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Encyclopedia > John W. Campbell
The cover of The John W. Campbell Letters, volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas
The cover of The John W. Campbell Letters, volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas

John Wood Campbell, Jr. (June 8, 1910July 11, 1971) was an important science-fiction writer and editor. As a writer he was first influential under his own name as a writer of super-science space opera and then under the name Don A. Stuart, a pseudonym he used for moodier, less pulpish stories. However, Campbell's primary influence on the science-fiction field was as the editor of Astounding Science Fiction, a post that he held from late 1937 until his death. In that role he is generally credited with helping to create the so-called Golden Age of Science Fiction, which is often held to have started with the July 1939 issue of Astounding. Isaac Asimov, in his autobiography, calls Campbell "the most powerful force in science fiction ever, and for the first ten years of his editorship he dominated the field completely." [1] At the time of his sudden and unexpected death after 34 years at the helm of Astounding, however, his quirky personality and occasionally eccentric editorial demands had alienated a number of his most illustrious writers such as Asimov and Robert A. Heinlein to the point where they no longer submitted works to him. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kelly Freas Frank Kelly Freas (27 August 1922 – 2 January 2005), called the Dean of Science Fiction Artists, was a prolific and popular science fiction and fantasy artist with a career spanning more than 50 years. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Classic pulp space opera cover, with the usual cliché elements. ... Astounding Stories was a seminal science fiction magazine founded in 1930. ... The Golden Age of Science Fiction, often recognized as a period from the late 1930s or early 1940s through the 1950s, was an era during which the science fiction genre gained wide public attention and many classic science fiction stories were published. ... Dr. Isaac Asimov (January 1, 1920 – April 6, 1992, IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ...

Contents

Biographical information

1954 Dell Paperback
1954 Dell Paperback

Campbell was born in Newark, New Jersey[2] in 1910. His father was a cold, impersonal, and unaffectionate electrical engineer. His mother, Dorothy (née Strahern) was warm but changeable of character and had an identical twin who visited them often and who disliked young John. John was unable to tell them apart and was frequently coldly rebuffed by the person he took to be his mother.[3] Campbell attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he befriended Norbert Wiener, one of the godfathers of computers. He began writing science fiction at age 18 and quickly sold his first stories. By the time he was 21 he was a well-known pulp writer of super-science space opera but had been dismissed by MIT: he had failed German. He then spent one year at Duke University, from which he graduated with a Bachelor of Science in physics in 1932.[4][5] Asimov notes Campbell's presence at Duke and speculates that Duke was "best known in my youth for the work of Joseph B. Rhine on extrasensory perception, and that may have influenced Campbell's later views on the subject." [6] Damon Knight writes that Campbell was a "portly, bristled-haired blond man with a challenging stare" who told him once that "he wasn't sure how much longer he would edit Astounding. He might quit and go into science. 'I'm a nuclear physicist, you know,' he said, looking me right in the eye." [7] He was married to Dona Stewart in 1931, divorced in 1949, then remarried in 1950 to Margaret (Peg) Winter. He spent most of his life in New Jersey and died at home, "quietly, quickly, painlessly, as he sat before his television." [8] Image File history File links WhoGoesThere. ... Image File history File links WhoGoesThere. ... Nickname: The Brick City Map of Newark in Essex County Coordinates: County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]    - City 67. ... Fraternal twin boys in the tub The term twin most notably refers to two individuals (or one of two individuals) who have shared the same uterus (womb) and usually, but not necessarily, born on the same day. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894 - March 18, 1964) was a U.S. mathematician and applied mathematician, especially in the field of electronics engineering. ... Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. ... Joseph Banks Rhine (September 29, 1895 - February 20, 1980) was a pioneer of parapsychology. ... Damon Knight (September 19, 1922 – April 15, 2002) was a science fiction author, editor, and critic. ...

Writing career

Campbell's first published story, "When the Atoms Failed", appeared in the January 1930 issue of Amazing Stories, when he was 18; he had had a previous story, "Invaders from the Infinite", accepted by Amazing's editor, T. O'Conor Sloane, but Sloane had lost the manuscript.[5] Campbell's early fiction included a space opera series based around three characters, Arcot, Morey and Wade; and another series with lead characters Penton and Blake. All were eventually published in book form in the 1950s and 1960s. This early work established Campbell's reputation as a leading writer of space adventure; and when he began in 1934 to publish stories with a different tone, he used a pseudonym, Don A. Stuart, perhaps because of the difference in style. The pseudonym was derived from the maiden name of Campbell's wife, Dona Stuart.[3] Amazing Stories magazine, sometimes retitled Amazing Science Fiction, began in April 1926, becoming the first science fiction magazine and one of the pioneers of science fiction in the United States. ... T. OConor Sloane ( 1851- 1940) was the editor of Amazing Stories from 1929 through 1938, when publisher Ziff-Davis moved production of the magazine to Chicago and named Raymond A. Palmer as Sloanes successor. ...


