1980) was an American film director, actor, founding member of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) and the brother of silent screen actor George Walsh. ... This article is about military actions only. ... Anthony Wayne (January 1, 1745 - December 15, 1796), was a United States Army general and statesman. ...


Wayne continued making westerns, most notably at Monogram Pictures, and serials for Mascot Pictures Corporation, including The Three Musketeers (1933), a French Foreign Legion tale with no resemblance to the novel which inspired its title. Coincidentally, he also appeared in some of the Three Mesquiteers westerns whose title was a play on the Alexandre Dumas, père classic. He was tutored by stuntmen in riding and other western skills.[7] He and famed stuntman Yakima Canutt developed and perfected stunts still used today. For other uses, see Monogram (disambiguation). ... The Mascot Pictures Corporation was a minor film company of the 1920s and 1930s best known for producing film serials and B-westerns. ... The Three Musketeers is a 1933 serial film produced by Mascot Studios which updates Dumas The Three Musketeers by setting the story in contemporary North Africa. ... Legionnaire redirects here. ... The Three Mesquiteers is the umbrella title for a series of western films in the 1930s and 1940s. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... Stunt man and stunt woman redirect here. ... Yakima Canutt (November 29, 1895 – May 24, 1986) was an American rodeo rider, actor, stuntman and action director. ...


Beginning in 1928 and extending over the next 35 years, Wayne appeared in more than twenty of John Ford's films, including Stagecoach (1939), She Wore a Yellow Ribbon (1949), The Quiet Man (1952), The Searchers (1956), The Wings of Eagles (1957), and The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962). His performance in Stagecoach made him a star. For other persons named John Ford, see John Ford (disambiguation). ... Stagecoach is a 1939 western film, starring Claire Trevor and John Wayne in his breakthrough role. ... She Wore a Yellow Ribbon is a western film. ... The Quiet Man is a 1952 American film starring John Wayne, Maureen OHara, Victor McLaglen, and Barry Fitzgerald, and directed by John Ford. ... The Searchers is a 1956 epic Western film directed by John Ford, which tells the story of Ethan Edwards, a bitter, middle-aged loner and Civil War veteran played by John Wayne, who spends years looking for his abducted niece. ... The Wings of Eagles is a 1957 film about Frank Spig Wead and US Naval Aviation from its inception through World War II. The film is a tribute to Wead from his friend, director John Ford. ... The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance is a classic Western movie made in 1962, starring James Stewart, John Wayne and Lee Marvin, and directed by John Ford. ...


His first color film was Shepherd of the Hills (1941), in which he co-starred with his longtime friend Harry Carey. The following year he appeared in his only film directed by Cecil B. DeMille, the Technicolor epic Reap the Wild Wind, in which he co-starred with Ray Milland and Paulette Goddard; it was one of the rare times he played a character with questionable values. The Shepherd of the Hills is a 1941 film starring John Wayne. ... Harry Carey (January 16, 1878–September 21, 1947) was an American actor and one of silent films earliest superstars. ... The claim is made (under the heading Personal Life) that DeMille was in negotiations with MGM to direct Ben-Hur at the time of his death in January, 1959. ... Logo celebrating Technicolors 90th Anniversary Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation (a subsidiary of Technicolor, Inc. ... Reap the Wild Wind is a serialized story written by Thelma Strabel in 1940 for The Saturday Evening Post. ... Ray Milland (January 3, 1905 or 1907 – March 10, 1986) was an Oscar-winning Welsh actor and director who worked primarily in the United States. ... Paulette Goddard (June 3, 1910 – April 23, 1990),[1] an Oscar-nominated American film and theatre actress. ...


In 1949, director Robert Rossen offered the starring role of All the King's Men to Wayne. Wayne refused, believing the script to be un-American in many ways. Broderick Crawford, who eventually got the role, won the 1949 Oscar for best male actor, ironically beating out Wayne, who had been nominated for Sands of Iwo Jima. Robert Rossen (March 16, 1908 - February 18, 1966) was an American screenwriter, film director, and producer who was blacklisted by the Hollywood movie studio bosses in the 1950s. ... All the Kings Men is a 1949 film based on the Robert Penn Warren novel of the same name. ... Crawford in Black Angel William Broderick Crawford (born December 9, 1911; died April 26, 1986) was an American actor. ... Sands of Iwo Jima is a 1949 war film which follows a group of Marines from training to the Battle of Iwo Jima during World War II. It stars John Wayne, John Agar, Adele Mara and Forrest Tucker. ...


He lost the leading role in The Gunfighter to Gregory Peck because of his refusal to work for Columbia Pictures after Columbia chief Harry Cohn had mistreated him years before as a young contract player. Cohn had bought the project for Wayne, but Wayne's grudge was too deep, and Cohn sold the script to Twentieth Century Fox, which cast Peck in the role Wayne badly wanted but refused to bend for. The Gunfighter was a 1950 film starring Gregory Peck and directed by Henry King. ... Gregory Peck (April 5, 1916 – June 12, 2003) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor. ... The Columbia Pictures logo from 1993 to the present Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. ... Harry Cohn (July 23, 1891–February 27, 1958), sometimes nicknamed King Cohn, was president and production director of Columbia Pictures. ... Related articles FOX Television Network Fox Searchlight Pictures Fox Entertainment Group List of Hollywood movie studios List of movies Variant of current 20th Century Fox logo External links 20th Century Fox Movies official site Twentieth Century Fox is also the punning title of a song by The Doors on their...


One of Wayne's most popular roles was in The High and the Mighty (1954), directed by William Wellman and based on a novel by Ernest K. Gann. His portrayal of a heroic airman won widespread acclaim. Wayne also portrayed aviators in The Flying Tigers, Island in the Sky, Flying Leathernecks and The Wings of Eagles and Jet Pilot. The High and the Mighty is a 1954 disaster film released through Warner Brothers. ... William A. Wellman (February 29, 1896 - December 9, 1975) was a movie director. ... Ernest Kellogg Gann (October 13, 1910 - December 19, 1991) was an aviator, author, filmmaker, sailor, fisherman and conservationist. ... Island in the Sky is a Donald Duck story written by Carl Barks in March 1960. ... The Wings of Eagles is a 1957 film about Frank Spig Wead and US Naval Aviation from its inception through World War II. The film is a tribute to Wead from his friend, director John Ford. ... Jet Pilot is a 1957 aerial film starring John Wayne and Janet Leigh. ...

