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Encyclopedia > John Redmond
John Redmond, MP
John Redmond, MP

John Edward Redmond (September 1, 1856March 6, 1918) was the leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party from 1900 to 1918. public domain image. ... public domain image. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... In 1882 Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, formed the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP), replacing the Home Rule League, as a parliamentary party with strict rules. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


He was the elder brother of William Hoey Kearney Redmond and father of William Archer Redmond both of whom were to serve as MPs in his party. Major William Hoey Kearney Redmond (1861–9 June 1917) (commonly known as Willie Redmond) was an Irish Parliamentary Party and First World War fatality. ... William Archer Redmond (1886–17 April 1932) was the son of John Redmond, the Irish nationalist politician and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party from 1900 to 1918. ...

Contents

Education and professional career

John Redmond was born in County Wexford in Ireland. Redmond's family had been a prominent member of the Catholic gentry in the county for over seven centuries; Redmond's grand uncle, John Edward Redmond, was a prominent banker and businessman before entering Parliament as a member for Wexford City in 1859. After his death in 1866, his nephew, William Archer Redmond, John Redmond's father, won election to the seat and soon emerged as a prominent supporter of the new movement for Home Rule. County Wexford (Contae Loch Garman in Irish) is a maritime county in the southeast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster. ... William Archer Redmond (1886–17 April 1932) was the son of John Redmond, the Irish nationalist politician and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party from 1900 to 1918. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ...


As a student, young John exhibited the seriousness that many would soon come to associate with him. Educated by the Jesuits in Clongowes Wood, he was primarily interested in poetry and literature, and participated both in theatricals and in the school's debating society. After finishing at Clongowes, Redmond attended Trinity College, Dublin in order to study law, but his father's ill health led him to abandon his studies before taking a degree. He subsequently became a barrister by completing his terms at the King's Inns, Dublin, becoming a member of the Irish bar in 1886, and of the English bar a year later. Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Clongowes Wood College is a prestigious boys-only secondary school in County Kildare, Ireland run by the Society of Jesus (The Jesuits) since 1814, making it one of Irelands oldest Catholic schools. ... Trinity College, Dublin, corporately designated as the Provost, Fellows and Scholars of the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I, and is the only constituent college of the University of Dublin, Irelands oldest university. ... The Kings Inns or formally the Honorable Society of Kings Inns (HSKI) is the institution which controls the entry of barristers-at-law into the justice system of the Republic of Ireland. ...


Early political career

Upon his father's death in 1879 Redmond wrote to Charles Stuart Parnell asking for adoption as the Nationalist Party (also known as the Irish Parliamentary Party from 1882) candidate in the by-election to fill the open seat, but was disappointed to learn that Parnell had already promised the next vacancy to Tim Healy. Nevertheless, Redmond supported Healy as the nominee, and when another vacancy arose, this time in New Ross, Redmond won election unopposed as the Parnellite candidate for the seat. He served as MP for New Ross 1880-1885, North Wexford 1885-1891 and finally for Waterford city, from 1891 until his death in 1918. Charles Stewart Parnell (June 27, 1846 – October 6, 1891) was an Irish political leader and one of the most important figures in 19th century Ireland and the United Kingdom; William Ewart Gladstone thought him the most remarkable person he had ever met. ... The Nationalist Party, an Irish political party, existed under various forms from 1874 to 1978. ... The following people are known as Tim Healy: Timothy Michael Healy -- an Irish politician. ... New Ross was a former United Kingdom Parliament constituency, in Ireland, returning one MP. It was an original constituency represented in Parliament when the Union of Great Britain and Ireland took effect on 1 January 1801. ... North Wexford was a former UK Parliament constituency in Ireland, returning one Member of Parliament 1885-1922. ... A former UK Parliament constituency, in Ireland. ...


