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Encyclopedia > John W. Davis
John W. Davis

John William Davis (April 13, 1873March 24, 1955) was an American politician and lawyer. He was the Democratic Party nominee for President of the United States during the 1924 presidential election, losing to Republican incumbent Calvin Coolidge. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 286 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (435 × 912 pixel, file size: 47 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 286 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (435 × 912 pixel, file size: 47 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (84th in leap years). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Politics of the United States of America takes place in a framework of a presidential... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Introduction Incumbent President Coolidge was relatively popular, and the economy was booming. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ...

Contents

Early life and family

Davis was born in Clarksburg, West Virginia. He graduated with a law degree from Washington and Lee University, where he was a member[1][2] of Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity. Clarksburg is a city located in Harrison County, West Virginia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Washington and Lee University is a private liberal arts college in Lexington, Virginia, located adjacent to (but not affiliated with) Virginia Military Institute. ... Phi Kappa Psi (ΦΚΨ, Phi Psi) is a U.S. national college fraternity. ...


Davis was the uncle and adoptive father of Jimmy Carter's Secretary of State Cyrus Vance. This article is becoming very long. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Political and diplomatic career

His father was John James Davis, a West Virginia legislator who had supported slavery and opposed ratification of the 15th Amendment. Davis acquired much of his father's conservative politics, opposing women's suffrage, child-labor laws, anti-lynching legislation and Harry S. Truman's civil rights program while privately defending the poll tax and questioning whether African-Americans should be allowed to vote. He also maintained his father's staunch allegiance to the Democratic Party, even as he later represented the interests of conservative business interests opposed to the New Deal. Davis ranked as one of the last Jeffersonians; supporting states rights and opposing a strong executive (he would be the lead attorney against Truman's nationalization of the steel industry). Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... President Truman announces that Germany had surrendered (May 8 1945) Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs initiated between 1933–1938 with the goal of relief, recovery and reform of the United States economy during the Great Depression. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


He represented West Virginia in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1911 to 1913, where he was one of the authors of the Clayton Act. He served as U.S. Solicitor General from 1913 to 1918 and as an ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1918 to 1921. As Solicitor General he successfully argued for the illegality of Oklahoma's "grandfather law", which effectively disenfranchised most black citizens of Oklahoma by exempting white residents descended from a voter who had been registered in 1866 from the literacy requirements of its electoral law, in Guinn v. United States. Davis's personal posture differed from his position as an advocate. Throughout his career he could separate his personal views and professional advocacy. Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... In the United States, the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 was enacted to remedy perceived deficiencies in antitrust law created under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. ... The United States Solicitor General is the individual appointed to argue for the Government of the United States in front of the Supreme Court of the United States, when the government is party to a case. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... Holding A state statute drafted in such a way as to serve no rational purpose other than to disadvantage the right of African-American citizens to vote violated the 15th Amendment. ...


Davis was a dark horse candidate for the Democratic nomination for President in both 1920 and 1924. He won the nomination in 1924 as a compromise candidate on the one hundred and third ballot. His denunciation of the Ku Klux Klan and his prior defense of black voting rights as Solicitor General under Wilson cost him votes in the South and among conservative Democrats elsewhere. He lost in a landslide to Coolidge, who did not leave his house to campaign. A dark horse candidate is one who is nominated unexpectedly, without previously having been discussed or considered as a likely choice. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ...


He was a member of the National Advisory Council of the Crusaders, an influential organization that promoted the repeal of prohibition. He was the founding President of the Council on Foreign Relations, formed in 1921, and a trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation from 1922 to 1939. In 1919, the requisite number of legislatures of the States ratified The 18th Amendment to the Federal Constitution, enabling national Prohibition within one year of ratification. ... The Council on Foreign Relations The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an American foreign policy think tank based in New York City. ... The Rockefeller Foundation is a charitable organization based in New York City. ...


Legal career

Davis was one of the most prominent and successful lawyers of the first half of the twentieth century, arguing 140 cases before the U.S. Supreme Court, more than anyone had argued to that time. His firm variously titled Stetson Jennings Russell & Davis, then Davis Polk Wardwell Gardiner & Reed then Davis Polk Wardwell Sunderland & Kiendl (now Davis Polk & Wardwell), represented many of the largest companies in the United States in the 1920s and following decades. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the... Davis Polk & Wardwell is one of the most prestigious and profitable law firms in the world and is headquartered in New York. ... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ...


The last twenty years of Davis's practice included representing large corporations in the United States Supreme Court challenging the constitutionality and application of New Deal legislation. Davis lost many of these battles, though eloquent in his advocacy. His legal career is most remembered for his final, losing appearance before the Supreme Court, in which he unsuccessfully defended the "separate but equal" doctrine in Briggs v. Elliott, a companion case to Brown v. Board of Education. Davis not only brought his great talents as an advocate to the defense of racial segregation but, uncharacteristically, displayed his emotions in arguing that South Carolina had shown good faith in attempting to eliminate any inequality between black and white schools and should be allowed to continue to do so without judicial intervention. He expected to win, most likely through a divided Supreme Court, even after the matter was reargued after the death of Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson. He declined the fee that South Carolina offered him after the Court ruled against it unanimously. Separate but equal was a policy enacted into law throughout the U.S. Southern states during the period of segregation, in which African Americans and Americans of European descent would receive the same services (schools, hospitals, water fountains, bathrooms, etc. ... Briggs et al. ... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35°12N... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of... Frederick Moore Vinson (January 22, 1890 – September 8, 1953) served the United States in all three branches of government. ...


See also

Holding The President did not have the inherent authority to seize private property in the absence of either specifically enumerated authority under Article Two of the Constitution or statutory authority conferred on him by Congress. ...

References

  1. ^ Famous Greeks. University of North Florida (2003). Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  2. ^ Famous Brothers. Texas Beta Chapter of the Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity at Texas Tech U. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Congressional biography
  • Washington and Lee University biography
  • CFR Website - Continuing the Inquiry: The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996 The history of the Council by Peter Grose, a Council member.
Preceded by
William P. Hubbard
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from West Virginia's 1st congressional district

1911 - 1913
Succeeded by
Matthew M. Neely
Preceded by
William Marshall Bullit
Solicitor General
19131918
Succeeded by
Alexander C. King
Preceded by
Walter Hines Page
U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain
1918–1921
Succeeded by
George Harvey
Preceded by
James M. Cox
Democratic Party presidential nominees
1924 (lost)
Succeeded by
Al Smith

  Results from FactBites:
 
John W. Davis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (601 words)
John W. Davis represented West Virginia in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1911 to 1913, where he was one of the authors of the Clayton Act.
Davis was a dark horse candidate for the Democratic nomination for President in 1920.
Davis not only brought his great talents as an advocate to the defense of racial segregation but, uncharacteristically, displayed his emotions in arguing that South Carolina had shown good faith in attempting to eliminate any inequality between fl and white schools and should be allowed to continue to do so without judicial intervention.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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