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Encyclopedia > John Tower
John Tower
John Tower

John Goodwin Tower (September 29, 1925April 5, 1991) was the first Republican United States senator from Texas since the Reconstruction after the Civil War. He served in the Senate from 1961 until his retirement in January 1985, after which he was the chairman of the Reagan-appointed Tower Commission that investigated the Iran-Contra Affair. From [1]. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ... Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... // Reconstruction was the period in United States history, 1865–77, that resolved the issues of the American Civil War when both the Confederacy and its system of slavery were destroyed. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1985 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan, (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... Commissioned on November 26, 1986 by President Reagan, the Tower Commission was in response to the Iran Contra scandal. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents


Early life, education, and military

Tower was born September 29, 1925, to Joe and Beryl Tower in Houston. His father was a Methodist minister. Tower traveled where his father pastored, attending public schools in East Texas and graduating in Beaumont, in the spring of 1942. He was active in politics as a child; at the age of 13 he passed out handbills for the campaign of liberal Democrat and future senator Ralph Yarborough while Yarborough was running for attorney general. Yarborough and Tower would later be paired as Texas's Senate delegation, though of opposing political perspectives. He entered Southwestern University that same year in Georgetown, and met future president and political opponent Lyndon Baines Johnson in 1942 on a campus visit while Johnson was the local congressman. Houston redirects here. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Red counties show the core of East Texas; pink and red counties may or may not be included in East Texas, and thus their inclusion varies from source to source. ... Flag Location Location in the state of Texas Coordinates , Government Counties Jefferson County Mayor Guy Goodson Geographical characteristics Area     City 222. ... This article is about the year. ... Texas politician Ralph Yarborough Ralph Webster Yarborough (June 8, 1903 – January 27, 1996) was a Texas Democratic politician who served in the United States Senate (1957 until 1971) and was a leader of the progressive or liberal wing of the Democratic Party in Texas in his many races for statewide... Southwestern University is a private, selective, four-year, undergraduate, liberal arts college located in Georgetown, Texas, USA // Campus Southwestern University is in Central Texas about 30 miles (50 km) north of Austin in Georgetown. ... Georgetown is a city located in Williamson County, Texas. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson ( August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... This article is about the year. ...


Tower left school in the summer of 1943 to serve in the Pacific theater during World War II on an amphibious gunboat. He returned to Texas after the war in 1946, discharged as a seaman first class, and completed his undergraduate courses at Southwestern University, graduating in 1948 with a B.A. in political science. Tower worked as a radio announcer for a country music station in Taylor, east of Austin during and for some time after college. 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union United States United Kingdom and others Axis Powers: Germany Japan Italy and others Commanders Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry S. Truman Winston Churchill Adolf Hitler Hideki Tojo Benito Mussolini Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... A Bachelor of Arts (B.A. or A.B.) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or program in the arts and/or sciences. ... Political science is an academic and research discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. ... country music, see Country music (disambiguation) In popular music, country music, also called country and western music or country-western, is an amalgam of popular musical forms developed in the Southern United States, with roots in traditional folk music, Celtic music, blues, gospel music, and old-time music that began... Taylor is a city located in Williamson County, Texas. ... Austin is a word that may refer to various things. ...


In 1949 he moved to Dallas and attended graduate courses at Southern Methodist University, working part-time as an insurance agent. He left SMU in 1951 and entered academia as an assistant professor at Midwestern University (now Midwestern State University) in Wichita Falls. In 1952 and 1953 he pursued graduate coursework at the London School of Economics and conducted field research on the organization of the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom. His research was presented in his master's thesis, The Conservative Worker in Britain. He received his M.A. from Southern Methodist University in 1953. While a professor at Midwestern University, Tower met Lou Bullington, whom he married in 1952. Lou, a California native, was the organist at Tower's church. She was five years his senior. 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Dallas redirects here. ... Southern Methodist University (also known as SMU) is a private, coeducational university in University Park, Texas, (an enclave of Dallas). ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of potential financial loss. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Midwestern State University is an accredited 4-year college, located in Wichita Falls, Texas with an estimated enrollment of 6480. ... Wichita Falls is a city in Wichita County, Texas, United States. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ... The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as the London School of Economics or simply the LSE, is a specialist university and a constituent college of the federal University of London, located on Houghton Street in Central London, off the Aldwych and next to the Royal... The Conservative Party is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting MPs, and the largest by of public membership. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate (or graduate) course of one to three years in duration. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ...