A loyal supporter of Parnell, Redmond was passionately opposed to physical force nationalism, campaigning for Home Rule, a limited form of self government for Ireland within the United Kingdom. When the Irish Parliamentary Party split over Parnell's long-term relationship with Katherine O'Shea, the wife of a fellow MP, whom he later married, Redmond sided with his deposed leader in the dispute. After Parnell's death in 1891, Redmond took over leadership of Parnellite rump of the split party and the National League, where he soon demonstrated both his organizational ability and his considerable rhetorical skills. During this period, he supported the program of Unionist Irish Secretary Gerald Balfour to "kill Ireland with kindness", arguing that the land reforms and introduction of elected local government would stimulate demands for Home Rule rather than dampen them. Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... Katherine Parnell, variously known as Katie OShea, Kitty OShea, or Katherine Wood, (1845/1846 - 1921) was an English woman whose affair with Charles Stewart Parnell eventually caused his downfall. ... The National League was a nationalist political party in Ireland. ... Gerald William Balfour, 2nd Earl of Balfour PC (9 April 1853 - 14 January 1945) was a British nobleman and Conservative politician. ...


When the Irish Parliamentary Party reunited in 1900, Redmond was elected its chairman (leader), a position he held until his death in 1918 -- a longer period than any other nationalist leader, except Eamon de Valera and Daniel O'Connell[1]. . Eamon de Valera (born Edward George de Valera, sometimes Gaelicised Éamon de Bhailéara; October 14, 1882 – August 29, 1975), was an Irish politician, best known as a leader of Irelands struggle for independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the early 20th century, and... Daniel OConnell Daniel OConnell (6 August 1775 – 15 May 1847) (Irish: Dónal Ó Conaill), known as The Liberator or The Emancipator, was Irelands predominant political leader in the first half of the nineteenth century who championed the cause of the down-trodden Catholic population. ...


The budget crisis of 1909 led to the curbing of the power of the House of Lords, which had previously blocked the budget of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, David Lloyd George. With the Lords' veto gone under the Parliament Act 1911, Irish home rule (which the Lords had blocked in 1894) again became a possibility, the odds increasing when the Irish Parliamentary Party came to hold the balance of power after the 1910 general election. In 1912, the government of H. H. Asquith introduced the Third Home Rule Bill to allow for Irish national self-government. As expected the Lords blocked the measure. However under the Parliament Act, its veto could if necessary be overridden in two years. This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British cabinet minister responsible for all financial matters. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the Commonwealth of Nations through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... In the United Kingdom, Parliament Act refers to each of two Acts of Parliament, passed in 1911 and 1949 respectively. ... Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC (12 September 1852–15 February 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ... There were three Home Rule bills introduced in the British Parliament, intended to give Ireland more autonomy; all three were sponsored by William Gladstone of the Liberal Party. ...


Home rule

His successor, John Dillon claimed that Redmond had removed all the obstacles to Irish unity except those of the Ulster unionists. He had persuaded British public and political opinion of all hues of its merits [1]. John Dillon (September 4, 1851 - August 4, 1927) was an Irish nationalist politician. ...


Home rule, however, was vehemently opposed by many Irish Protestants and Ulster's Orange Order, who feared domination in an overwhelmingly Catholic state. Unionists also feared economic problems, namely that the predominantly agricultural Ireland would impose tariffs on British goods, leading to restrictions on the importation of industrial produce; the main location of Ireland's industrial development was Ulster, the north-east of the island, the only part of Ireland dominated by unionists. Most unionist leaders threatened the use of force to prevent home rule, helped by their supporters in the British Conservative Party. After the Curragh Mutiny, and with the spectre of looming civil war on the part of the Ulster Covenanters, Asquith conceded to the Lord's demand to have the Home Rule Act 1914 amended to exclude the six counties of Northern Ireland, who for a period would continue to be governed by London, not Dublin. Though strongly opposed to any form of partition, Redmond and his party reluctantly agreed to what they thought would be a temporary exclusion, under Redmond's aspiration that "Ulster will have to follow" . Using the Parliament Act, the Lords was deemed to have passed the Act; it received the Royal Assent in September 1914. However with the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, the Act was suspended, to come into force after what was expected to be a short war. However Home Rule was not finally implemented until 1921 under the Government of Ireland Act, 1920. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Orangemen in traditional dress preparing to march. ... Unionism, in the context of Ireland, is a belief in the continuation of the Act of Union 1800 (as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920) so that Northern Ireland (created by the 1920 Act) remains part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative & Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), and the largest in terms of public membership. ... The Curragh incident July 20, 1914 is also known as the Curragh Mutiny. ... The Third Home Rule Act, more correctly known as the Home Rule Act, 1914 was an Act of the parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland which allowed for the creation of a separate home rule parliament in Ireland. ... Motto: [citation needed] (French for God and my right)2 Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (de facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official language(s) English (de facto), Irish, Ulster Scots 3, NI Sign Language Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ...