John Wayne in The Searchers (1956)
John Wayne in The Searchers (1956)

The Searchers continues to be widely regarded as perhaps Wayne's finest and most complex performance. In 2006 Premiere Magazine ran an industry poll in which his portrayal of Ethan Edwards was rated the 87th greatest performance in film history. He named his youngest son Ethan after the character. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Searchers is a 1956 epic Western film directed by John Ford, which tells the story of Ethan Edwards, a bitter, middle-aged loner and Civil War veteran played by John Wayne, who spends years looking for his abducted niece. ...


John Wayne won a Best Actor Oscar for True Grit (1969). Wayne was also nominated as the producer of Best Picture for The Alamo, one of two films he directed. The other was The Green Berets (1968), the only major film made during the Vietnam War to support the war.[6] During the filming of Green Berets, the Degar or Montagnard people of Vietnam's Central Highlands, fierce fighters against communism, bestowed on Wayne a brass bracelet that he wore in the film and all subsequent films. Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to recognize an actor who has delivered an outstanding performance while working within the film industry. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... True Grit by Charles Portis first appeared as a 1968 short story in The Saturday Evening Post. ... ©A.M.P.A.S.® The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to artists working in the motion picture industry. ... The Alamo was released in 1960 by United Artists, starring John Wayne as Davy Crockett, Richard Widmark as Jim Bowie and Laurence Harvey as William B. Travis, and featuring Frankie Avalon, Chill Wills, Patrick Wayne, Linda Cristal, Joseph Calleia as Juan Seguin, Ruben Padilla as Santa Anna, Richard Boone as... The Green Berets is the title of a 1968 film starring John Wayne and featuring George Takei, David Janssen, Jim Hutton, and Aldo Ray. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Degar (referred to by French colonists as Montagnard) are the indigenous peoples of the central highlands of Vietnam. ...


According to the Internet Movie Database, Wayne played the lead in 142 of his film appearances. For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ...

John Wayne as Rooster Cogburn in 1975
John Wayne as Rooster Cogburn in 1975

Batjac, the production company co-founded by Wayne, was named after the fictional shipping company Batjak in Wake of the Red Witch. (A spelling error by Wayne's secretary was allowed to stand, accounting for the variation.) Batjac (and its predecessor, Wayne-Fellows Productions) was the arm through which Wayne produced many films for himself and other stars. Its best-known non-Wayne production was the highly acclaimed Seven Men From Now, which started the classic collaboration between director Budd Boetticher and star Randolph Scott. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Reuben J. Rooster Cogburn is a fictional wild west character who first appears in the Charles Portis novel True Grit. ... Batjac Productions is an independent production company founded by John Wayne that produced many of his films in the latter part of the late actors career. ... Wake of the Red Witch is a 1948 film starring John Wayne and Gail Russell. ... Seven Men from Now is a 1956 western film produced by actor John Waynes Batjac Productions A former sheriff, Ben Stride haunted by the killing of his wife who was killed in a robbery, vowes revenge on the seven criminals responsible that took off with a Wells Fargo lock... Budd Boetticher (1916-2001) was a film director during the classical period in Hollywood most famous for the series of low-budget Westerns he made in the late 1950s starring Randolph Scott. ... Randolph Scott (January 23, 1898 – March 2, 1987) was an American motion picture actor whose career spanned from 1928 to 1962. ...


In later years, Wayne was recognized as a sort of American natural resource, and his various critics, political and film, looked on him with more respect. Abbie Hoffman, the radical of the 1960s, paid tribute to Wayne's singularity. Reviewing The Cowboys, made in 1972, Vincent Canby, film critic of the New York Times, who did not particularly care for the film, wrote, "Wayne is, of course, marvelously indestructible, and he has become an almost perfect father figure." But years before he became anything close to a father figure, Wayne had become a symbolic male figure, a man of impregnable virility and the embodiment of simplistic, laconic virtues, packaged in a well-built 6-foot-4-inch, 225- pound frame (1.93 m, 102 kg). Abbott Howard Abbie Hoffman (November 30, 1936 – April 12, 1989) was a social and political activist in the United States who co-founded the Youth International Party (Yippies). Later he became a fugitive from the law, who lived under an alias following a conviction for dealing cocaine. ... The Cowboys is a 1972 western starring John Wayne, Roscoe Lee Browne, Slim Pickens, A. Martinez and Bruce Dern. ... Vincent Canby (July 27, 1924 – September 15, 2000) was an American film critic. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


He had a handsome and hearty face, with crinkles around eyes that gave the impression of a man of action, an outdoor man who chafed at a settled life. He was laconic on screen. And when he shambled into view, audiences sensed the arrival of coiled vigor awaiting only provocation to be sprung. His demeanor and his roles were those of a man who did not look for trouble but was relentless in tackling it when it affronted him. This screen presence emerged particularly under the ministrations of directors John Ford and Howard Hawks. For other persons named John Ford, see John Ford (disambiguation). ... Howard Winchester Hawks (May 30, 1896 – December 26, 1977) was an American film director, producer and writer of the classic Hollywood era. ...


1964 illness

In 1964, Wayne was diagnosed with lung cancer, and underwent successful surgery to remove his entire left lung and four ribs. Despite efforts by his business associates to prevent him from going public with his illness (for fear it would cost him work), Wayne announced he had cancer and called on the public to get preventive examinations. Five years later, Wayne was declared cancer-free. Despite the fact that Wayne's diminished lung capacity left him incapable of prolonged exertion and frequently in need of supplemental oxygen, within a few years of his operation he chewed tobacco and began smoking cigars. Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. ... For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ... This article is about the bones called ribs. ...