Soon Stuart also had a strong reputation as a leading writer, and from 1930 until the later part of the decade Campbell was prolific and successful under both his own name and the Stuart pseudonym. Two significant stories published under the pseudonym are "Twilight" (Astounding, November 1934), the first Stuart story, which immediately established the reputation of the apparently new author; and "Who Goes There?" (Astounding, August 1938), about a group of Antarctic researchers who discover a crashed alien vessel, complete with a malevolent shape-changing occupant. This was filmed as The Thing from Another World (1951) and again as The Thing (1982). "Who Goes There?", published when Campbell was only 28, was his last significant piece of fiction. As Sam Moskowitz has written about Campbell in his early critical study of science-fiction writers, "From the memories of his childhood he drew the most fearsome agony of the past: the doubts, the fears, the shock, and the frustration of repeatedly discovering that the woman who looked so much like his mother was not who she seemed. Who goes there? Friend or foe?" [9] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Thing from Another World is a 1951 science fiction film which tells the story of an Air Force crew & scientists at a remote Arctic research outpost who fight a malevolent alien being, The Thing. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... John Carpenters The Thing is a 1982 science fiction film directed by John Carpenter. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sam Moskowitz (1920-1997) was an early fan and organizer of interest in science fiction and, later, a writer. ...


Editorship of Astounding and Unknown; the Golden Age

In late 1937, F. Orlin Tremaine hired Campbell as the editor of Astounding.[10][11] Campbell was not given full authority for Astounding until May of 1938,[12] but in fact had been responsible for buying stories somewhat earlier, perhaps as early as the October 1937 issue,[11] although the statement of ownership in the November 1937 issue listed Tremaine as the editor as of October 1, 1937.[13] An editorial notice in the April 1938 issue made it clear he was responsible for stories appearing as early as February.[10][14] F. Orlin Tremaine was an American science fiction editor. ...


Campbell began to make changes almost immediately. He instigated a mutant label for unusual stories, and in March 1938 changed the title of the magazine from Astounding Stories to Astounding Science-Fiction. He had intended to eventually change the name to simply Science Fiction, but Blue Ribbon Magazines brought out a magazine with that title in March 1939, and Campbell decided to retain the existing name.


Lester del Rey's first story, in March 1938, was a notable find for Campbell, but in 1939 such an extraordinary group of new writers were published for the first time in the pages of Astounding that the period is generally regarded as the beginning of the Golden Age of science fiction, and the July 1939 issue in particular.[15] The July issue contained A. E. van Vogt's first story, "Black Destroyer"; and Isaac Asimov's early story "Trends"; August brought Robert A. Heinlein's first story, "Lifeline", and the next month Theodore Sturgeon's first story appeared. Virginia Heinlein writes in her collection of Heinlein's letters that Campbell was "a large, tall man who threw off ideas like a sparkler.... Robert did not admire his writing style and objected strenuously to the various changes JWC made in Robert's stories." [16] Alfred Elton van Vogt (April 26, 1912 – January 26, 2000) was a Canadian-born science fiction author who was one of the most prolific, yet complex, writers of the mid-twentieth century Golden Age of the genre. ... Dr. Isaac Asimov (January 1, 1920 – April 6, 1992, IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Theodore Sturgeon (February 26, 1918 Staten Island, New York – May 8, 1985) was an American science fiction author. ...


Also in 1939, Campbell started the fantasy magazine Unknown (later Unknown Worlds) . Although Unknown was cancelled after only four years, a victim of wartime paper shortages, the magazine's editorial direction was significant in the evolution of modern fantasy. Sinister Barrier by Eric Frank Russell Unknown (also known as Unknown Worlds) was a pulp fantasy magazine, edited by John W. Campbell, that was published from 1939 to 1943. ...


Campbell was regarded by many of the Astounding stable of writers as an important and encouraging influence on their work, and there are many stories in the reminiscences of writers such as Isaac Asimov and Lester del Rey of their interactions with him. Generally, he is widely considered to be the single most important and influential editor in the history of science fiction. As the Science Fiction Encyclopedia, edited by Peter Nicholls, wrote about Campbell: "More than any other individual, he helped to shape modern sf." This influence is generally considered to be during the period between 1938 and about 1950. After that, new magazines such as Galaxy and the Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, building upon the foundation Astounding had laid during the so-called Golden Age of Science Fiction, moved in different directions and developed talented new writers who were not directly influenced by him. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction is a reference work on science fiction. ... Peter Nicholls may refer to: Peter Nicholls (writer) - critic and co-editor of The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction Peter Nicholls (musician) - lead singer with the bands IQ and Niadems Ghost, also an album cover artist Different spelling Peter Nichols - author of A Day in the Death of Joe Egg... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Puppet Masters by Robert A. Heinlein in Galaxy, Sept. ... F&SF April 1971, special Poul Anderson issue. ...