Redmond could have had every expectation of becoming head of a new Irish government, based in the old Parliament House in College Green. Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Capital Dublin Head of State King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Head of Government Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Chairman of the Provisional Government from Jan 1922. ... The Parliament of Southern Ireland was set up under the Government of Ireland Act to legislate for Southern Ireland. ... College Green, previously called Hoggen Green, is a three sided square in the centre of Dublin. ...


Great War

However it was not to be. After the onset of the Great War, principally in the belief that the attained measure of self-government would be granted in full after the war as well as being in a stronger position to stave off a final partition of Northern Ireland, he together with the National Volunteers enthusiastically offered support to Britain's war effort and her commitment under the Triple Entente. Motto: [citation needed] (French for God and my right)2 Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (de facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official language(s) English (de facto), Irish, Ulster Scots 3, NI Sign Language Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair... The National Volunteers is the name taken by the group of the Irish Volunteers that sided with Irish Parliamentary Party leader John Redmond after the group split in the wake of the question of the Volunteers role in World War I. While Redmond took no role in the creation of... European military alliances in 1915. ...


He believed that Imperial Germany's military expansion threatened the freedom of peace loving people throughout Europe and that it was Ireland's duty, having been promised home rule, to defend the freedom of "small nations" to the best of her ability. Redmond requested the War Office to allow the formation of a separate Irish Brigade as had been done for the Ulster Volunteer Force but Britain was suspicious of Redmond's declared intentions of having his National Volunteers armed in this way and having Irishmen leading Irishmen, eventually making the gesture of an Irish Division, commanded unlike the 36th (Ulster) Division, by English officers. His own brother Major Willie Redmond MP., one of four Irish MPs who enlisted in the 16th (Irish) Division, was killed in action in June 1917 in the Messines ridge offensive. This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... Old War Office Building, Whitehall, London - the former location of the War Office The War Office was a former department of the British Government, responsible for the administration of the British Army between the 17th century and 1963, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence. ... The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) are a loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland. ... The National Volunteers is the name taken by the group of the Irish Volunteers that sided with Irish Parliamentary Party leader John Redmond after the group split in the wake of the question of the Volunteers role in World War I. While Redmond took no role in the creation of... The British 36th (Ulster) Division was a New Army division formed in September 1914. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... Daniel Desmond Sheehan, usually known as D.D. Sheehan (28 May 1873 – 28 November 1948) was an Irish journalist, labour leader, barrister, and author. ... (Redirected from 16th (Irish) Division) The British 16th (Irish) Division was a New Army division formed in Ireland in September 1914 as part of the K2 Army Group. ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Hubert Gough Herbert Plumer Arthur Currie Max von Gallwitz Erich Ludendorff Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 448,000 killed and wounded 260,000 killed and wounded The 1917 Battle of Passchendaele, also known as the Third...


He was criticised for having encouraged so many Irish to fight in the Great War.


Easter rebellion

However in Easter 1916, a rebellion of the remaining Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army took place, led by a small number of influential republicans, under Pádraig Pearse. Though a military disaster, the Easter Rising helped fuel republican sentiment, particularly when Britain, in a highly misguided act, firstly executed the leaders of the Rising, treating them as traitors in wartime, and then after the German Spring Offensive of 1918, desperately attempted to introduce conscription in Ireland. Though large numbers of Irish men had willingly joined up, the likelihood of enforced conscription created a backlash, which although the Irish Party walked out of the House of Commons in protest and returned to Ireland to organise opposition to the proposal to extend conscription to Ireland, it boosted Sinn Féin, the small separatist party that had played no part in the Rising, but which having been wrongly 'blamed' by Britain and the Irish media, was then taken over by surviving Rising leaders, under Eamon de Valera and the IRB. 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Irish Volunteers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Irish Citizen Army`s Starry Plough banner. ... Irish Republicanism is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a united independent republic. ... Patrick Pearse Patrick Henry Pearse (known as Pádraig Pearse or by his Irish name Pádraig Anraí Mac Piarais) (November 10, 1879 – May 3, 1916) was a teacher, poet, writer and political activist who led the Irish Easter Rising in 1916. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Pádraig Pearse, James Connolly General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, which marked the deepest advance by either side since 1914. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Sinn Féin (pronounced in English, in Irish) is a name used by a series of Irish political movements of the 20th century, each of which claimed sole descent from the original party established by Arthur Griffith in 1905. ... Eamon de Valera (born Edward George de Valera, sometimes Gaelicised Éamon de Bhailéara; October 14, 1882 – August 29, 1975), was an Irish politician, best known as a leader of Irelands struggle for independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the early 20th century, and... The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) played an important role in the history of Ireland. ...