Family life

John and Lou Tower had three children during their years in Wichita Falls: Penny, born in 1954, Marian, born in 1955, and Jeanne, born in 1956. They were divorced in 1976, and Senator Tower married Lila Burt Cummings in 1977. John and Lila Tower were divorced in 1987, and she died thereafter. As the embittered Lila lay near death from cancer, she refused to accept flowers sent to her by John Tower, according to Tower's former assistant Ken Towery.


Early political career

Although raised a Southern Democrat, Tower became a Republican in college around 1951. He rose quickly through the ranks of the Texas Republican party; he was the Republican candidate for representative to the Texas Legislature for the Eighty-First district in 1954, though he lost, and in 1956, he was a delegate to the Republican National Convention. In the 1956 presidential election, Tower was a campaign manager for the Eisenhower campaign in the 23rd Senatorial District. In 1960, he was prominent enough to be chosen in the state convention held in McAllen as the Republican candidate for the United States Senate against Lyndon Johnson. Tower seemed the natural choice for the nomination. The only viable, prominent candidates for the seat other than Tower were Thad Hutcheson, the Republican candidate for Texas's other Senate seat in a special election in 1957 and Bruce Alger of Dallas, the only Republican congressman from Texas at the time. Both were uninterested. Southern Democrats are members of the U.S. Democratic Party who reside in the U.S. South. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Southwestern University is a private, selective, four-year, undergraduate, liberal arts college located in Georgetown, Texas, USA // Campus Southwestern University is in Central Texas about 30 miles (50 km) north of Austin in Georgetown. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... The Texas Legislature is the central lawmaking body of the U.S. state of Texas. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republican National Convention, the presidential nominating convention of the United States Republican Party, is held every four years to determine the partys candidate for the coming Presidential election and the partys platform. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... McAllen is a city in Hidalgo County, Texas, United States. ... Seal of the Senate The Senate of the United States of America is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bruce Reynolds Alger was the second Republican congressman from Texas since Reconstruction, serving from 1955 until 1965. ... Dallas redirects here. ...


Johnson, the incumbent senator and famous nationwide as the Senate Majority Leader, won the election against Tower. As Kennedy's running mate, Johnson was also seeking the Vice Presidency in the same election and Tower's campaign slogan was "double your pleasure, double your fun —vote against Johnson two times, not one." [1] Tower was supported by prominent Democratic former Governor Coke Stevenson, the loser by 87 votes to LBJ in the 1948 Democratic Senate primary runoff. Tower polled 927,653 votes (41.1 percent) to Johnson's 1,306,605 votes (58 percent). The Senate Majority Leader is a member of the United States Senate who is elected by his or her party conference to serve as the chief Senate spokesman for his or her party and to manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the Senate. ... Texas politician Coke Stevenson Coke Robert Stevenson (March 20, 1888–June 28, 1975) was a U.S. political figure. ...


Johnson became Vice President for John F. Kennedy, and Governor Price Daniel, Sr., appointed fellow Democrat William A. Blakley of Dallas to the seat, pending a special election to be held in May 1961. Blakley, a conservative Democrat, had also been appointed by Daniel in 1957 to succeed Daniel in the Senate when Daniel became governor. Considerable numbers of liberal Texas Democrats opposed the conservative Blakely and did not turn out to the polls. The conservative vote was divided. Texas conservatives, traditionally "Yellow Dog Democrats," had already voted for Republicans in the 1950s, when Democrat Governor Allan Shivers had aligned with Dwight Eisenhower over the national Democratic candidate Adlai E. Stevenson in a movement that was jokingly called "Shivercrats." The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Texas politician Price Daniel Marion Price Daniel, Sr. ... Texas Senator William Blakley William Arvis Dollar Bill Blakley (November 17, 1898 – January 5, 1976) was an American senator and businessman from the State of Texas. ... Dallas redirects here. ... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1950s were the decade that traditionally speaking, spanned the years 1950 through 1959. ... Texas governor Allan Shivers Robert Allan Shivers (October 5, 1907 - January 14, 1985) was a politician from the state of Texas. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Adlai Ewing Stevenson I (October 23, 1835 – June 14, 1914) was a Congressman from Illinois and the twenty-third Vice President of the United States. ...