Politics

from The Challenge of Ideas (1961)
from The Challenge of Ideas (1961)

Wayne was a Republican. He took part in creating the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals in 1943 and was elected president of that organization in 1947. He was an ardent anti-communist, and vocal supporter of the House Un-American Activities Committee. In 1951, he made Big Jim McLain to show his support for the anti-communist cause. He also claimed to have been instrumental in having Carl Foreman blacklisted from Hollywood after the release of the anti-McCarthyism western High Noon, and later teamed up with Howard Hawks to make Rio Bravo as a right-wing response. Wayne used his iconic status to support conservative causes, including rallying support for the Vietnam War by producing, co-directing, and starring in the critically panned The Green Berets (1968). In 1978 however, he enraged conservatives by supporting liberal causes such as the Panama Canal Treaty and the innocence of Patty Hearst.[9][10] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “GOP” redirects here. ... The Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals (MPA) was an organization of politically conservative movie workers who wanted to defend the movie industry against Communist infiltration. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... HUAC hearings The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA,[1] 1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Big Jim McLain (Warner Brothers, 1952 [1]) was a John Wayne film starring Wayne and James Arness as HUAC investigators hunting down communists in the post-war Hawaii organized labor scene. ... Carl Foreman Carl Foreman (July 23, 1914 – June 26, 1984) was an American screenwriter and film producer who was blacklisted by the Hollywood movie studio bosses in the 1950s. ... Blacklisted redirects here. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the supposed dangers of a Communist takeover. ... High Noon is a 1952 western film which tells the story of a town marshal who is forced to face a gang of killers by himself. ... Howard Winchester Hawks (May 30, 1896 – December 26, 1977) was an American film director, producer and writer of the classic Hollywood era. ... John Wayne as Sheriff John T. Chance in the opening scene. ... Conservative may refer to: Conservatism, political philosophy A member of a Conservative Party Conservative extension, premise of deductive logic Conservativity theorem, mathematical proof of conservative extension Conservative Judaism britney spears Category: ... The Green Berets is the title of a 1968 film starring John Wayne and featuring George Takei, David Janssen, Jim Hutton, and Aldo Ray. ... Map of Panama, with Panama canal The Torrijos-Carter Treaties (sometimes referred to in the singular as the Torrijos-Carter Treaty), are a pair of treaties signed by the United States and Panama in Washington, D. C. on September 7, 1977, abrogating the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty signed in 1903. ... Patricia Campbell Hearst (born February 20, 1954), now known as Patricia Hearst Shaw, is an American newspaper heiress and occasional actress. ...


Due to his enormous popularity, and his status as the most famous Republican star in Hollywood, wealthy Texas Republican Party backers asked Wayne to run for national office in 1968, as had his friend and fellow actor, Senator George Murphy. He declined, joking that he did not believe the public would seriously consider an actor in the White House. However, he did support his friend Ronald Reagan's runs for Governor of California in 1966 and 1970. He was also asked to be the running mate for Democratic Alabama Governor George Wallace in 1968. Wayne vehemently rejected the offer.[11] Wayne actively campaigned for Richard Nixon,[12] and addressed the Republican National Convention on its opening day in August 1968. Wayne also was a member of the conservative and anti-communist John Birch Society.[13] George Lloyd Murphy (July 4, 1902–May 3, 1992) was an American dancer, actor, and politician. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the politician, former governor of Alabama and former presidential candidate. ... Nixon redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The John Birch Society is a conservative American exceptionalist organization founded in 1958 to fight what it saw as growing threats to the Constitution of the United States, especially a suspected communist infiltration of the United States government, and to support free enterprise. ...


Wayne's strong anti-communist politics led to a particularly unnerving situation. Information from Soviet archives, reported in 2003, indicates that Joseph Stalin ordered Wayne's assassination, but died before the killing could be accomplished. His successor, Nikita Khrushchev, reportedly told Wayne during a 1958 visit to the United States that he had personally rescinded the order.[14][15] Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Khrushchev redirects here. ...


In an interview with Playboy magazine in May 1971, Wayne made infamous remarks. One disclaimed a personal sense of guilt for the historical treatment of Native Americans, the second claimed that African-Americans had been denied educational opportunities and resented that fact, "possibly rightfully so." He went on to say that did not justify turning over the country "to the leadership of the blacks. I believe in white supremacy until the blacks are educated to a point of responsibility. I don't believe in giving authority and positions of leadership and judgment to irresponsible people."[16] For other uses, see Playboy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...


Military service controversy

Visiting Brisbane, Australia in December, 1943
Visiting Brisbane, Australia in December, 1943

America's entry into World War II resulted in a deluge of support for the war effort from all sectors of society, and Hollywood was no exception. Established stars such as Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. (USN, Silver Star), Henry Fonda (USN, Bronze Star), and Clark Gable (USAAC) as well as emerging actors such as Eddie Albert (USN, Bronze Star) and Tyrone Power (USMC) rushed to sign up for military service. Most notably, James Stewart (USAAC, Distinguished Service Medal, Distinguished Flying Cross, Croix de Guerre) had already enlisted in the US Army Air Corps, surmounting great obstacles in order to do so. This article is about the Australian city. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Douglas Elton Fairbanks, Jr. ... Henry Jaynes Fonda (May 16, 1905 – August 12, 1982) was a highly acclaimed Academy Award-winning American film and stage actor, best known for his roles as plain-speaking idealists. ... William Clark Gable (February 1, 1901 – November 16, 1960) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor. ... Edward Albert Heimberger (April 22, 1906 – May 26, 2005) was a popular Oscar and Emmy Award-nominated American stage, film, character actor, gardener, and humanitarian activist, perhaps best known for playing Bing Edwards in the Brother Rat films, or for his role in the 1960s television comedy Green Acres. ... Tyrone Edmund Power, Jr. ... For other persons named James Stewart, see James Stewart (disambiguation). ...


As the majority of male leads left Hollywood to serve overseas, John Wayne saw his just-beginning stardom at risk. Despite enormous pressure from his inner circle of friends, he put off enlisting. Wayne was exempted from service due to his age (34 at the time of Pearl Harbor) and family status, classified as 3-A (family deferment). Wayne's secretary recalled making inquiries of military officials on behalf of his interest in enlisting, "but he never really followed up on them."[17] He repeatedly wrote to John Ford, asking to be placed in Ford's military unit, but continually postponed it until "after he finished one more film."[18] Republic Studios was emphatically resistant to losing Wayne, especially after the loss of Gene Autry to the army.[19] Correspondence between Wayne and Herbert J. Yates (the head of Republic) indicates that Yates threatened Wayne with a lawsuit if he walked away from his contract, though the likelihood of a studio suing its biggest star for going to war was minute.[20] The threat was real, but whether Wayne took it seriously or not, he did not test it. Selective Service Records indicate he did not attempt to prevent his reclassification as 1-A (draft eligible), but apparently Republic Pictures intervened directly, requesting his further deferment.[21] In May, 1944, Wayne was reclassified as 1-A (draft eligible), but the studio obtained another 2-A deferment (for "support of national health, safety, or interest").[22] He remained 2-A until the war's end. John Wayne did not "dodge" the draft, but he never took direct positive action toward enlistment. Wayne was in the South Pacific theatre of the war for three months in 1943–44, touring U.S. bases and hospitals as well as doing some "undercover" work for OSS commander William J. "Wild Bill" Donovan, who thought Wayne's celebrity might be good cover for an assessment of the causes for poor relations between General Douglas MacArthur and Donovan's OSS Pacific network. Wayne filed a report and Donovan gave him a plaque and commendation for serving with the OSS, but Wayne dismissed it as meaningless.[23] Orvon Gene Autry (September 29, 1907 – October 2, 1998) was an American performer who gained fame as The Singing Cowboy on the radio, in movies and on television. ... Herbert John Yates (1880-1966) was the founder and president of Republic Pictures, famous for being the home of John Wayne, Gene Autry, and Roy Rogers. ... The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency and was the predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency, the Special Forces, and Navy SEALs. ... For other uses, see Wild Bill and/or Bill Donovan. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ...