In December 1918, Sinn Féin subsequently won the vast majority of seats in the general election, 25 unopposed, leaving the Nationalist Party with only six. In a Declaration Sinn Féin proclaimed an Irish Republic, (abolished again in 1921 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty), with a new parliament, called in the Irish language Dáil Éireann, that is the Assembly of Ireland. 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Irish general election of 1918 was that part of the 1918 United Kingdom general election that took place in Ireland. ... A declaration of independence is a proclamation of the independence of a newly formed or reformed independent state from a part or the whole of the territory of another, or a document containing such a declaration. ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic which concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... Irish (), a Goidelic language spoken in Ireland, is constitutionally recognised as the first official language of the Republic of Ireland, and has official recognition in Northern Ireland as well. ... The Dáil Chamber Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of Ireland. ...


Redmond, however luckily did not live to see the destruction of the political party he had given his life to. He died on March 6, 1918 at the age of 61, after what should have been routine surgery, less than a year after his younger brother Willie died of injuries sustained in Flanders during World War I for which he had volunteered despite being over 50 years old. John Redmond was succeeded in the leadership by John Dillon. His home town of Wexford remained a strongly Redmondite area for decades afterwards. The seat of Waterford city was one of the few outside of Ulster not to be won by Sinn Féin in the 1918 General Election. Redmond's son Captain William Redmond, represented the City until his death in 1932. A later Irish Taoiseach (prime minister), John Bruton, hung a painting of Redmond, whom he regarded, because of his commitment to non-violence, as his hero, in his office in Ireland's Leinster House Government Buildings. His successor, Bertie Ahern TD, replaced the painting with one of Padraig Pearse. Major William Hoey Kearney Redmond (1861–9 June 1917) (commonly known as Willie Redmond) was an Irish Parliamentary Party and First World War fatality. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... John Dillon (September 4, 1851 - August 4, 1927) was an Irish nationalist politician. ... William Archer Redmond (1886–17 April 1932) was the son of John Redmond, the Irish nationalist politician and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party from 1900 to 1918. ... The Taoiseach ( or [1]) — plural: Taoisigh ( or [1]) — or, more formally, An Taoiseach[2], is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet, the rough equivalent of a prime minister under the Westminster System. ... John Gerard Bruton (born May 18, 1947) was the ninth Taoiseach (Prime Minister) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Leinster House The former palace of the Duke of Leinster. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Patrick Pearse Patrick Henry Pearse (known as Pádraic Pearse or, in the Irish language, as Pádraic Anraí Mac Piarais) (November 10, 1879 - May 3, 1916) was a teacher, poet, writer and political activist who led the Irish Easter Rising in 1916. ...


Redmond's personal vision

Redmond's personal vision did not encompass a wholly independent Ireland [2] he stated that

   
“
that brighter day when the grant of full self-government would reveal to Britain the open secret of making Ireland her friend and helpmate, the brightest jewel in her crown of Empire
   
”

Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Lysaught, Charles. "Our political debt to John Redmond is largely unpaid", The Irish Times, 2006-09-01.
  2. ^ Kettle, Thomas M. (2005). The Open Secret of Ireland. IndyPublish.com. ISBN 1-4219-4834-6.

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Redmond - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (976 words)
John Redmond, MP John Edward Redmond (1856 – March 1918) was the leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party from 1900 to 1918.
John Redmond was born in County Wexford in Ireland in 1856.
John Redmond was succeeded in the leadership by John Dillon.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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