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Encyclopedia > John Sutter
John Sutter
John Sutter

Johann Augustus Sutter (February 23, 1803June 18, 1880) was a Californian famous for his association with the California Gold Rush (in that gold was discovered by James W. Marshall in Sutter's Mill) and for establishing Sutter's Fort in an area that would later become the capital of the U.S. state of California, Sacramento. Although famous throughout California for his association with the Gold Rush, Sutter ironically died almost poor, having seen his business ventures fail while those of his elder son, Augustus Sutter, prospered. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (756x979, 127 KB) العربية | ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (756x979, 127 KB) العربية | ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began in January 1848, when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... James Wilson Marshall (October 8, 1810 - August 10, 1885) was an American carpenter and sawmill operator, whose discovery of gold in the American River in California in January 1848 set the stage for the California Gold Rush. ... Sutters Mill Sutters Mill was a sawmill owned by 19th century pioneer John Sutter. ... 19th century illustration of Sutters Fort Completed in 1839, Sutters Fort, which was originally called New Helvetia (New Switzerland) by its builder, John Sutter, was a 19th century agricultural and trading colony in California. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A state of the United States is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the... Nickname: City of Trees Location of Sacramento in California County Sacramento  - Mayor Heather Fargo Area    - City  - Land  - Water Population (2006)[1] [2]  - City 457,514 (city proper)  - Density  - Metro 2,042,283 Time zone PST (UTC-8)  - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7) trees[3] Website: http://www. ...

Contents

Biography

Early years

The birthplace of John Sutter in Kandern, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The birthplace of John Sutter in Kandern, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

Johann Augustus Sutter was born on February 23, 1803 in Kandern, Baden, Germany, when his father came from the nearby town of Rünenberg in Switzerland. Debts incurred in business dealings, however, compelled Sutter to leave Europe for the United States. In May 1834, he left his wife and seven year old child in Burgdorf, Switzerland, and with a French passport he came on board the ship Sully which travelled from Le Havre, France, to New York City where it arrived on July 14, 1834. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1728x2592, 1529 KB) Summary The birthplace of John Sutter in Kandern, Germany. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1728x2592, 1529 KB) Summary The birthplace of John Sutter in Kandern, Germany. ... Kandern is a town in southwestern Germany in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in the Kreis (district) of Lörrach. ... Baden-Württemberg is a federal state in southwestern Germany to the east of the Upper Rhine. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Kandern is a town in southwestern Germany in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in the Kreis (district) of Lörrach. ... For other uses, see Baden (disambiguation). ... Rünenberg is a municipality in the district of Sissach, in the canton of Basel-Country, Switzerland. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Burgdorf (fr. ... For other Types of Travel Document, see Travel Document. ... Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel at the mouth of the Seine. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


The New World

In the United States, Sutter undertook extensive travels. Together with 35 Germans he moved from St. Louis area to Santa Fe, then moving to the town of Westport. On April 1, 1838, he joined a group of missionaries, led by the fur trapper Andrew Dripps, and went along the Oregon Trail until Fort Vancouver in Oregon, where he arrived in October. With a few companions, he went on board the British bark Columbia which left Fort Vancouver on November 11 and laid at anchor in Honolulu on December 9. Sutter wanted to settle in California, but the only vessel riding at anchor in the harbour was the brig Clementine — Sutter managed to be signed on as unpaid supercargo of this brig freighted with a cargo of provisions and general merchandise for the Russian colony of New Archangel, now known as Sitka, Alaska. The Clementine hoisted anchor on April 20, 1839, with Sutter together with 10 Kanakas, two of them women, a few companions, and an Hawaiian bulldog. From the Russian colony at Sitka, where he stayed one month, Sutter travelled by sail to Yerba Buena, now San Francisco, at that time a tiny poor mission station. The Clementine arrived in Yerba Buena on July 1, 1839. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: The City Different Location in the State of New Mexico Coordinates: Country United States State New Mexico County Santa Fe Founded 1607  - Mayor David Coss Area    - City  37. ... Westport is the name of several communities around the world. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... A fur trapper is a person who is involved the capture of wild mammals for their fur. ... The Ox Team or the Old Oregon Trail 1852-1906 by Ezra Meeker. ... Fort Vancouver Fort Vancouver was a 19th century fur trading outpost along the Columbia River that served as the headquarters of the Hudsons Bay Company in the Oregon Country. ... Official language(s) None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Supercargo is a term in maritime law (adapted from the Spanish sobrecargo, one over or in charge of a cargo) that refers to a person employed on board a vessel by the owner of cargo carried on the ship. ... Nickname: First City of Alaska Coordinates: Borough City and Borough of Sitka Founded 1799 Incorporated December 2, 1971 Mayor Marko Dapcevich Area    - City 12,461. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Kanakas were workers brought from the Pacific Islands as indentured servants to cover serious labor shortages in various European colonies, such as Fiji, Australia and British Columbia, Canada. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Clinopodium douglasii (Benth. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