Asimov says of his unmatched influence on the field: "By his own example and by his instruction and by his undeviating and persisting insistence, he forced first Astounding and then all science fiction into his mold. He abandoned the earlier orientation of the field. He demolished the stock characters who had filled it; eradicated the penny-dreadful plots; extirpated the Sunday-supplement science. In a phrase, he blotted out the purple of pulp. Instead, he demanded that science-fiction writers understand science and understand people, a hard requirement that many of the established writers of the 1930s could not meet. Campbell did not compromise because of that: those who could not meet his requirements could not sell to him, and the carnage was as great as it had been in Hollywood a decade before, while silent movies had given way to the talkies." [17]


The most famous example of the type of speculative but plausible science fiction that Campbell demanded from his writers is Deadline, a short story by Cleve Cartmill that appeared during the wartime year of 1944, a year before the detonation of the first atomic bomb. As Ben Bova, Campbell's successor as editor at Analog, writes, it "described the basic facts of how to build an atomic bomb. Cartmill and... Campbell worked together on the story, drawing their scientific information from papers published in the technical journals before the war. To them, the mechanics of constructing a uranium-fission bomb seemed perfectly obvious." The FBI, however, descended on Campbell's office after the story appeared in print and demanded that the issue be removed from the newsstands. Campbell convinced them that by removing the magazine "the FBI would be advertising to everyone that such a project existed and was aimed at developing nuclear weapons" and the demand was dropped. [18] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Benjamin William Bova (born November 8, 1932) is an American science fiction author and editor. ...


Campbell was also responsible for the grim, and controversial, ending of the famous short story The Cold Equations by Tom Godwin. Joe Green says that Campbell had "three times! sent "Cold Equations" back to Godwin, before he got the version he wanted.... Godwin kept coming up with ingenious ways to save the girl! Since the strength of this deservedly classic story lies in the fact the life of one young woman must be sacrificed to save the lives of many, it simply wouldn't have the same impact if she had lived." [19] The Cold Equations is a science fiction short story by Tom Godwin, first published in Astounding Magazine in 1954. ... Tom Godwin (1915–1980) is a science fiction author. ...

The famous November 1949 "future" issue, in which all the stories had previously been "reviewed" in November of 1948
The famous November 1949 "future" issue, in which all the stories had previously been "reviewed" in November of 1948

Campbell revealed a sly sense of humor in the November 1949 issue. He had always encouraged literary criticism by Astounding's readership, and in the November 1948 issue he published a letter to the editor by a reader named Richard A. Hoen that contained a detailed ranking of the contents of an issue one year in the future. Campbell went along with the joke and contracted stories from most of the authors mentioned in the letter that would follow the fan's imaginary story titles. Ironically, when the issue actually appeared, Hoen had forgotten his original letter, and was supposedly "amazed at how many of my favorite authors appeared in one issue".[citation needed] One of the best-known stories from that issue is "Gulf", by Robert A. Heinlein. Other stories and articles were written by a number of the most famous authors of the time: Isaac Asimov, Theodore Sturgeon, Lester del Rey, A. E. van Vogt, L. Sprague de Camp, and the astronomer R. S. Richardson.[20] Image File history File links Astounding_November_1949. ... Image File history File links Astounding_November_1949. ... Gulf (1949) is a novella by Robert A. Heinlein, originally published as a serial in the November and December 1949 issues of Astounding Science Fiction. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Dr. Isaac Asimov (January 1, 1920 – April 6, 1992, IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Theodore Sturgeon (February 26, 1918 Staten Island, New York – May 8, 1985) was an American science fiction author. ... Lester del Rey (Ramon Felipe Alvarez-del Rey) (June 2, 1915 - May 10, 1993) was an American science fiction author and editor. ... Alfred Elton van Vogt (April 26, 1912 – January 26, 2000) was a Canadian-born science fiction author who was one of the most prolific, yet complex, writers of the mid-twentieth century Golden Age of the genre. ... L. Sprague de Camp from the cover of Time and Chance: an Autobiography, Donald M. Grant, 1996 Lyon Sprague de Camp, (November 27, 1907, New York City – November 6, 2000, Plano, Texas) was an American science fiction and fantasy author. ...