In his second Senate campaign in a matter of months, Tower charged that the national Democratic Party, represented by John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, was far to the left of typical Texas Democrats. The initial round of voting in the special election gave Tower 327,308 votes (30.9 percent) to Blakely's 191,818 (18.1 percent). The other contenders were Democrats Jim Wright, a congressman from Fort Worth and a future U.S. House Speaker, 171,328 (16.2 percent), state Attorney General Will Wilson (who later became a Republican and served in the Nixon Justice Department), 121,961 (11.5 percent), former state representative and liberal lawyer and columnist Maury Maverick, Jr., of San Antonio, 104,922 (9.9 percent), and then state senator and future Congressman Henry B. Gonzalez, also of San Antonio, 97,659 (9.2 percent). There were some 65 other candidates, enticed by a filing fee at the time of only $50 for special elections, who polled a total of 4.2 percent of the vote. John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ... James Claude Wright, Jr. ... Fort Worth is the sixth-largest city in the state of Texas, located about 30 miles west of Dallas on the West Fork Trinity River and forming part of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Nixon is the surname of some prominent people: Richard Nixon - 37th President of the United States Patricia Nixon - First Lady to President Richard Nixon Tricia Nixon Cox - older daughter to Richard and Pat Nixon Julie Nixon Eisenhower - younger daughter to Richard and Pat Nixon John B. Nixon - oldest inmate executed... San Antonio (the Spanish name of Saint Anthony) is a common toponym in parts of the world where the Spanish language is or was spoken: Argentina San Antonio, Jujuy province Belize San Antonio, Cayo District Chile San Antonio Mexico San Antonio, San Luis Potosí Philippines San Antonio, Quezon San Antonio... Henry Barbosa Gonzalez (May 3, 1916 - November 28, 2000) was a Democratic politician from the state of Texas. ... San Antonio (the Spanish name of Saint Anthony) is a common toponym in parts of the world where the Spanish language is or was spoken: Argentina San Antonio, Jujuy province Belize San Antonio, Cayo District Chile San Antonio Mexico San Antonio, San Luis Potosí Philippines San Antonio, Quezon San Antonio...


Tower went on to win the special election runoff against Blakley. He became the first Republican senator from Texas since Reconstruction, the third from the former Confederacy, and the first to win popular election there. The final total was 448,217 votes (50.6 percent) for Tower and 437,872 (49.4 percent) for Blakely, a margin of 10,343. Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... // Reconstruction was the period in United States history, 1865–77, that resolved the issues of the American Civil War when both the Confederacy and its system of slavery were destroyed. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Danville, Virginia April 3–April 10, 1865 Largest city New Orleans...


In the Senate

Senator John Tower with fellow Texan President Lyndon Johnson
Senator John Tower with fellow Texan President Lyndon Johnson

Tower voted against the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 but this didn't stop him from being reelected three times - in 1966, 1972, and 1978. He later expressed his regret for having opposed the 1964 law. In 1966, Tower defeated Democratic Attorney General Waggonner Carr (another later convert to the Republican Party, 842,501 (56.7 percent) to 643,855 (43.3 percent). Tower's victory was most impressive, but he lost the majority of Texas's rural districts. He won every county that cast more than 10,000 votes except for McLennan County (Waco). In numerous counties, the 1961 or the 1966 Tower election was the first in which that county had voted for a Republican candidate. Image File history File links Public domain photograph of Texas Senator John Tower with President of the United States Lyndon Johnson in the 1960s from the Lyndon Johnson Presidential Library File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Public domain photograph of Texas Senator John Tower with President of the United States Lyndon Johnson in the 1960s from the Lyndon Johnson Presidential Library File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Seal of the Senate The Senate of the United States of America is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... The United States Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed requiring would-be voters to take literacy tests and provided for federal registration of African American voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible voters registered. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... Rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... McLennan County is a county located in the state of Texas. ... Waco may refer to multiple places in the United States of America: Waco, Georgia Waco, Kentucky Waco, Missouri Waco, Nebraska Waco, North Carolina Waco, Texas Waco may also refer to: a dialect of the Wichita language Siege of Waco, a 1993 confrontation between U.S. federal agents and the Branch...


In 1972, Tower defeated a former Dallas federal judge with an unusual name, Harold "Barefoot" Sanders, 1,822,877 (54.7 percent of two-party vote) to 1,511,948 (45.3 percent of two-party vote). There were more than 79,000 votes cast for others. Several of the "Democrats for Nixon" organizers in Texas, such as former Congressman Joe Kilgore, made it clear that they were Sanders supporters for the Senate. Sanders ran far ahead of Democratic presidential nominee George McGovern in the state. In that 1972 race, Tower clashed with gubernatorial nominee Henry Grover of Houston; the infighting is believed to have played a role in Grover's relatively narrow defeat for the governorship. George McGovern Dr. George Stanley McGovern (born July 19, 1922) was a United States Congressman, Senator, and Democratic presidential candidate, losing the 1972 presidential election to incumbent Richard Nixon. ... Henry Cushing Hank Grover was a conservative politician for the U.S. state of Texas best known for his narrow defeat as the Republican gubernatorial nominee in 1972. ...