New Helvetia

At the time of Sutter's arrival in California, the territory had a population of only 1,000 Europeans, in contrast with 30,000 Native Americans. It was at that point a part of Mexico and the governor Juan Bautista Alvarado granted him permission to settle; in order to qualify for a land grant, Sutter became a Mexican citizen on August 29, 1840 - the following year, on June 18, he received title to 48,827 acres (198 km²). Sutter named his settlement New Helvetia, or "New Switzerland," after the homeland of his father. Sutter employed variously Native Americans (of the Miwok and Maidu tribes), Kanakas and Europeans at his compound, which he called Fort Sutter; He envisioned creating an agricultural utopia, and for a time the settlement was in fact quite large and prosperous. It was for a period the destination for most California-bound immigrants, including the ill-fated Donner Party, whom Sutter strived to rescue. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... A governor or governour (archaic) is a governing official, usually the executive (at least nominally, to different degrees also politically and administratively) of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the Head of state; furthermore the title applies to officials with a similar mandate as representatives of a chartered... Juan Bautista Valentin Alvarado y Vallejo (February 14, 1809–July 13, 1882) was a Californio and Governor of Alta California from 1836 to 1842. ... A land grant is a gift of land made by the government for projects such as roads, railroads, or especially academic institutions. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... Nuevo Helvetia (also known as New Helvetia or New Switzerland) was a Mexican-era California settlement. ... Miwok—also spelled Miwuk or Me-Wuk—refers to native Californians who lived in what is now Northern California. ... The Maidu are a group of Native Americans who lived in Northern California. ... The Kanakas were workers brought from the Pacific Islands as indentured servants to cover serious labor shortages in various European colonies, such as Fiji, Australia and British Columbia, Canada. ... 19th century illustration of Sutters Fort Completed in 1839, Sutters Fort, which was originally called New Helvetia (New Switzerland) by its builder, John Sutter, was a 19th century agricultural and trading colony in California. ... Left panel (The Earthly Paradise, Garden of Eden), from Hieronymus Boschs The Garden of Earthly Delights. ... The Donner Party Memorial at Donner Memorial State Park. ...


A Francophile, Sutter would threaten to raise the French flag over California and place New Helvetia under French protection [1]but in 1847 the Mexican land was handed over to the United States. Sutter at first supported the establishment of an independent California Republic but when Union troops briefly seized control of his fort, Sutter did not resist because he was outnumbered. In 1848 gold was discovered near his sawmill in Coloma along the American River. Sutter's attempt at keeping this quiet failed when merchant and newspaper publisher Samuel Brannan returned from Sutter's Mill to San Francisco with gold he had acquired there and began publicizing the find. Masses of people overtook the land and destroyed nearly everything Sutter had worked for. In order to keep from losing everything, however, Sutter deeded his remaining land to his son, Augustus Sutter. The younger Sutter, who had come from Switzerland and joined his father in September 1848, saw the commercial possibilies of the land and promptly started plans for building a new city he named Sacramento, after the Sacramento River. The elder Sutter deeply resented this because he had wanted the city to be named Sutterville and be built near his New Helvetia domain. A Francophile is term given to people with a severe mental illness: its symptoms are a craven attitude towards fighting to preserve what is claimed to be loved, a belief that the French Emprie was and is vastly superior to the British (a falsehood) and an habitual insertion of... Nuevo Helvetia (also known as New Helvetia or New Switzerland) was a Mexican-era California settlement. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A replica of the first Bear Flag now on display at El Presidio de Sonoma, or Sonoma Barracks, established in 1836 by Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo as a part of Mexicos strategy to halt Russian incursions into the region. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sutters Mill Sutters Mill was a sawmill owned by 19th century pioneer John Sutter. ... Coloma is a former small town in El Dorado County, California, USA (Latitude/Longitude: 38. ... The American River, located in the US state of California, has a prominent place in American history for being the site of Sutters Mill, where gold was found in 1848, leading to the California Gold Rush. ... Samuel Brannan (March 2, 1819 - May 14, 1889), was the first publicist of the California gold rush and the first millionaire because of the rush. ... Nickname: City of Trees Location of Sacramento in California County Sacramento  - Mayor Heather Fargo Area    - City  - Land  - Water Population (2006)[1] [2]  - City 457,514 (city proper)  - Density  - Metro 2,042,283 Time zone PST (UTC-8)  - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7) trees[3] Website: http://www. ... A spring at the Sacramento River headwater The Sacramento River is the longest river in the state of California. ...