Editorials and opinions

Campbell was well known for the opinionated editorials in each issue of the magazine, wherein he would sometimes put forth quite preposterous hypotheses, perhaps intended to generate story ideas. An anthology of these editorials was published in 1966. He also suggested story ideas to writers (including, famously, "Write me a creature that thinks as well as a man, or better than a man, but not like a man"), and sometimes asked for stories to match cover paintings he had already bought. 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ...


Isaac Asimov once asked Campbell why he had stopped writing fiction after he became the editor of Astounding. Campbell explained, "Isaac, when I write, I write only my own stories. As editor, I write the stories that a hundred people write." [21]


Slavery

  • Science-fiction writer Joe Green writes that Campbell "enjoyed taking the 'devil's advocate' position in almost any area, willing to defend even viewpoints with which he disagreed if that led to a livelier debate." As an example, he says that during a conversation with him Campbell "pointed out that the much-maligned 'peculiar institution' of slavery in the American South had in fact provided the blacks brought there with a higher standard of living than they had in Africa." Green goes on to say that he was "very much afraid that in fact he was sincere. I suspected, from comments by Asimov, among others — and some Analog editorials I had read — that John held some racist views, at least in regard to blacks." Finally, however, Green agreed with Campbell that "rapidly increasing mechanization after 1850 would have soon rendered slavery obsolete anyhow. It would have been better for the USA to endure it a few more years than suffer the truly horrendous costs of the Civil War." [22]
  • In a June, 1961, editorial called "Civil War Centennial" Campbell argued that slavery had been a dominant form of human relationships for most of history and that the present was unusual in that anti-slavery cultures dominated the planet. He went on to say that "...it's my bet that the South would have been integrated by 1910. The job would have been done — and done right — half a century sooner, with vastly less human misery, and with almost no bloodshed.... The only way slavery has ever been ended, anywhere, is by introducing industry.... If a man is a skilled and competent machinist — if the lathes work well under his hands — the industrial management will be forced, to remain in business, to accept that fact, whether the man be black, white, purple, or polka-dotted." [23]

Smoking

  • Campbell was a heavy smoker throughout his life and was seldom seen without his customary cigarette holder. In the Analog of September, 1964, 9 months after the Surgeon General's first major warning about the dangers of cigarette smoking had been issued on January 11th, Campbell ran an editorial called "A Counterblaste to Tobacco." [24] In it he stated that the connection to lung cancer was "esoteric" and referred to "a barely determinable possible correlation between cigarette smoking and cancer". He went on to claim that tobacco's calming effects led to more effective thinking, a true benefit. "How many of the world's great leaders," he concluded, "under maximum tension and pressure, have maintained calm, a sense of responsibility, and the driving will to achieve essential to human affairs... with tobacco?" [25]
A United States submarine in Martian orbit, propelled there by a Dean drive, on an Astounding cover.
A United States submarine in Martian orbit, propelled there by a Dean drive, on an Astounding cover.

Surgeon General can have several different meanings. ... Image File history File links Analog_Sub_in_Martian_Orbit. ... Image File history File links Analog_Sub_in_Martian_Orbit. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... The Dean drive or Dean device was invented by Norman L. Dean, who called it a reactionless drive — a mechanical device that could use energy to produce linear acceleration without the use of any reaction mass. ...

The Dean drive

  • In the 1950s, Campbell developed strong interests in alternative theories that began to isolate him from some of his own mainstream writers such as Asimov. He wrote favorably, for instance, about such things as the "Dean drive," a device that supposedly produced thrust in violation of Newton's third law, and the "Hieronymus machine," which could supposedly amplify psi powers. He published many stories about telepathy and other psionic abilities. In 1949 Campbell also became interested in Dianetics. He was initially a strong supporter, writing of Hubbard's initial article in Astounding that "It is, I assure you in full and absolute sincerity, one of the most important articles ever published."[26] He also claimed to have successfully used dianetic techniques himself: "The memory stimulation technique is so powerful that, within thirty minutes of entering therapy, most people will recall in full detail their own birth. I have observed it in action, and used the techniques myself."[26] In addition to publishing L. Ron Hubbard's first articles on the subject, Campbell continued to write editorials in support of Dianetics for a time.
  • Writing about the Campbell of this period, the noted science-fiction writer and critic Damon Knight commented in his book In Search of Wonder: "In the pantheon of magazine science fiction there is no more complex and puzzling figure than that of John Campbell, and certainly none odder." Knight also wrote a four-stanza ditty about some of Campbell's new interests. The first stanza reads:
Oh, the Dean Machine, the Dean Machine,
You put it right in a submarine,
And it flies so high that it can't be seen --
The wonderful, wonderful Dean Machine!