The foregoing facts influenced the direction of Wayne's later life. By all accounts, Wayne's failure to serve in the military during World War II was the most painful experience of his life.[24] There were some other stars who, for various reasons, did not enlist. But Wayne, by virtue of becoming a celluloid war hero in several patriotic war films, as well as an outspoken supporter of right-wing political causes and the Vietnam War, became the focus of particular disdain from both himself and certain portions of the public, particularly in later years. While some hold Wayne in contempt for the paradox between his early actions and his later attitudes, his widow suggests that Wayne's rampant patriotism in later decades sprang not from hypocrisy but from guilt. Pilar Wayne wrote, "He would become a 'superpatriot' for the rest of his life trying to atone for staying home."[25] Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Personal life

Roadside sign on the way to John Wayne Island
Roadside sign on the way to John Wayne Island

Wayne was married three times and divorced twice. His wives, all of them Hispanic women, were Josephine Alicia Saenz, Esperanza Baur, and Pilar Pallete. He had four children with Josephine and three with Pilar, including the producer Michael Wayne and actor Patrick Wayne. Wayne is also the great-uncle of boxing heavyweight Tommy Morrison.[26] Wayne's son Ethan was billed as John Ethan Wayne in a few films and played one of the leads in the 90's update of the Adam-12 television series. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Josephine Alicia Saenz (also known as Josie Morrison[1]) was the first wife of legendary American film actor John Wayne, and is the mother of the late actor/film producer Michael Wayne and actor Patrick Wayne. ... Esperanza Baur (c. ... Maria del Pilar Pallette Weldy Wayne Upchurch (born 1933 in Paita, Peru) is a former Peruvian actress who was the third wife of the American film star John Wayne. ... Michael Wayne is the Founder and CEO of Integrated Media Solutions [1], a Internet Solutions provider in New York City & Illusion Offices [2] which provides small businesses with the tools they need to compete with big business. ... Patrick Wayne (born July 15, 1939, in Los Angeles, California), is an American entertainment personality. ... This article is about the American boxer. ... Ethan Wayne (born February 22, 1962 in Los Angeles, California) is an American actor, most famous for his role as Storm Logan on the CBS soap opera The Bold and the Beautiful, which he has played on-and-off since 1989. ... Ethan Wayne (born February 22, 1962 in Los Angeles, California) is an American actor, most famous for his role as Storm Logan on the CBS soap opera The Bold and the Beautiful, which he has played on-and-off since 1989. ... This article is about the guitarist. ...


John Wayne's hair began thinning in the 1940s and he began wearing a hairpiece by the end of that decade (though his receding hairline is quite evident in Rio Grande). He was occasionally seen in public without the hairpiece (notably, according to Life Magazine photos, at Gary Cooper's funeral). The only time he unintentionally appeared on film without it was for a split second in North to Alaska. On the first punch of the climactic fistfight, Wayne's hat flies off, revealing a brief flash of his unadorned scalp. Wayne also has several scenes in The Wings of Eagles where he is without his hairpiece. (During a widely noted appearance at Harvard University, Wayne was asked by a student, "Is your hair real?" Wayne responded in the affirmative, then added "It's not mine, but it's real!") A cover of Life Magazine from 1911 Life has been the name of two notable magazines published in the United States. ... Gary Cooper (born Frank James Cooper May 7, 1901 – May 13, 1961) was a two-time Academy Award-winning American film actor of English heritage. ... The Wings of Eagles is a 1957 film about Frank Spig Wead and US Naval Aviation from its inception through World War II. The film is a tribute to Wead from his friend, director John Ford. ... Harvard redirects here. ...


Wayne had several high-profile affairs, including one with Marlene Dietrich that lasted for three years.[27] In the years prior to his death, Wayne was romantically involved with his former secretary Pat Stacy (1941–1995).[6] She wrote a biography of her life with him, DUKE: A Love Story (1983). Marlene Dietrich IPA: ; (December 27, 1901 – May 6, 1992) was a German-born American actress, singer and entertainer. ...


During the early 1960s John Wayne traveled extensively to Panama. During this time, the actor reportedly purchased the island of Taborcillo off the main coast of Panama. It was sold by his estate at his death and changed hands many times before being opened as a tourist attraction. Isla Taborcillo (a. ...


Death

John Wayne died of stomach cancer on June 11, 1979, at the UCLA Medical Center, and was interred in the Pacific View Memorial Park cemetery in Corona del Mar. According to his son Patrick, he converted to Roman Catholicism shortly before his death.[28] He requested his tombstone read "Feo, Fuerte y Formal", a Spanish epitaph meaning "ugly, strong and serious".[29] However, the grave, unmarked for twenty years, is now marked with a quotation from his controversial 1971 Playboy interview: "Tomorrow is the most important thing in life. Comes into us at midnight very clean. It's perfect when it arrives and it puts itself in our hands. It hopes we've learned something from yesterday." Stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer) can develop in any part of the stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs; particularly the esophagus and the small intestine. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... UCLA Medical Center is a hospital located on the campus of the University of California, Los Angeles in Los Angeles, California. ... Corona del Mar (Spanish, Crown of the Sea) is a neighborhood in Newport Beach, California. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Playboy (disambiguation). ...