In 1978, Tower had a very close call in a most hard-fought campaign. He edged out Democratic Congressman Robert Krueger of New Braunfels in Comal County, 1,151,376 (50.3 percent of two-party vote) to 1,139,149 (49.7 percent of two-party vote). Tower's plurality over Krueger was 12,227 votes, but because there were another 22,015 votes cast for others, Tower prevailed with less than 50 percent of the total vote. This was the campaign in which an irate Tower refused to shake Krueger's hand at a candidate forum on grounds that his opponent had spread mistruths about Tower's personal life. (Robert Krueger later served in the Senate on an interim appointment from Governor Ann Richards from January to June 1993.) Robert Charles Krueger (born September 19, 1935), American politician, is a former U.S. Representative and U.S. Senator from Texas, and a member of the Democratic Party. ... New Braunfels is a city located in Texas, United States. ... The 3. ... Robert Charles Krueger (born September 19, 1935), American politician, is a former U.S. Representative and U.S. Senator from Texas, and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Dorothy Ann Willis Richards (born September 1, 1933) is an American politician from Texas. ...


In the Senate, Tower was assigned to two major committees: the Labor and Public Welfare Committee and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. Tower left the Labor and Public Welfare Committee in 1964, though in 1965 he was named to the important Armed Services Committee, in which he served until his retirement. He was chairman of the Armed Services Committee from 1981 to 1984. Tower also served on the Joint Committee on Defense Production from 1963 until 1977 and on the Senate Republican Policy Committee in 1962 and from 1969 until 1984. Tower served as chairman of the latter from 1973 until his retirement from the Senate. 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ...


As a member and later chairman of the Armed Services Committee, Tower was a strong proponent of modernizing the armed forces. In the Banking and Currency Committee, he was a champion of small businesses and worked to improve the national infrastructure and financial institutions. Tower supported Texas economic interests, working to improve the business environment of the energy, agricultural, and fishing and maritime sectors.


Though Tower and President Johnson were political rivals, Tower offered support to Johnson on Vietnam. Johnson often invited Tower to fly back to Texas with him on Air Force One. Johnson, in one of his occasional moods of melancholy, once told Tower that he had given him more support on the war than the whole Democratic party had done. Air Force One is the air traffic control call sign of any U.S. Air Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States. ...


Tower broke with many conservatives by his support of abortion rights. He quarreled with State Senator Henry Grover of Houston, the 1972 Republican gubernatorial nominee, to such an extent that the intraparty divisions may have contributed to Grover's 100,000-vote defeat by Democrat Dolph Briscoe even as Tower was winning a third Senate term over the Democrat Sanders by nearly 311,000 ballots. Henry Cushing Hank Grover was a conservative politician for the U.S. state of Texas best known for his narrow defeat as the Republican gubernatorial nominee in 1972. ... Houston redirects here. ... Dolph Briscoe (born April 23, 1923) was an American politician and businessman and former governor of Texas. ...


Tower also angered conservatives by his support of the nomination of Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr., as president in 1976 over former California Governor Ronald W. Reagan. Reagan won every Texas delegate in the first ever Texas Republican presidential primary but narrowly lost the party nomination to Ford at the convention held that year in Kansas City. Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Order: 40th President Term of Office: January 20, 1981–January 20, 1989 Preceded by: Jimmy Carter Succeeded by: George H.W. Bush Date of birth: February 6, 1911 Place of birth: Tampico, Illinois Date of death: June 5, 2004 Place of death: Los Angeles, California First Lady: Nancy Reagan Political... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Fountains or Heart of America Location Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ...


Retirement

Tower retired from the Senate on January 3, 1985, after 24 years in office. Tower continued to be involved in national politics, advising the campaigns of Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush. Two weeks after his resignation from the Senate, Tower was named chief United States negotiator at the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks in Geneva, demonstrating an effective handling of the technical issues of arms reduction. Tower resigned from this office in 1987, and for a time was a distinguished professor at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, from which he had received his M.A. He became a consultant with Tower, Eggers, and Greene Consulting from 1987 to 1991. January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan, (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born June... START, officially the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty was a nuclear weapons limitation treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German: //, Italian: Ginevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland, and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Southern Methodist University (also known as SMU) is a private, coeducational university in University Park, Texas, (an enclave of Dallas). ... Dallas redirects here. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In November 1986, President Reagan asked Tower to chair the President's Special Review Board to study the action of the National Security Council and its staff during the Iran-Contra Affair. The Board, which became known as the Tower Commission, issued its report on February 26, 1987. The report was highly critical of the Reagan Administration and of the National Security Council's dealings with both Iran and the Nicaraguan Contras. Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan, (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... The National Security Council (NSC) of the United States is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Commissioned on November 26, 1986 by President Reagan, the Tower Commission was in response to the Iran Contra scandal. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Contras (from the Spanish term La Contra, short for movement of the contrarrevolucionarios) were the armed opponents of Nicaraguas Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction following the July 1979 overthrow of Anastasio Somoza Debayle (which ended the Somoza dynasty), and continuing throughout the following decade. ...