The Dean drive or Dean device was invented by Norman L. Dean, who called it a reactionless drive — a mechanical device that could use energy to produce linear acceleration without the use of any reaction mass. ... Sir Isaac Newton in Knellers portrait of 1689. ... In the article vector quantities are written in bold whereas scalar ones are in italics. ... As explained mostly by Astounding Science Fiction editor John W. Campbell in late 1950s and early 1960s editorials, Hieronymus machines were mockups of real machines (patented by their inventor, Dr. Thomas Galen Hieronymus) which allegedly worked by analogy or symbolism, being directed by psi or ESP powers. ... Psi has multiple meanings: Psi (letter) (Ψ, ψ) of the Greek alphabet Psi (Cyrillic) (Ѱ, ѱ), letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet, adopted from Greek Psi (parapsychology) Psi (instant messaging client), a popular Jabber client program J/ψ particle, a subatomic particle Wavefunction in Quantum Mechanics, ψ In mathematics, Ψ is used to denote the angle between... (this article is about the parapsychological phenomenon. ... Parapsychology is the study of the evidence involving phenomena where a person seems to affect or gain information about something through a means not currently explainable within the framework of mainstream, conventional science. ... This article is about the theory and practice termed Dianetics. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Damon Knight (September 19, 1922 – April 15, 2002) was a science fiction author, editor, and critic. ...

Pseudoscience

  • And Isaac Asimov writes: "A number of writers wrote pseudoscientific stuff to ensure sales to Campbell, but the best writers retreated, I among them." [27]
  • Asimov was not alone in his opinion. In 1957, the novelist and critic James Blish could write: "From the professional writer's point of view, the primary interest in Astounding Science Fiction continues to center on the editor's preoccupation with extrasensory powers and perceptions ("psi") as a springboard for stories.... 113 pages of the total editorial content of the January and February 1957 issues of this magazine are devoted to psi, and 172 to non-psi material.... [By including the first part of a serial that later becomes a novel about psi] the total for these first two issues of 1957 is 145 pages of psi text, and 140 pages of non-psi." [28]
  • Asimov also says that "Campbell championed far-out ideas.... He pained very many of the men he had trained (including me) in doing so, but felt it was his duty to stir up the minds of his readers and force curiosity right out to the border lines. He began a series of editorials... in which he championed a social point of view that could sometimes be described as far right. (He expressed sympathy for George Wallace in the 1968 national election, for instance.) There was bitter opposition to this from many (including me — I could hardly ever read a Campbell editorial and keep my temper)." [29]
  • This attempted (and often successful) steering of writers' efforts led to a filksong:
On yonder hill there stands a building,
and upon the fourteenth floor
stands a group of authors moaning
as they've never moaned before:
Oh, no, John, no, John, no, John, no!

James Benjamin Blish (East Orange, New Jersey, May 23, 1921 - Henley-on-Thames, July 29, 1975) was an American author of fantasy and science fiction. ... Governor George Wallace (in front of door) standing defiantly against desegregation while being confronted by Deputy U.S. Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach at the University of Alabama in 1963. ... Filk is a form of music created from within fandom, and performed generally late at night at science fiction conventions. ...

In the eyes of others

Asimov says in his autobiography that Campbell was "talkative, opinionated, quicksilver-minded, overbearing. Talking to him meant listening to a monologue.... He was a tall, large man with light hair, a beaky nose, a wide face with thin lips, and with a cigarette in a holder forever clamped between his teeth."[30] At the same time, Asimov considered Campbell a father figure, noting that the shock he felt upon hearing of the death of Campbell was second only to the shock when his father died in 1969. "Six-foot-one, with hawklike features, he presented a formidable appearance," says Moskowitz.[31] Damon Knight's opinion of Campbell was similar to Asimov's: "No doubt I could have got myself invited to lunch long before, but Campbell's lecture-room manner was so unpleasant to me that I was unwilling to face it. Campbell talked a good deal more than he listened, and he liked to say outrageous things." .[32] The notable British novelist and critic Kingsley Amis, in his seminal 1960 book about science fiction, New Maps of Hell, dismisses Campbell brusquely: "I might just add as a sociological note that the editor of Astounding, himself a deviant figure of marked ferocity, seems to think he has invented a psi machine." [33] Sir Kingsley William Amis (April 16, 1922 – October 22, 1995) was an English novelist, poet, critic, and teacher. ... New Maps of Hell is the confirmed title for Bad Religions fourteenth full-length studio album, which is slated for release on July 10, 2007, according to a news article at Punknews. ...