A relatively large number of the cast and crew of Wayne's 1956 film The Conqueror developed various forms of cancer. The film was shot in Southwestern Utah, east and generally downwind of where the U.S. Government had tested nuclear weapons in Southeastern Nevada, and many contend that radioactive fallout from these tests contaminated the film location and the film crew working there. Despite the suggestion that Wayne’s 1964 lung cancer and his 1979 stomach cancer resulted from this nuclear contamination, he himself believed his lung cancer to have been a result of his six-pack-a-day cigarette habit.[30] The effect of nuclear fallout on The Conqueror's cast and crew, and particularly on Wayne, is the subject of James Morrow's science-fiction short story Martyrs of the Upshot Knothole.[31] For the 15th-Century Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, see Mehmed II. The Conqueror was a 1956 film produced by Howard Hughes and starring John Wayne as the Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... James Morrow (born 1947) is an award-winning fiction author. ...


Congressional Gold Medal and Presidential Medal of Freedom

John Wayne's enduring status as an iconic American was formally recognized by the United States Congress on May 26, 1979 when he was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal. Hollywood figures and American leaders from across the political spectrum, including Elizabeth Taylor, Frank Sinatra, Mike Frankovich, Katharine Hepburn, General and Mrs. Omar Bradley, Gregory Peck, Robert Stack, James Arness, and Kirk Douglas, testified to Congress of the merit and deservedness of this award, most notably Robert Aldrich, then president of the Directors Guild of America, who stated, "It is important for you to know that I am a registered Democrat and, to my knowledge, share none of the political views espoused by Duke. However, whether he is ill disposed or healthy, John Wayne is far beyond the normal political sharp shooting in this community. Because of his courage, his dignity, his integrity, and because of his talents as an actor, his strength as a leader, his warmth as a human being throughout his illustrious career, he is entitled to a unique spot in our hearts and minds. In this industry, we often judge people, sometimes unfairly, by asking whether they have paid their dues. John Wayne has paid his dues over and over, and I'm proud to consider him a friend, and am very much in favor of my Government recognizing in some important fashion the contribution that Mr. Wayne has made." Maureen O'Hara, Wayne's close friend, initiated the petition for the medal and requested the words that would be placed onto the medal: "It is my great honor to be here. I beg you to strike a medal for Duke, to order the President to strike it. And I feel that the medal should say just one thing, 'John Wayne, American.'"[32] The medal crafted by the United States Mint has on one side John Wayne riding on horseback, and the other side has a portrait of Wayne with the words, "John Wayne, American." This Congressional Gold Medal was presented to the family of John Wayne in a ceremony held on March 6, 1980 at the United States Capitol. This medal is now at the John Wayne Museum in Winterset, Iowa. Copies were made and sold in large numbers to the public. Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Congressional Gold Medal presented to Navajo Code talkers in 2000 The Congressional Gold Medal should not be confused with the Medal of Honor (commonly called the Congressional Medal of Honor), which is also awarded by Congress, but only to military members as the highest military decoration of the United States. ... For other persons named Elizabeth Taylor, see Elizabeth Taylor (disambiguation). ... Sinatra redirects here. ... Mike Frankovich - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Katharine Houghton Hepburn (May 12, 1907 – June 29, 2003) was an American actress of film, television and stage. ... Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981) was one of the main U.S. Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during World War II and a General of the Army of the United States Army. ... Gregory Peck (April 5, 1916 – June 12, 2003) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor. ... Robert Langford Modini Stack (January 13, 1919 – May 14, 2003) was an American stage and movie actor. ... This biographical article needs additional references for verification. ... Kirk Douglas (born Issur Danielovitch[1] on December 9, 1916) is an iconic Academy Award-winning American actor and film producer known for his cleft chin, his gravelly voice and his recurring roles as the kinds of characters Douglas himself once described as sons of bitches. He is also father... Robert Aldrich (August 9, 1918 – December 5, 1983) was a United States film director, writer and producer notable for a number of films including What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?, Hush, Hush, Sweet Charlotte, and The Dirty Dozen. ... Director Guild of America building on Sunset Boulevard. ... Maureen OHara Maureen OHara (born Maureen FitzSimons) on August 17, 1920 is an Irish film actress. ... Seal of the U.S. Mint Denver United States mint building The United States Mint primarily produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the seat of government for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ...


On June 9, 1980, Wayne was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Jimmy Carter (at whose inaugural ball Wayne had appeared "as a member of the loyal opposition", as Wayne described it in his speech to the gathering). Thus Wayne received the two highest civilian decorations awarded by the United States government. is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


American icon

Statue of John Wayne at John Wayne Airport, California
Statue of John Wayne at John Wayne Airport, California

John Wayne rose beyond the typical recognition for a famous actor to that of an enduring icon who symbolized and communicated American values and ideals. By the middle of his career, Wayne had developed a larger-than-life image, and as his career progressed, he selected roles that would not compromise his off-screen image. By the time of his last film The Shootist (1976), Wayne refused to allow his character to shoot a man in the back as was originally scripted.[33] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... John Wayne Airport (IATA: SNA, ICAO: KSNA, FAA LID: SNA) is located four miles (6 km) south of the central business district of Santa Ana, in an unincorporated area of Orange County, California. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Shootist is a novel written by Glendon Swarthout, published in 1975. ...


Wayne's rise to being the quintessential movie war hero began to take shape four years after World War II when Sands of Iwo Jima (1949) was released. His footprints at Grauman's Chinese theater in Hollywood were laid in cement that contained sand from Iwo Jima.[34] His status grew so large and legendary that when Japanese Emperor Hirohito visited the United States in 1975, he asked to meet John Wayne, the symbolic representation of his country's former enemy. Sands of Iwo Jima is a 1949 war film which follows a group of Marines from training to the Battle of Iwo Jima during World War II. It stars John Wayne, John Agar, Adele Mara and Forrest Tucker. ... For other uses, see Iwo Jima (disambiguation). ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ...


Wayne was a popular visitor to the war zones in World War II, Korea, and Vietnam. By the 1950s, perhaps in large part due to the military aspect of films such as the Sands of Iwo Jima, Flying Tigers, They Were Expendable, and the Ford cavalry trilogy, Wayne had become an icon to all the branches of the U.S. Military, even in light of his actual lack of military service. Many veterans have said their reason for serving was in some part related to watching Wayne's movies. His name is attached to various pieces of gear, such as the P-38 "John Wayne" can-opener, so named because "it can do anything", paper towels known as "John Wayne Toilet Paper" because "it's rough and it's tough and don't take shit off no one", and C-Ration crackers are called "John Wayne crackers" because presumably only someone as tough as Wayne could eat them. A rough and rocky mountain pass used by army tanks and jeeps at Fort Irwin in San Bernardino County, California is aptly named "John Wayne Pass." Sands of Iwo Jima is a 1949 war film which follows a group of Marines from training to the Battle of Iwo Jima during World War II. It stars John Wayne, John Agar, Adele Mara and Forrest Tucker. ... Flying Tigers is a 1942 black-and-white war film, starring John Wayne and John Carroll as mercenary fighter pilots fighting the Japanese in China prior to the U.S. entry into World War II. The film was nominated for three Oscars: Best Effects, Special Effects for Howard Lydecker (photographic... They Were Expendable is a war film released in 1945. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Vietnam-era P-38 The P-38 Lightning is also a WWII-era plane. ... Meal, Combat Individual (C-ration) was the name of field rations issued by the United States of America from World War II to the 1980s. ...


