FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > John Russell, 1st Earl Russell
The Rt Hon The Earl Russell
John Russell, 1st Earl Russell

In office
30 June 1846 – 23 February 1852
29 October 186528 June 1866
Preceded by Sir Robert Peel, Bt
The Viscount Palmerston
Succeeded by The Earl of Derby

Born August 18, 1792
London, England
Died May 28, 1878 (age 85)
Political party Whig and Liberal

John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, KG, GCMG, PC (18 August 179228 May 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was an English Whig and Liberal politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. Lord John Russell This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the the United Kingdom. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from December 10, 1834 to April 8, 1835, and again from August 30, 1841 to June 29, 1846. ... The Right Honourable Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston (October 20, 1784 - October 18, 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid 19th century. ... Arms of Edward Smith-Stanley Statue in Parliament Square, London Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, KG, PC (29 March 1799–23 October 1869) was a British statesman, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is to date the longest serving leader of the Conservative... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the the United Kingdom. ...

Contents

Background and education

Russell was born into the highest echelons of the British aristocracy. The Russell family had been one of the principal Whig dynasties in England since the 17th century, and were among the richest handful of aristocratic landowning families in the country, but as a younger son of the 6th Duke of Bedford he was not in line to inherit the family estates. John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford (6 July 1766 - 20 October 1839) was a younger son of the Marquess of Tavistock (eldest son and heir of the 4th Duke of Bedford who had died during the lifetime of his father). ...


He was educated at Westminster School and then at the University of Edinburgh, which attended for three years but did not take a degree.[1] He is one of only three university-educated British Prime Ministers to have attended somewhere other than Oxford or Cambridge (the others being the Earl of Bute and Neville Chamberlain). The Royal College of large men at Westminster (almost always known as Westminster School) is one of Britains top boys independent schools and one of the nine British public schools, as set out in the Public Schools Act 1868. ... The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... The University of Cambridge (usually abbreviated as Cantab. ... John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (May 25, 1713 - March 10, 1792), was a Scottish nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain (1762-1763) under George III. A close relative of the Campbell clan (his mother was a daughter of the First Duke of Argyll), Bute succeeded to... Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940), known as Neville Chamberlain, was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ...


Politics

Russell entered parliament as a Whig in 1813. In 1819, Russell embraced the cause of parliamentary reform, and led the more reformist wing of the Whigs throughout the 1820s. When the Whigs came to power in 1830 in Earl Grey's government, Russell entered the government as Paymaster of the Forces, and was soon elevated to the Cabinet. He was one of the principal leaders of the fight for the Reform Act 1832, earning the nickname Finality John from his complacently pronouncing the Act a final measure. In 1834, when the leader of the Commons, Lord Althorp, succeeded to the peerage as Earl Spencer, Russell became the leader of the Whigs in the Commons, a position he maintained for the rest of the decade, until the Whigs fell from power in 1841. In this position, Russell continued to lead the more reformist wing of the Whig party, calling, in particular, for religious freedom, and, as Home Secretary in the late 1830s, played a large role in democratizing the government of British cities (other than London). The Right Honourable Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, KG, PC (13 March 1764–17 July 1845), known as Viscount Howick between 1806 and 1807, was a British Whig statesman and Prime Minister. ... The Paymaster of the Forces was a British government position. ... The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ... John Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl Spencer (1782-1845), known during his fathers lifetime by his courtesy title Viscount Althorp, was an English statesman. ... The title Earl Spencer was created in 1765 in the Peerage of Great Britain for John Spencer, 1st Viscount Spencer, a great-grandson of the 1st Duke of Marlborough. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


In 1845, as leader of the Opposition, Russell came out in favour of repeal of the Corn Laws, forcing Tory Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel to follow him. When the Tories split the next year over this issue, the Whigs returned to power and Russell became Prime Minister. Russell's premiership was frustrating, and, due to party disunity and his own ineffectual leadership, he was unable to get many of the measures he was interested in passed. The Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... The Corn Laws, in force between 1815 and 1846, were import tariffs ostensibly designed to protect British farmers and landowners against competition from cheap foreign grain imports. ... The term Tory (from Irish Gaelic tóraighe, an outlaw or guerrilla fighter, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms — literally meaning pursued man) applied to the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from December 10, 1834 to April 8, 1835, and again from August 30, 1841 to June 29, 1846. ... A prime minister is the very most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