The noted science-fiction writer Alfred Bester, an editor of Holiday Magazine and a sophisticated Manhattanite, recounts at some length his "one demented meeting" with Campbell, a man he imagined from afar to be "a combination of Bertrand Russell and Ernest Rutherford," across the river in Newark.[34] The first thing Campbell said to him was that Freud was dead, destroyed by the new discovery of Dianetics, which, he predicted, would win L. Ron Hubbard the Nobel Peace Prize. Over a sandwich in a dingy New Jersey lunchroom Campbell ordered the bemused Bester to "think back. Clear yourself. Remember! You can remember when your mother tried to abort you with a button hook. You've never stopped hating her for it." Shaking, Bester eventually made his escape and, he says, "returned to civilization where I had three double gibsons." He adds: "It reinforced my private opinion that a majority of the science-fiction crowd, despite their brilliance, were missing their marbles." Alfred Bester (born December 18, 1913 in New York City, died September 30, 1987) was a science fiction author and the winner of the first Hugo Award in 1953 for his novel The Demolished Man. ... The Borough of Manhattan, highlighted in yellow, lies between the East River and the Hudson River. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician and advocate for social reform. ... Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937), widely referred to as Lord Rutherford, was a nuclear physicist from New Zealand. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Super Robot Monkey Team Hyper Force Go!. (Discuss) Gibson: Gibson is the blue monkey, and the teams scientist. ...


Asimov's final word on Campbell was that "in the last twenty years of his life, he was only a diminishing shadow of what he had once been."[35] Even Robert A. Heinlein, perhaps Campbell's most important discovery and, Virginia Heinlein tells us, by 1940 a "fast friend", [36] eventually tired of Campbell. "When Podkayne [Podkayne of Mars] was offered to him, he wrote Robert, asking what he knew about raising young girls in a few thousand carefully chosen words. The friendship dwindled, and was eventually completely gone." [37] In 1963 Heinlein wrote his agent to say that a rejection from another magazine was "pleasanter than offering copy to John Campbell, having it bounced (he bounced both of my last two Hugo Award winners) — and then have to wade through ten pages of his arrogant insults, explaining to me why my story is no good." [38] Podkayne of Mars is a science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein published in 1963, about a teenage girl named Podkayne and her little brother, an antisocial genius, who leave their home on Mars to take a trip on a spaceliner to see Venus and Earth, accompanied by their uncle. ...


Radio and awards

Between December 11, 1957 and June 13, 1958, Campbell hosted a weekly science fiction radio program called Exploring Tomorrow. The scripts were written by authors such as Gordon Dickson and Robert Silverberg. Transcripts of some programs are still available. December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gordon Rupert Dickson (November 1, 1923 - January 31, 2001) was a Canadian science fiction author. ... At the 63rd World Science Fiction Convention in Glasgow, August 2005 Robert Silverberg (January 15, 1935, Brooklyn, New York) is a prolific American author best known for writing science fiction, a multiple winner of both the Hugo and Nebula Awards. ...


In 1996 Campbell was inducted into the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame, in the first year of its existence.[39] Sculpture near the entrance of the Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame The Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame bills itself as the worlds premier science fiction museum. ...


The John W. Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel and John W. Campbell Award for Best New Writer were named in his honor. The John W. Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel has been awarded every year since 1973, except in 1994. ... The John W. Campbell Award for the Best New Writer in Science Fiction is awarded annually by the World Science Fiction Society. ...


Bibliography

For the main article, see Bibliography of John W. Campbell. This is a bibliography of works by John W. Campbell, Jr. ...


This shortened bibliography lists each title once. Some titles that are duplicated are in fact different versions, whereas other publications of Campbell's with different titles are simply selections from or retitlings of other works, and have hence been omitted.


The main bibliographic sources are footnoted from this paragraph and provided much of the information in the following sections.[5],[11],[40],[41],[42] For more bibliographic information see the separate bibliography article.


Dates indicate first book publication.


Novels and fixups

  • The Mightiest Machine (1947)
  • The Incredible Planet (1949)
  • The Black Star Passes (1953)
  • Islands of Space (1956)
  • Invaders from the Infinite (1961)
  • The Ultimate Weapon (1966)

Short story collections and omnibus editions

  • Who Goes There? (1948)
  • The Moon is Hell (1951)
  • Cloak of Aesir (1952)
  • The Planeteers (1966)
  • The Best of John W. Campbell (1973)
  • The Space Beyond (1976)
  • The Best of John W. Campbell (1976) (Differs from 1973 version)
  • A New Dawn: The Don A. Stuart Stories of John W. Campbell, Jr. (2003)

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Edited books

  • From Unknown Worlds (1948)
  • The Astounding Science Fiction Anthology (1952)
  • Prologue to Analog (1962)
  • Analog I (1963)
  • Analog II (1964)
  • Analog 3 (1965)
  • Analog 4 (1966)
  • Analog 5 (1967)
  • Analog 6 (1968)
  • Analog 7 (1969)
  • Analog 8 (1971)

Nonfiction

  • Collected Editorials from Analog (1966)
  • The John W. Campbell Letters, Volume 1 (1986)

External links

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from directory. ... The Internet Speculative Fiction Database is a database of bibliographic information on science fiction and related genres such as fantasy fiction and horror fiction. ... Project Gutenberg logo Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works via book scanning. ...