Various public locations have been named in memory of John Wayne. They include John Wayne Airport in Orange County, California, where his life-size statue graces the entrance; the John Wayne Marina near Sequim, Washington; John Wayne Elementary School (P.S. 380) in Brooklyn, NY, which boasts a 38 foot mosaic mural commission by New York artist Knox Martin entitled "John Wayne and the American Frontier";[35] and a 100-plus mile trail named the "John Wayne Pioneer Trail" in Washington state's Iron Horse State Park. A larger than life-size bronze statue of Wayne atop a horse was erected at the corner of La Cienega Boulevard and Wilshire Boulevard in Beverly Hills, California at the former offices of the Great Western Savings & Loan Corporation, for whom Wayne had done a number of commercials. (The building now houses Larry Flynt Enterprises.) John Wayne Airport (IATA: SNA, ICAO: KSNA, FAA LID: SNA) is located four miles (6 km) south of the central business district of Santa Ana, in an unincorporated area of Orange County, California. ... -1... Sequim is a city in Clallam County, Washington, United States. ... John Wayne Elementary School, P.S. 380, located at 370 Marcy Avenue, Williamsburg, Brooklyn. ... John Wayne Elementary School, P.S. 380, located at 370 Marcy Avenue, Williamsburg, Brooklyn. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... This article is about a decorative art. ... Salle des illustres, ceiling painting, by Jean André Rixens. ... Knox Martin, is an American painter, sculptor and muralist. ... Iron Horse State Park, part of the Washington State Park System, is a 1,612 acre state park located in the Cascade Mountains between North Bend and Snoqualmie Pass. ... Beverly Hills redirects here. ... Larry Flynt in 2007 Larry Claxton Flynt, Jr. ...


On December 5, 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted Wayne into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts.[36] Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German IPA: ; born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe-winning actor, businessman and politician currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... Maria Owings Shriver (pronounced: ; born November 6, 1955)[1] is an award-winning American journalist from the Kennedy Family, a prolific author and First Lady of California. ... Conceived by First Lady Maria Shriver, the California Hall of Fame was established with The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts to honor legendary individuals and families who embody California’s innovative spirit and have made their mark on history. ... The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts – home of the California Hall of Fame – is housed in the State Archives Building in Sacramento, one block from the State Capitol. ...


Celebrations and landmarks

Several celebrations took place on May 26, 2007, the centenary of John Wayne's birth. is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


In his birthplace of Winterset, Iowa, the John Wayne Birthday Centennial Celebration was held on May 25-27, 2007. The celebration included chuck-wagon suppers, concerts by Michael Martin Murphey and Riders in the Sky, a Wild West Revue in the style of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show, symposia with John Wayne co-stars, cavalry and trick horse demonstrations as well as many of John Wayne's films. This event also included the ground-breaking for the John Wayne Museum and Learning Center at his birthplace house. Michael Martin Murphey Michael Martin Murphey (born March 13, 1945 in Dallas, Texas) is a successful American country singer/songwriter whose biggest hit was Wildfire in 1975, produced by Bob Johnston. ... Riders in the Sky are Joey the Cowpolka King, Woody Paul, Ranger Doug and Too Slim (January 2007) Riders in the Sky is a Western music and comedy group which began performing 1977. ...


In 2006, friends of Wayne's and his former Arizona business partner, Louis Johnson, inaugurated the "Louie and the Duke Classics" events benefiting the John Wayne Cancer Foundation and the American Cancer Society.[37][38] The weekend long event each fall in Casa Grande, Arizona includes a golf tournament, an auction of John Wayne memorabilia and a team roping competition".[37] The American Cancer Society (ACS) is the nationwide community-based voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer as a major health problem by preventing cancer, saving lives, and diminishing suffering from cancer, through research, education, advocacy and service. ... This article is about Casa Grande, Arizona. ... Team roping also known as heading and heeling is a rodeo event that features a steer (typically a Corriente) and two mounted cowboys. ...


Missed roles

  • John Wayne desperately wanted the role of "Jimmy Ringo" in the 1950 film The Gunfighter directed by Henry King but the role instead went to Gregory Peck. John Wayne's final film, The Shootist (1976) directed by Don Siegel was very similar to The Gunfighter.[citation needed]
  • An urban legend has it that John Wayne was offered the leading role of Matt Dillon in the longtime favorite television show Gunsmoke, but he turned it down, recommending instead James Arness for the role. The only part of this story that is true is that Wayne did indeed recommend Arness for the part. Wayne introduced Arness in a prologue to the first episode of Gunsmoke.[39]
  • Wayne was approached by Mel Brooks to play the part of The Waco Kid in the film Blazing Saddles. After reading the script he said, "I can't be in this picture, it's too dirty...but I'll be the first in line to see it."[40]
  • He also claimed to have turned down the title role in Dirty Harry, although the film's director Don Siegel said Wayne would have been too old to play the part anyway. Wayne later made two cop movies of his own, McQ and Brannigan, which were not particularly successful.[citation needed]
  • Another role that Wayne missed was the title role in the film Patton (1970). George C. Scott took the role instead.[citation needed][dubious ]
  • According to his autobiography Kiss Me Like A Stranger, Gene Wilder states that he wanted to work with Wayne for the film The Frisco Kid. Wayne loved the script, especially Wilder's "little rabbi character", but when the producers tried to get him to accept $750,000 instead of his $1,000,000 fee, he backed out. Harrison Ford played the role intended for him instead.[citation needed]

