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Encyclopedia > John Toland

John Toland (November 30, 1670 - March 11, 1722) Very little is known about his true origins other than the fact that he was born in Ardagh on the Inishowen Peninsula, a predominantly Catholic and Irish speaking region, in north west Ulster. It is likely that he was originally christened "Seán Eoghain Ui Thuathalláin", thus giving rise to the sobriquet "Janus Junius Toland". After having converted to Protestantism around the age of 16, he obtained a scholarship to study theology at the University of Glasgow. He would also later attend university at Edinburgh and at Leiden in Holland. His first book Christianity Not Mysterious (1696) was burnt by the public hangman in Dublin. He escaped prosecution by fleeing to England, where he spent most of the rest of his life. November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in Leap year). ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... Ruined House, Ardagh Ardagh, Donegal (high field) is a small village on the Inishowen peninsula near Carndonagh in County Donegal, Ireland. ... The Grianán of Aileach is a stone fort on the Inishowen peninsula. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... A sobriquet is a nickname or a fancy name, usually a familiar name given by others as distinct from a pseudonym assumed as a disguise, but a nickname which is familiar enough such that it can be used in place of a real name without the need of explanation. ... The University of Glasgow was founded in 1451, in Glasgow, Scotland. ... The year 1696 had the earliest equinoxes and solstices for 400 years in the Gregorian calendar, because this year is a leap year and the Gregorian calendar would have behaved like the Julian calendar since March 1500 had it have been in use that long. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ...


He was the first person called a freethinker (by Bishop Berkeley) and went on to write over a hundred books in various domains but mostly dedicated to criticizing ecclesiastical institutions. A great deal of his intellectual activity was dedicated to writing political tracts in support of the Whig cause. Many scholars know him for his role as either the biographer or editor of notable republicans from the mid-17th century such as James Harrington, Algernon Sidney and John Milton. His works "Anglia Libera" and "State Anatomy" are prosaic expressions of an English republicanism which reconciles itself with constitutional monarchy. The word freethinker has different meanings: A freethinker is a proponent of the philosophical practice known as Freethinking, thus being a practitioner of Freethought. ... Bishop George Berkeley George Berkeley (British English://; Irish English: //) (12 March 1685 – 14 January 1753), also known as Bishop Berkeley, was an influential Irish philosopher whose primary philosophical achievement is the advancement of what has come to be called subjective idealism, summed up in his dictum, Esse est percipi (To... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Portrait of James Harrington, oil on canvas, c. ... Algernon Sydney (or Sidney) (~1622-1683) was an English politician, an opponent of King Charles II of England. ... John Milton, English poet John Milton (December 9, 1608 – November 8, 1674) was an English poet, best-known for his epic poem Paradise Lost. ...


Toland is generally classed with the deists, but at the time when he wrote Christianity not Mysterious he was careful to distinguish himself from both skeptical atheists and orthodox theologians. After having formulated a stricter version of Locke's epistemological rationalism, Toland then goes on to show that there are no facts or doctrines from the Bible which are not perfectly plain, intelligible and reasonable, being neither contrary to reason nor incomprehensible to it. All revelation is human revelation; that which is not rendered understandable is to be rejected as jibberish. Deism is a religious philosophy and movement that became prominent in England, France, and the United States in the 17th and 18th centuries. ... John Locke (August 29, 1632 – October 28, 1704) was an influential English philosopher. ...


After his Christianity not Mysterious, Toland's "Letters to Serena" constitute his major contribution to philosophy. In the first three letters, he develops a historical account of the rise of superstition arguing that human reason cannot ever fully liberate itself from prejudices. In the last two letters, he founds a metaphysical materialism grounded in a critique of monist substantialism. Later on, we find Toland continuing his critique of church government in Nazarenus which was first more fully developed in his "Primitive Constitution of the Christian Church", a clandestine writing in circulation by 1705. The first book of "Nazarenus" calls attention to the right of the Ebionites to a place in the early church. The thrust of his argument was to push to the very limits the applicability of canonical scripture to establish institutionalized religion. Later works of special importance include Tetradymus wherein can be found Clidophorus, a historical study of the distinction between esoteric and exoteric philosophies. In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions. ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... The Ebionites (from Hebrew; אביונים, Ebyonim, the poor ones) were an early sect of mostly Jewish followers of Jesus, which flourished in the early centuries of the Common Era, one of several ancient Jewish Christian groups that existed during the Roman and Byzantine periods in the Levant. ...


Toland influenced Baron d'Holbach's ideas about physical motion. In his Letters to Serena, Toland claimed that rest, or absence of motion, is not merely relative. Actually, for Toland, rest is a special case of motion. When there is a conflict of forces, the body that is apparently at rest is influenced by as much activity and passivity as it would be if it were moving. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


His Pantheisticon, sive formula celebrandae sodalitatis socraticae (Pantheisticon, or the Form of Celebrating the Socratic Society), of which he printed a few copies for private circulation only, gave great offence as a sort of liturgic service made up of passages from heathen authors, in imitation of the Church of England liturgy. The title also was in those days alarming, and still more so the mystery which the author threw around the question how far such societies of pantheists actually existed. The term "pantheism" was coined by Toland to describe the philosophy of Spinoza. Toland was involved in at least one such society of pantheists: in 1717 he founded the Ancient Druid Order, an organization that continued uninterrupted until splitting into two groups in 1964. Both those groups, The Druid Order and the Order of Bards, Ovates and Druids, still exist today. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Pantheism (Greek: pan = all and Theos = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Baruch Spinoza Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 - February 21, 1677), named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Spinoza or Bento dEspiñoza in the community in which he grew up. ... The Order of Bards Ovates & Druids or OBOD is a Druidic order based in England. ...