Sources

  • I. Asimov, by Isaac Asimov, Doubleday, New York, 1994 ISBN 0-385-41701-2
  • "John W. Campbell: The Writing Years", by Sam Moskowitz, in Amazing Stories, August 1963; Ziff-Davis Publishing Corporation. Reprinted in Seekers of Tomorrow, Masters of Modern Science Fiction, Sam Moskowitz, Ballantine Books, New York, 1967
  • Hell's Cartographers, Some Personal Histories of Science Fiction Writers, edited by Brian W. Aldiss and Harry Harrison, Harper & Row, New York, 1975 ISBN 0-06-010052-4
  • New Maps of Hell, Kingsley Amis, Ballantine Books, New York, 1960
  • The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, edited by John Clute & Peter Nicholls, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1993 ISBN 0-312-09618-6
  • Grumbles from the Grave, selected letters of Robert A. Heinlein, edited by Virginia Heinlein, Del Rey Books, New York, 1989 ISBN 0-345-36246-2
  • Astounding, edited by Harry Harrison, Random House, New York, 1973 ISBN 0394481674)
  • Through Eyes of Wonder, by Ben Bova, Addisonian Press, Reading, Massachusetts, 1975, ISBN 0-201-09206-9
  • A Requiem for Astounding, by Alva Rogers, Advent:Publishers, Chicago, 1964
  • More Issues at Hand, by James Blish, writing as William Atheling, Jr., Advent:Publishers, Inc. Chicago, 1970
  • Our Five Days with John W. Campbell, by Joe Green, The Bulletin of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, Fall 2006, No. 171, pages 13-16

Dr. Isaac Asimov (January 1, 1920 – April 6, 1992, IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Doubleday is one of the largest book publishing companies in the world. ... Sam Moskowitz (1920-1997) was an early fan and organizer of interest in science fiction and, later, a writer. ... Ballantine Books, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine, is a major book publisher and is currently owned by Random House. ... Brian Wilson Aldiss (born August 18, 1925 in East Dereham, Norfolk) is a prolific English author of both general fiction and science fiction. ... At the 63rd World Science Fiction Convention in Glasgow, August 2005 Harry Harrison (born Henry Maxwell Dempsey, March 12, 1925 in Stamford, Connecticut) is an American science fiction author who has lived in many parts of the world including Mexico, England, Denmark and Italy. ... Harper & Row is an imprint of HarperCollins. ... Sir Kingsley William Amis (April 16, 1922 – October 22, 1995) was an English novelist, poet, critic, and teacher. ... Ballantine Books, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine, is a major book publisher and is currently owned by Random House. ... John [Frederick] Clute is a Canadian born author and critic who lives in Britain. ... Peter Nicholls may refer to: Peter Nicholls (writer) - critic and co-editor of The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction Peter Nicholls (musician) - lead singer with the bands IQ and Niadems Ghost, also an album cover artist Different spelling Peter Nichols - author of A Day in the Death of Joe Egg... Headquartered in the legendary Flatiron Building in New York City, St. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Del Rey Books is a branch of Ballantine Books, which is owned by Random House. ... At the 63rd World Science Fiction Convention in Glasgow, August 2005 Harry Harrison (born Henry Maxwell Dempsey, March 12, 1925 in Stamford, Connecticut) is an American science fiction author who has lived in many parts of the world including Mexico, England, Denmark and Italy. ... Random House is a publishing division of the German media conglomerate Bertelsmann based in New York City. ... Benjamin William Bova (born November 8, 1932) is an American science fiction author and editor. ... James Benjamin Blish (East Orange, New Jersey, May 23, 1921 - Henley-on-Thames, July 29, 1975) was an American author of fantasy and science fiction. ...