Gregory Peck (April 5, 1916 – June 12, 2003) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor. ... The Shootist is a novel written by Glendon Swarthout, published in 1975. ... This article is about the radio and television series. ... This biographical article needs additional references for verification. ... Mel Brooks (born June 28, 1926) is an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, comedian, actor and producer best known as a creator of broad film farces and comedy parodies. ... Alex Karras as Mongo in Blazing Saddles Blazing Saddles (1974) is a comedy directed by Mel Brooks and starring Cleavon Little and Gene Wilder, and released by Warner Brothers. ... Lee Marvin (February 19, 1924, New York City – August 29, 1987, Tucson, Arizona) was an American film actor. ... For the rap group, see D12. ... The Green Berets is the title of a 1968 film starring John Wayne and featuring George Takei, David Janssen, Jim Hutton, and Aldo Ray. ... For other uses, see Dirty Harry (disambiguation). ... Don Siegel (October 26, 1912 - April 20, 1991) was an influential American film director. ... McQ is a 1974 crime/drama film starring John Wayne, Eddie Albert, Diana Muldaur, and Colleen Dewhurst. ... Brannigan is a 1975 film set in London starring John Wayne and Richard Attenborough, directed by Douglas Hickox. ... Patton (UK: Patton: Lust for Glory) is a 1970 epic biographical film which tells the story of General George S. Patton during World War II. It stars George C. Scott, Karl Malden, Michael Bates, and Karl Michael Vogler. ... George Campbell Scott (October 18, 1927 - September 22, 1999) was a stage and film actor, director, and producer. ... Gene Wilder (born Jerome Silberman on June 11, 1933) is an American actor who is best known for his role as Willy Wonka, his collaborations with Mel Brooks in Blazing Saddles, The Producers, and Young Frankenstein, and his four movies with Richard Pryor: Silver Streak, Stir Crazy, See No Evil... The Frisco Kid is a 1979 movie directed by Robert Aldrich. ... For the silent film actor, see Harrison Ford (silent film actor). ...

Famous movie quotes

  • "I won't be wronged, I won't be insulted, and I won't be laid a hand on. I don't do these things to other people, and I require the same from them." (The Shootist)
  • Speaking to his young cavalry lieutenants: "Don't apologize—it's a sign of weakness." (She Wore a Yellow Ribbon)
  • "Fill your hand, you son of a bitch!" (True Grit)
  • "That'll be the day!" (The Searchers - Spoken several times; inspired Buddy Holly to write a song with that title.)
  • "Pilgrim." (The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance - Reportedly he used the expression "Pilgrim", as in "tenderfoot" or "dude" or "amateur", 23 times in that film, and once also in McLintock!. It became a catchphrase for impressionists such as John Byner, and Rich Little)
  • "I haven't lost my temper in 40 years; but, Pilgrim, you caused a lot of trouble this morning; might have got somebody killed; and somebody oughta belt you in the mouth. But I won't. I won't. The hell I won't!" (He belts him). (To Leo Gordon in McLintock!).
  • "You can call me Dad, you can call me Father, you can call me Jacob and you can call me Jake. You can call me a dirty old son-of-a-bitch, but if you EVER call me Daddy again, I'll finish this fight." (To his son, played by his real-life son Patrick Wayne, in Big Jake).
Awards
Preceded by
Cliff Robertson
for Charly
Academy Award for Best Actor
1969
for True Grit
Succeeded by
George C. Scott
for Patton

The Shootist is a novel written by Glendon Swarthout, published in 1975. ... She Wore a Yellow Ribbon is a western film. ... True Grit by Charles Portis first appeared as a 1968 short story in The Saturday Evening Post. ... The Searchers is a 1956 epic Western film directed by John Ford, which tells the story of Ethan Edwards, a bitter, middle-aged loner and Civil War veteran played by John Wayne, who spends years looking for his abducted niece. ... For the Weezer song, see Buddy Holly (song). ... The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance is a classic Western movie made in 1962, starring James Stewart, John Wayne and Lee Marvin, and directed by John Ford. ... McLintock! is a 1963 comedy Western starring John Wayne and Maureen OHara, and loosely based on Shakespeares The Taming of the Shrew. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Rich Little performing (as George Burns) in 2004 Richard Caruthers Rich Little (born November 26, 1938) is a Canadian comedian best known for his celebrity impersonations. ... Leo Gordon (1922-2000) was an American movie and television actor and screenplay writer noted for his size and apparent strength. ... McLintock! is a 1963 comedy Western starring John Wayne and Maureen OHara, and loosely based on Shakespeares The Taming of the Shrew. ... Patrick Wayne (born July 15, 1939, in Los Angeles, California), is an American entertainment personality. ... Big Jake is a 1971 Western film, starring John Wayne and directed by George Sherman. ... Cliff Robertson. ... Spoiler warning: Charly (also spelled ChaЯly) is a 1968 film which tells the story of a mentally retarded man, working at a bakery, who becomes a subject of an experiment to increase his mental capacity. ... Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to recognize an actor who has delivered an outstanding performance while working within the film industry. ... True Grit by Charles Portis first appeared as a 1968 short story in The Saturday Evening Post. ... George Campbell Scott (October 18, 1927 - September 22, 1999) was a stage and film actor, director, and producer. ... Patton (UK: Patton: Lust for Glory) is a 1970 epic biographical film which tells the story of General George S. Patton during World War II. It stars George C. Scott, Karl Malden, Michael Bates, and Karl Michael Vogler. ...

See also

Film directors frequently choose to work with the same actor or actress across several projects. ...