See also Mosheim's Vindiciae antiquae christianorum disciplinae (1722), containing the most exhaustive account of Toland's life and writings; A Life of Toland (1722), by one of his most intimate friends; Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Mr John Toland, by Pierre Des Maizeaux, prefixed to The Miscellaneous Works of Mr John Toland (London, 1747); John Leland's View of the Principal Deistical Writers (last ed. 1837); G. V. Lechlers Aeschichte des englischen Deismus (1841); Isaac Disraeli's Calamities of Authors (new ed., 1881); article on "The English Freethinkers" in Theological Review, No. 5 (November, 1864); J. Hunt, in Contemporary Review, No. 6. Johann Lorenz von Mosheim (1694 – September 9, 1755), German Lutheran divine and Church historian, was born at Lubeck on the 9th of October, 1694 or 1695. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ... // Events January 31 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Dock Hospital April 9 - The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason; he was the last man to be executed in this way in Britain May 14 - First battle of Cape... | Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


This section incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


Works

(This is non-exhaustive.)

  • Christianity Not Mysterious: A Treatise Shewing, That there is nothing in the Gospel Contrary to Reason, Nor Above It: And that no Christian Doctrine can be properly called A Mystery (1696)
  • An Apology for Mr. Toland (1697)
  • Amyntor, or the defence of Milton's life (1698)
  • Amyntor, or a Defence of Miltons Life (1699)
  • Edited James Harrington's Oceana and other Works (1700)
  • The Art of Governing Partys (1701)
  • Limitations for the next Foreign Successor, or A New Saxon Race: Debated in a Conference betwixt Two Gentlemen; Sent in a Letter to a Member of Parliament (1701)
  • Propositions for Uniting the Two East India Companies (1701)
  • Hypatia or the History of a most beautiful, most virtuous, most learned and in every way accomplished lady, who was torn to pieces by the clergy of Alexandria to gratify the pride, emulation and cruelty of the archbishop commonly but undeservedly titled St Cyril (1720)
  • Anglia Libera, or the Limitation and Succession of the Crown of England (1701)
  • Reasons for Address His Majesty to Invite into England their Highnesses, the Electress Dowager and the Electoral Prince of Hanover (1702)
  • Vindicius Liberius (1702)
  • Letters to Serena (1704)
  • The Primitive Constitution of the Christian Church (c.1705; posthume, 1726)
  • The Account of the Courts of Prussia and Hanover (1705)
  • Socinianism Truly Stated (by "A Pantheist") (1705)
  • Translated A. Phillipick Schiner's Oration to Incite the English Against the French (1707)
  • Adeisidaemon - or the "Man Without Superstition" (1709)
  • Origines Judaicae (1709)
  • The Art of Restoring (1710)
  • The Jacobitism, Perjury, and Popery of High-Church Priests (1710)
  • An Appeal to Honest People against Wicked Priests (1713)
  • Dunkirk or Dover (1713)
  • The Art of Restoring (1714) (against Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer|Robert Harley)
  • Reasons for Naturalising the Jews in Great Britain and Ireland on the same foot with all Other Nations (1714)
  • State Anatomy of Great Britain (1717)
  • The Second Part of the State Anatomy (1717)
  • Nazarenus, or Jewish, Gentile and Mahometan Christianity (1718)
  • The Probability of the Speedy and Final Destruction of the Pope (1718)
  • Tetradymus (1720) (translated into English language|English in 1751)
  • Pantheisticon (1720)
  • History of the Celtic Religion and Learning Containing an Account of the Druids (1726)
  • A Collection of Several Pieces of Mr John Toland, ed. P. Des Maizeaux, 2 vols. (1726)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
John Toland - LoveToKnow 1911 (1131 words)
TOLAND, JOHN [christened Janus JuNius] (1670-1722), English deist, was born on the 30th of November 1670, near Londonderry, Ireland.
Toland's next work of importance was his Life of Milton (1698), in which a reference to "the numerous supposititious pieces under the name of Christ and His apostles and other great persons," provoked the charge that he had called in question the genuineness of the New Testament writings.
In 1701 Toland spent a few weeks at Hanover as secretary to the embassy of the earl of Macclesfield, and was received with favour by the electress Sophia in acknowledgment of his book Anglia Libera, a defence of the Hanoverian succession.
John Toland at AllExperts (1128 words)
John Toland (November 30, 1670 - March 11, 1722) Very little is known about his true origins other than the fact that he was born in Ardagh on the Inishowen Peninsula, a predominantly Catholic and Irish speaking region, in north west Ulster.
Toland is generally classed with the deists, but at the time when he wrote Christianity not Mysterious he was careful to distinguish himself from both skeptical atheists and orthodox theologians.
Toland was involved in at least one such society of pantheists: in 1717 he founded the Ancient Druid Order, an organization that continued uninterrupted until splitting into two groups in 1964.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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