In 1989, Tower was President George H. W. Bush's choice to become Secretary of Defense. The United States Senate did not confirm his nomination due to a variety of factors. One charge was that Tower had too many ties to defense contractors. Some Democrats used the nomination to retaliate against President George H.W. Bush for what they viewed as 'negative' (though successful) campaign tactics against their nominee, Michael Dukakis. Others, including the conservative organizer Paul Weyrich, accused Tower (accurately, the evidence suggests) of having been involved in extramarital affairs and heavy drinking. One of Tower's leading critics was Senate Armed Services Committee Chairman Sam Nunn, a Georgia Democrat. Instead, Tower was named chairman of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board. Dick Cheney, then a representative from Wyoming was later confirmed as Secretary of Defense. 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States of America (1989–1993). ... Seal of the United States Department of Defense The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate, and is a member of the Cabinet. ... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and a former presidential candidate, being the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ... Paul M. Weyrich (born October 7, 1942 in Racine, Wisconsin) is a US conservative political activist and commentator. ... Sam Nunn Samuel Augustus Nunn (born September 8, 1938) is co-chairman and chief executive officer of the NTI (Nuclear Threat Initiative), a charitable organization working to reduce the global threats from nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. ... The Presidents Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB) is part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under the President George W. Bush. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ...


Suspicious death

On April 5, 1991, Tower was killed along with 23 other people in the crash of Atlantic Southeast Airlines Flight 2311 on approach for landing at Brunswick, Georgia. Also killed in the crash were Tower's 35-year old daughter, Marianne, and astronaut Sonny Carter. Some conspiracy theorists argue that Tower's demise was because he supposedly knew the suppressed truth of the Iran-Contra scandal. April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Atlantic Southeast Airlines (ASA) (IATA: EV, ICAO: ASQ, and Callsign: Acey) is an airline based in Atlanta, Georgia, USA flying to over 150 destinations as a Delta Connection carrier. ... Braunschweig may also refer to the administrative region of Germany. ... Manley Lanier Sonny Carter, Jr. ... In the Iran-Contra Affair, United States President Ronald Reagans administration secretly sold arms to Iran, which was engaged in a bloody war with its neighbor Iraq from 1980 to 1988 (see Iran-Iraq War), and diverted the proceeds to the Contra rebels fighting to overthrow the leftist and...


John Tower and his daughter are buried together in the family plot at the Sparkman-Hillcrest Memorial Park Cemetery in Dallas, Texas. His personal and political life are chronicled in his autobiography, Consequences: A Personal and Political Memoir, published the year of his death. Sparkman-Hillcrest Memorial Park Cemetery is located at 7405 W. Northwest Highway in Dallas, Texas. ... ·· Flag Seal Nickname: Big D Location Location in the state of Texas Government Counties Dallas County Collin County Denton County Kaufman County Rockwall County Mayor Laura Miller Geographical characteristics Area 997. ...


Lou Bullington Tower died at the age of 81 in a Dallas hospital in August 2001, with her two surviving daughters at her side. She is also buried in Hillcrest Memorial Park. The personable Lou Tower was widely credited with having helped John Tower win his early Senate races. Her obituary said that she was preceded in death by her parents and several other individuals, including "Senator John Tower," with no mention of Tower as her ex-husband.


External links

  • biographic sketch at U.S. Congress website

Mimi Webb Miller and Pablo Acosta information

Preceded by:
William A. Blakely (D)
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Texas

John G. Tower (R)
1961—1985
Texas Senator William Blakley William Arvis Dollar Bill Blakley (November 17, 1898 – January 5, 1976) was an American senator and businessman from the State of Texas. ... Texas was admitted to the Union on December 29 1845. ...

Succeeded by:
William Philip "Phil" Gramm (R)

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Tower - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2187 words)
Tower was born September 29, 1925, to Joe and Beryl Tower in Houston.
Tower was supported by prominent Democratic former Governor Coke Stevenson, the loser by 87 votes to LBJ in the 1948 Democratic Senate primary runoff.
John Tower and his daughter are buried together in the family plot at the Sparkman-Hillcrest Memorial Park Cemetery in Dallas, Texas.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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