Russell's first government coincided with the Irish Potato Famine of the late 1840s. Russell's government also saw conflict with his headstrong Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston, whose belligerence and support for continental revolution he found embarrassing. When, without royal approval, Palmerston recognized Napoleon III's coup of December 2, 1851, Palmerston was forced to resign, and the ministry soon collapsed. An 1849 depiction of Bridget ODonnell and her two children during the famine. ... The Right Honourable Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston (October 20, 1784 - October 18, 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid 19th century. ... Napoléon III Emperor of the French (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was President of the French Republic from 1848 to 1851, then from 2 December 1851 to 2 December 1852 the ruler of a dictatorial government, then Emperor of the French under the... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


After a short-lived minority Tory government under the Earl of Derby, Russell brought the Whigs into a new coalition government with the Peelite Tories, headed by the Peelite Lord Aberdeen. Russell served again as Leader of the House of Commons, and together with Palmerston was instrumental in getting Britain involved in the Crimean War, against the wishes of the cautious, Russophile Aberdeen. Incompetence in the early stages of the war, however, led to the collapse of the government, and Palmerston formed a new government. Although Russell was initially included, he did not get on well with his former subordinate, and temporarily retired from politics in 1855, focusing on writing. Arms of Edward Smith-Stanley Statue in Parliament Square, London Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, KG, PC (29 March 1799–23 October 1869) was a British statesman, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is to date the longest serving leader of the Conservative... George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen (January 28, 1784 - December 14, 1860) was a Tory politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1852 until 1855. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease 256,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1854–1856) was fought...


In 1859, following another short-lived Tory government, Palmerston and Russell made up their differences, and Russell consented to serve as Foreign Secretary in a new Palmerston cabinet - usually considered the first true Liberal Cabinet. This period was a particularly eventful one in the world outside Britain, seeing the Unification of Italy, the American Civil War, and the 1864 war over Schleswig-Holstein between Denmark and the German states. Russell's handling of these crises was not particularly noteworthy, and he was always overshadowed by his more eminent chief. In particular, his attempts to attain British mediation in the American war, which were shot down by the cautious Palmerston, did not improve his position. Russell was elevated to the peerage as Viscount Amberley, of Amberley in the County of Gloucester and of Ardsalla in the County of Meath, and Earl Russell, of Kingston Russell in the County of Dorset, in 1861. The position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs was created in the United Kingdoms governmental reorganization of 1782, in which the Northern and Southern Departments became the Home and Foreign Offices. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy... This article is becoming very long. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ...


When Palmerston suddenly died in late 1865, Russell again became Prime Minister. His second premiership was short and frustrating, and Russell failed in his great ambition of expanding the franchise - a task that would be left to his Tory successors, Derby and Benjamin Disraeli. In 1866, party disunity again brought down his government, and Russell went into permanent retirement. A prime minister is the very most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ...


Legacy

He was succeeded as Liberal leader by former Peelite William Ewart Gladstone, and was thus the last true Whig to serve as Prime Minister. He may have served as Anthony Trollope's model for the character of Plantagenet Palliser. An ideal statesman, said Trollope, should have "unblemished, unextinguishable, inexhaustible love of country...But he should also be scrupulous, and, as being scrupulous, weak."[2] William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... Anthony Trollope (April 24, 1815 – December 6, 1882) became one of the most successful, prolific and respected English novelists of the Victorian era. ... Plantagenet Palliser is the main character in the Palliser series of novels by Anthony Trollope. ...


Among Russell's descendants is the renowned philosopher Bertrand Russell, his grandson. Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician and advocate for social reform. ...


The 1832 Reform Act and the democratisation of the government of British cities are partly attributed to his efforts. The British Reform Act of 1832 (2 & 3 Will. ...


His government's approach to dealing with the Irish Potato Famine is now widely condemned as counterproductive, ill-informed and disastrous; however, it has been argued that Russell himself (a "Foxite" populist) was sympathetic to the plight of the Irish poor, and that many of his relief proposals were blocked by his cabinet and the British Parliament.


Russell's governments

John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1846-1852, 1865-1866. ... John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1846-1852, 1865-1866. ...

See also

Principal residence and museum - Pembroke Lodge

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
John Russell, 1st Earl Russell

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

References

  1. ^ John Prest, Lord John Russell (University of South Carolina Press, 1972), 11-13.
  2. ^ Quoted in Blair G. Kenney, "Trollope's Ideal Statesmen: Plantagenet Palliser and Lord John Russell" in Nineteenth-Century Fiction, Vol. 20, No. 3. (Dec., 1965), pp. 281-285.