References

  1. ^ I. Asimov, Isaac Asimov, page 73
  2. ^ Ash, Brian (1976). Who's Who in Science Fiction. London: Elm Tree Books, 63. ISBN 0-241-89383-6. 
  3. ^ a b (August 1963) "Amazing Stories": 101. 
  4. ^ (October 1971) "Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact": 4. 
  5. ^ a b c [1993] in Clute, John & Nicholls, Peter: The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St. Martin's Press, Inc., 199. ISBN 0-312-09618-6. 
  6. ^ I. Asimov, Isaac Asimov, page 72
  7. ^ Hell's Cartographers, edited by Brian W. Aldiss and Harry Harrison, page 114
  8. ^ Introduction: The Father of Science Fiction, by Isaac Asimov, in Astounding edited by Harry Harrison, page ix
  9. ^ Seekers of Tomorrow, Masters of Modern Science Fiction, Sam Moskowitz, page 52
  10. ^ a b del Rey, Lester (1976). The Early del Rey. New York: Ballantine Books, 4-7,18. ISBN 0-345-25063-X. 
  11. ^ a b c Tuck, Donald H. (1974). The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Volume 1. Chicago: Advent: Publishers, Inc., 87. ISBN 0-911682-20-1. 
  12. ^ del Rey, Lester (1979). The World of Science Fiction and Fantasy: The History of a Subculture. New York: Ballantine Books, 91. ISBN 0-345-25452-X. 
  13. ^ (November 1937) "Astounding Science-Fiction": 159. 
  14. ^ The editorial note was not signed, but it refers to stories bought for the last three issues, one of which (Lester del Rey's The Faithful) is known to have been bought by Campbell. See the citation from The Early del Rey for del Rey's account of that sale. For the editorial note, see (April 1938) "Astounding Science-Fiction": 125. 
  15. ^ For example, the Nicholls ( [1993] in Clute, John & Nicholls, Peter: The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St. Martin's Press, Inc., 199. ISBN 0-312-09618-6. ) says "The beginning of Campbell's particular Golden Age of SF can be pinpointed as the summer of 1939," and goes on to begin the discussion with the July 1939 issue. Lester del Rey (del Rey, Lester (1979). The World of Science Fiction and Fantasy: The History of a Subculture. New York: Ballantine Books, 94. ISBN 0-345-25452-X. ) comments that "July was the turning point". In addition, the issue was later reproduced as a facsimile issue just because of its fame for this reason.[citation needed]
  16. ^ Grumbles from the Grave, edited by Virginia Heinlein, page 6
  17. ^ Introduction: The Father of Science Fiction, by Isaac Asimov, in Astounding edited by Harry Harrison, pages ix-x
  18. ^ Through Eyes of Wonder, by Ben Bova, pages 66-67
  19. ^ Our Five Days with John W. Campbell, by Joe Green, The Bulletin of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, Fall 2006, No. 171, page 13
  20. ^ A Requiem for Astounding, by Alva Rogers, pages 176-180
  21. ^ The quote is from Asimov's introduction to ASTOUNDING: John W. Campbell Memorial Anthology (1973)
  22. ^ Our Five Days with John W. Campbell, by Joe Green, The Bulletin of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, Fall 2006, No. 171, page 15
  23. ^ Editorial of June, 1961, Analog, page 5
  24. ^ Editorial of June, 1961, Analog, page 8 — The e on Counterblaste was deliberate: he was referring to a 16th-century diatribe about the evils of smoking.
  25. ^ Editorial of September, 1964, Analog, page 8
  26. ^ a b (April 1950) "Astounding Science Fiction": 132. 
  27. ^ I. Asimov, Isaac Asimov, page 74
  28. ^ James Blish, The Issues at Hand, pages 86-87.
  29. ^ Introduction: The Father of Science Fiction, by Isaac Asimov, in Astounding edited by Harry Harrison, pages xii
  30. ^ I. Asimov, Isaac Asimov, page 72
  31. ^ Moskowitz
  32. ^ Hell's Cartographers, edited by Brian W. Aldiss and Harry Harrison, page 133
  33. ^ New Maps of Hell, Kingsley Amis, page 84
  34. ^ Hell's Cartographers, edited by Brian W. Aldiss and Harry Harrison, page 57
  35. ^ I. Asimov, Isaac Asimov, page 74
  36. ^ Grumbles from the Grave, edited by Virginia Heinlein, page 8
  37. ^ Grumbles from the Grave, edited by Virginia Heinlein, page 36
  38. ^ Grumbles from the Grave, edited by Virginia Heinlein, page 152
  39. ^ Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame. Retrieved on June 21, 2007.
  40. ^ Currey, L. W. (1979). Science Fiction and Fantasy Authors: A Bibliography of First Printings of Their Fiction. Boston: G.K. Hall & Co., 97. ISBN 0-8161-8242-6. 
  41. ^ Index to Science Fiction Anthologies and Collections, Combined Edition. Retrieved on June 8, 2007.
  42. ^ Reginald, R. (1979). Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature: Volume 1: Indexes to the Literature. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 88-89. ISBN 0-8103-1051-1. 
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