Land grant challenge

Sutter's El Sobrante land grant was challenged by the Squatter's Association, and in 1858 the U.S. Supreme Court denied its validity. Sutter sought reimbursement of his losses associated with the Gold Rush. He started to receive a pension of $250 a month not as a relief, but as reimbursement of taxes paid on the Sobrante grant at the time Sutter considered it his own. He and wife Nanette moved to Lititz, Pennsylvania. From there he personally petitioned Congress in his case of seeking reimbursement for his losses. In 1880 the Federal government was ready to grant this, but before he could receive any reimbursement, he died on June 18, 1880. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began in January 1848, when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill. ... Lititz is a borough in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 6 miles (approximately 10 km) north of Lancaster. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Had he been able to enjoy his findings, he would have been one of the wealthiest men in the world.


Legacy

Camp Union, Sutterville (State Historical marker and fort pillar)
Camp Union, Sutterville (State Historical marker and fort pillar)

In addition to the links found below, Sutter Street in downtown San Francisco, California is named after him. Sutter's Landing, Sutterville Rd., and Sutterville Elementary School in Sacramento are all named after him. The Sutterville Bend of the Sacramento River is also named after him. Sutter Medical Foundation, a not-for profit medical system in Northern California also takes its name in honor of Sutter. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2848x2144, 2199 KB) California Historical Marker 666, detailed picture Camp Sutterville plaque, California historical marker 666 with fort pillar in background; Camp Sutterville stretched from pillar to the park in background to about 0. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2848x2144, 2199 KB) California Historical Marker 666, detailed picture Camp Sutterville plaque, California historical marker 666 with fort pillar in background; Camp Sutterville stretched from pillar to the park in background to about 0. ... Nickname: The City by the Bay; Fog City; The City Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco  - Mayor Gavin Newsom Area    - City  47 sq mi (122 km²)  - Land  46. ... A spring at the Sacramento River headwater The Sacramento River is the longest river in the state of California. ...


Books and films

Scholarly studies

  • Albert L. Hurtado, John Sutter: A Life on the North American Frontier (2006) University of Oklahoma Press, 416 pp. ISBN 0-8061-3772-X.

Fiction

Frédéric Louis Sauser (September 1, 1887 - January 21, 1961), better known as Blaise Cendrars, was a Swiss novelist and poet. ... Stefan Zweig (November 28, 1881 – February 22, 1942) was an Austrian writer. ...

Films

  • Days of '49 (1924) (at IMDB)
  • California in '49 (1929) (at IMDB)
  • The Kaiser of California (1936) (at IMDB)
  • Sutter's Gold (1936) (at IMDB)
  • Kit Carson (1940) (at IMDB)
  • "The Pathfinder" (The Great Adventure, 1964) (at IMDB)
  • Fortune (1969) (at IMDB)
  • Donner Pass: The Road to Survival (1978) (at IMDB)
  • California Gold Rush (1981) (at IMDB)
  • Dream West (1986) (at IMDB)
  • General Sutter (1999) (at IMDB)

The Kaiser of California has the unique distiction of being the first western film made in Nazi Germany, and the only one to be set in the United States. ... The Great Adventure was a historical anthology series that appeared on CBS for the 1963-1964 television season. ...

See also

Nuevo Helvetia (also known as New Helvetia or New Switzerland) was a Mexican-era California settlement. ... Sutter is a census-designated place located in Sutter County, California. ... The Sutter Buttes rise humbly over the town of Sutter, CA. The Sutter Buttes, also known as the Marysville Buttes or Histum Yani (Maidu), is often called the smallest mountain range in the world. ... Sutter County is a county located along the Sacramento River in the California Central Valley north of Sacramento. ... Sutter Creek is a city located in Amador County, California. ... 19th century illustration of Sutters Fort Completed in 1839, Sutters Fort, which was originally called New Helvetia (New Switzerland) by its builder, John Sutter, was a 19th century agricultural and trading colony in California. ... Sutters Mill in 1850. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
John Sutter - definition of John Sutter in Encyclopedia (594 words)
John Augustus Sutter (February 15, 1803 - June 18th, 1880) was a Californian famous for his association with the California Gold Rush (in that gold was discovered by James W. Marshall in Sutter's Mill) and for establishing Sutter's Fort in an area that would later become the capital of California, Sacramento.
Sutter was born as Johann Augustus Suter (the second t was added later) on February 15, 1803 in Kandern, Baden, Germany.
Sutter at first supported the establishment of an independent California Republic but when Union troops came to briefly seize control of his fort, Sutter did not resist because he was outnumbered.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/John Sutter (658 words)
Johann Augustus Sutter (February 15, 1803–June 18, 1880) was a Californian famous for his association with the California Gold Rush (in that gold was discovered by James W. Marshall in Sutter's Mill) and for establishing Sutter's Fort in an area that would later become the capital of California, Sacramento.
Sutter was born as Johann Augustus Suter (the second t was added later) on February 15, 1803 in Kandern, Baden, Germany, while his father came from a nearby town in Switzerland.
Sutter employed variously Indians, Kanakas and Europeans at his compound, which he called Fort Sutter; He envisioned creating an agricultural utopia, and for a time the settlement was in fact quite large and prosperous.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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