External link

  • Lord John Russell 1792-1878 biography from the Liberal Democrat History Group
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Richard Fitzpatrick
Member for Tavistock
1813–1817
Succeeded by
Lord Robert Spencer
Preceded by
Lord Robert Spencer
Member for Tavistock
1818–1820
Succeeded by
John Fazakerly
Preceded by
Lord Frederick Montagu
William Henry Fellowes
Member for Huntingdonshire
with William Henry Fellowes

1820–1826
Succeeded by
Viscount Mandeville
William Henry Fellowes
Preceded by
Viscount Duncannon
Member for Bandon
1826–1830
Succeeded by
Viscount Bernard
Preceded by
Viscount Ebrington
Member for Tavistock
1830–1831
Succeeded by
John Hawkins
Preceded by
Sir Thomas Acland
Member for Devonshire
1831–1832
Succeeded by
Constituency divided
Preceded by
New constituency
Member for South Devon
1832–1835
Succeeded by
Montague Parker
Preceded by
William Hyett
Member for Stroud
1835–1841
Succeeded by
William Stanton
Preceded by
George Grote
William Crawford
James Pattison
Member for London
1841–1861
Succeeded by
Western Wood
Political offices
Preceded by
John Calcraft
Paymaster of the Forces
1830–1834
Succeeded by
Sir Edward Knatchbull, Bt
Preceded by
Viscount Althorp
Leader of the House of Commons
1834
Succeeded by
Sir Robert Peel
Preceded by
Henry Goulburn
Home Secretary
1835–1839
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Normanby
Preceded by
Sir Robert Peel, Bt
Leader of the House of Commons
1835–1841
Succeeded by
Sir Robert Peel, Bt
Preceded by
The Marquess of Normanby
Secretary of State for War and the Colonies
1839–1841
Succeeded by
Lord Stanley
Preceded by
Sir Robert Peel, Bt
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
1846–1852
Succeeded by
The Earl of Derby
Leader of the House of Commons
1846–1852
Succeeded by
Benjamin Disraeli
Preceded by
The Earl of Malmesbury
Foreign Secretary
1852–1853
Succeeded by
The Earl of Clarendon
Preceded by
Benjamin Disraeli
Leader of the House of Commons
1852–1855
Succeeded by
The Viscount Palmerston
Preceded by
The Earl Granville
Lord President of the Council
1854–1855
Succeeded by
The Earl Granville
Preceded by
Sidney Herbert
Secretary of State for the Colonies
1855
Succeeded by
Sir William Molesworth, Bt
Preceded by
The Earl of Malmesbury
Foreign Secretary
1859–1865
Succeeded by
The Earl of Clarendon
Preceded by
The Viscount Palmerston
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
1865–1866
Succeeded by
The Earl of Derby
Leader of the British Liberal Party
1865–1866
Succeeded by
William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by
The Earl Granville
Liberal Leader in the House of Lords
1865–1868
Succeeded by
The Earl Granville
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
New Creation
Earl Russell
1861–1878
Succeeded by
John Russell

This article incorporates text from the public domain 1907 edition of The Nuttall Encyclopædia. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Nuttall Encyclopædia is an early-20th-century encyclopedia, edited by Rev. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
John Russell, 1st earl Russell - LoveToKnow 1911 (1552 words)
At the Vienna conference (1855) Lord John Russell was England's representative, and immediately on his return he became secretary of the colonies (May 1855), but the errors in his negotiations at the Austrian capital followed him and forced him to retire in July of the same year.
During the American War Earl Russell's sympathies with the North restrained his country from taking sides in the contest, and he warmly sympathized with the efforts for the unification of Italy, but he was not equally successful in preventing the spoliation of Denmark.
Earl Russell was twice married - first in 1835, to Adelaide, daughter of Mr Thomas Lister, and widow of Thomas, second Lord Ribblesdale, and secondly, in 1841, to Lady Frances Ann Maria, daughter of Gilbert, second earl of Minto.
Qwika - similar:Bertrand_Russell (1605 words)
The title Earl Russell, of Kingston Russell in the County of Dorset, was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1861 for Lord John Russell, the foreign secretary and former Prime Minister.
The Earl holds the subsidiary title Viscount Amberley, of Amberley in the County of Gloucester and of Ardsalla in the County of Meath.
John Conrad Russell, 4th Earl Russell (November 16, 1921 - December 16, 1987) was the eldest son of the famous philosopher and mathematician, Bertrand Russell and his second wife, Dora Black, great-grandson of the 19th century British Whig Prime Minister Lord John Russell, and half-brother of the historian Conrad Russell.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m