Notes and sources

  1. ^ The Harris Poll: Denzel Washington: America’s Favorite Movie Star - Harris Interactive
  2. ^ Madison County, Iowa, birth certificate
  3. ^ WorldConnect Project - Connecting the World One GEDCOM at Time
  4. ^ Roberts, Randy, and James S. Olson (1995). - John Wayne: American. New York: Free Press. p.37. - ISBN 0029238370
  5. ^ Munn, Michael (2003). - John Wayne: The Man Behind the Myth. London: Robson Books. p.7. - ISBN 0451212444
  6. ^ a b c Biography - JWayne.com]
  7. ^ a b Biography of John Wayne. - Think Quest: Library
  8. ^ Roberts & Olson, p. 84
  9. ^ Warner, Edwin. - "That Troublesome Panama Canal Treaty". - TIME. - October 31, 1977
  10. ^ Lithwick, Dahlia. - "The Brainwashed Defense". - Slate. - January 28, 2002
  11. ^ Jim Beaver, "John Wayne". Films in Review, Volume 28, Number 5, May 1977, pp. 265-284
  12. ^ Judis, John. - "Kevin Phillips, Ex-Populist: Elite Model". - The New Republic. - (c/o Carnegie Endowment for International Peace) - May 22, 2006
  13. ^ Dowell, Pat. - "John Wayne, Man and Myth". - The Washington Post. - September 25, 1995
  14. ^ Montefiore, Sebag (2003). Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. London: George Weidenfeld & Nicholson. ISBN 1842127268
  15. ^ "Why Stalin loved Tarzan and wanted John Wayne shot". - Daily Telegraph. - 6 April 2004
  16. ^ Playboy, May, 1972
  17. ^ Roberts & Olson, John Wayne: American, p. 211
  18. ^ Roberts & Olson, John Wayne: American, p. 212
  19. ^ Gene Autry, who was also Wayne's age, gave an interview in 1942 that seemed to later biographers to chastise Wayne for his refusal to enlist and provide an example for younger actors in Hollywood: "I think the He-men in the movies belong in the Army, Marine, Navy or Air Corps. All of these He-men in the movies realize that right now is the time to get into the service. Every movie cowboy ought to devote time to the Army winning, or to helping win, until the war is over - the same as any other American citizen. The Army needs all the young men it can get, and if I can set a good example for the young men I'll be mighty proud." Source: Wills, Gary, John Wayne's America, pp. 221-223
  20. ^ Roberts & Olson, p. 220
  21. ^ Roberts & Olson, p. 213
  22. ^ Roberts & Olson, p. 213
  23. ^ Roberts & Olson, p. 253
  24. ^ Roberts & Olson, p. 212
  25. ^ Wayne, Pilar, John Wayne, pp. 43-47
  26. ^ The Great White Hope climbs back between the ropes
  27. ^ Olson & Roberts, John Wayne: American, pp. 195-197
  28. ^ The religion of John Wayne, actor
  29. ^ Candelaria, Nash. John Wayne, Person and Personal The love affairs of an American legend in Hopscotch: A Cultural Review - Volume 2, Number 4, 2001, pp. 2-13, Duke University Press
  30. ^ Bacon, James. - John Wayne: The Last Cowboy. - US Magazine. - (c/o JWayne.com). - June 27, 1978
  31. ^ Morrow, James (2004). The Cat's Pajamas and Other Stories. Tachyon Publications. ISBN 1892391155
  32. ^ Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Consumer Affairs of the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs, House of Representatives, 96th Congress, First Session, on H.R. 3767, A Bill to Authorize the President of the United States to Present on Behalf of the Congress a Specially Struck Gold Medal to John Wayne, May 21, 1979, Serial 96-10
  33. ^ Trivia - The Shootist (1976) - IMDb
  34. ^ Endres, Stacey and Robert Cushman. Hollywood At Your Feet. Beverly Hills: Pomegranate Press, 1993 ISBN 0-938817-08-6
  35. ^ Exhibitions. - Knox Martin
  36. ^ Wayne inducted into California Hall of Fame, California Museum, Accessed 2007
  37. ^ a b Olson, Jim. - "Louie and the Duke Classics 2006". - Grande Living. - October 2006. - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document)
  38. ^ News and Events: 2006 Archive - John Wayne Cancer Foundation
  39. ^ Gunsmoke - Snopes.com - 6 August 2007
  40. ^ Interview: Mel Brooks. Blazing Saddles (DVD). Burbank, California: Warner Brothers Pictures/Warner Home Video, 2004. ISBN 0790757354

TIME redirects here. ... Slate is an online news and culture magazine created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley and owned by Microsoft (as part of MSN). ... Jim Beaver (born August 12, 1950) (real name James Norman Beaver, Jr. ... For other uses, see New Republic. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Orvon Gene Autry (September 29, 1907 – October 2, 1998) was an American performer who gained fame as The Singing Cowboy on the radio, in movies and on television. ... Us Weekly (a. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) [1] is an online database of information about actors, movies, television shows, television stars and video games. ... Mel Brooks (born June 28, 1926) is an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, comedian, actor and producer best known as a creator of broad film farces and comedy parodies. ... Alex Karras as Mongo in Blazing Saddles Blazing Saddles (1974) is a comedy directed by Mel Brooks and starring Cleavon Little and Gene Wilder, and released by Warner Brothers. ...

Further reading

  • Roberts, Randy, and James S. Olson. John Wayne: American. New York: Free Press, 1995 ISBN 978-0029238370
  • Campbell, James T. "Print the Legend: John Wayne and Postwar American Culture". Reviews in American History, Volume 28, Number 3, September 2000, pp. 465-477
  • Shepherd, Donald, and Robert Slatzer, with Dave Grayson. Duke: The Life and Times of John Wayne. New York: Doubleday, 1985 ISBN 0-385-17893-X
  • Carey, Harry Jr. A Company of Heroes: My Life as an Actor in the John Ford Stock Company. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 1994 ISBN 0-8108-2865-0
  • Clark, Donald & Christopher Anderson. John Wayne's The Alamo: The Making of the Epic Film. New York: Carol Publishing Group, 1995 ISBN 0-8065-1625-9 (pbk.)
  • Eyman, Scott. Print the Legend: The Life and Times of John Ford. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999 ISBN 0-684-81161-8
  • McCarthy, Todd. Howard Hawks: The Grey Fox of Hollywood. New York: Grove Press, 1997 ISBN 0-8021-1598-5
  • Maurice Zolotow., Shooting Star: A Biography of John Wayne. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974 ISBN 0671829696
  • Jim Beaver, "John Wayne". Films in Review, Volume 28, Number 5, May 1977, pp. 265-284.
  • McGivern, Carolyn. John Wayne: A Giant Shadow. Bracknell, England: Sammon, 2000 ISBN 0-9540031-0-1
  • Munn, Michael. John Wayne: The Man Behind the Myth. London: Robson Books, 2003 ISBN 0-451-21244-4

Harry Carey, Jr. ... Maurice Zolotow (b. ... Jim Beaver (born August 12, 1950) (real name James Norman Beaver, Jr. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
John Wayne
Persondata
NAME Wayne, John Wayne
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Morrison, Marion Robert; Morrison, Marion Michael
SHORT DESCRIPTION American film actor
DATE OF BIRTH 26 May 1907(1907-05-26)
PLACE OF BIRTH Winterset, Iowa, United States
DATE OF DEATH 11 June 1979
PLACE OF DEATH
is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Madison County Courthouse Winterset is a city in Madison County, Iowa, United States. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...

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