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Encyclopedia > John Rawls
Western Philosophers
20th-century philosophy
John Rawls in 1990 (photo by Jane Reed)
Name: John Rawls
Birth: February 21, 1921
Death: November 24, 2002 (aged 81)
School/tradition: Analytic philosophy
Main interests: Political philosophy, Liberalism, Justice, Politics
Notable ideas: Justice as Fairness, The original position, Reflective equilibrium, Overlapping consensus, Public reason.
Influences: Immanuel Kant, Abraham Lincoln, H. L. A. Hart
Influenced: Thomas Nagel, Thomas Pogge, Thomas Scanlon, Christine Korsgaard, Josh Cohen

John Rawls (February 21, 1921November 24, 2002) was an American philosopher, a professor of political philosophy at Harvard University and author of A Theory of Justice (1971), Political Liberalism, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, and The Law of Peoples. He is widely considered one of the most important English-language political philosophers of the 20th century, and generally regarded as the most influential proponent of liberalism since John Stuart Mill. Image File history File links JohnRawls. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Analytic philosophy (sometimes, analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... J.L. Urban, statue of Lady Justice at court building in Olomouc, Czech Republic Justice concerns the proper ordering of things and persons within a society. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Justice as Fairness is the phrase used by the philosopher John Rawls to refer to his distinctive theory of justice. ... The original position is a hypothetical situation created by American philosopher John Rawls as a thought experiment to replace the imagery of a savage state of nature of prior political philosophers like Thomas Hobbes. ... Reflective equilibrium is a state of balance or coherence among a set of beliefs arrived at by a process of deliberative mutual adjustment among general principles and particular judgments. ... Overlapping consensus is a term coined by John Rawls in Political Liberalism. ... Public reason is the phrase used by American philosopher John Rawls to refer to the common reason of all citizens in a pluralist society. ... “Kant” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... H. L. A. Hart (Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart) (1907-1992) is widely regarded as the most important English-speaking legal philosopher of the twentieth century. ... Thomas Nagel (born July 4, 1937, in Belgrade, Serbia) is University Professor of Philosophy and Law at New York University and member of the Board of Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Thomas Winfried Menko Pogge is a philosopher, currently Professorial Fellow at the Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics at the Australian National University and Professor of Political Science at Columbia University. ... Thomas Michael (Tim) Scanlon (1940 - ) is the Alford Professor of Natural Religion, Moral Philosophy, and Civil Polity in Harvard Universitys Department of Philosophy. ... Chris Marion Korsgaard is a professor at Harvard University. ... Joshua Cohen is a political theorist and Professor of Political Science at Stanford University. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... A Theory of Justice is a book of political and moral philosophy by John Rawls. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Political Liberalism is an update to John Rawls 1971 Theory of Justice in which Rawls attempts to show that his theory of justice is not a comprehensive conception of the good, but is instead compatible with a liberal conception of the role of justice: namely, that government should be neutral... The Law of Peoples is American Philosopher John Rawlss work on international relations. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ...


Rawls was a recipient of the Schock Prize for Logic and Philosophy and the National Humanities Medal in 1999, the latter which was presented by President Bill Clinton, in recognition of how Rawls's thought "helped a whole generation of learned Americans revive their faith in democracy itself." 1 The Schock Prizes were instituted by the will of philosopher and artist Rolf Schock (1933-1986). ... The National Humanities Medal honors individuals or groups whose work has deepened the nation’s understanding of the humanities, broadened citizens’ engagement with the humanities, or helped preserve and expand Americans’ access to important resources in the humanities. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...

Contents

Biography

John Borden (Bordley) Rawls was born in Baltimore, Maryland on February 21, 1921. He was the second of five sons to William Lee Rawls and Anna Abell Stump. Rawls attended school in Baltimore only for a short time before transferring to Kent School, an Episcopalian preparatory school in Connecticut. Upon graduation in 1939, Rawls went on to Princeton University, where he became interested in philosophy, and was elected to join the membership of The Ivy Club. In 1943, he completed his Bachelor of Arts degree and joined the Army. During this time (World War II), Rawls served as an infantryman in the Pacific where he toured New Guinea, the Philippines, and Japan and witnessed the aftermath of the bombing of Hiroshima. After this experience, Rawls turned down the offer of becoming an officer and left the army as a private in 1946. Shortly thereafter, he returned to Princeton to pursue a doctorate in moral philosophy. Rawls then married Margaret Fox, a Brown graduate, in 1949. Margaret and John had a shared interest in indexing - they spent their first holiday together writing the index for a book on Nietzsche, and Rawls wrote the index for A Theory of Justice himself. After earning his Ph.D. from Princeton in 1950, Rawls decided to teach there until 1952, when he received a Fulbright Fellowship to Oxford University (Christ Church), where he was influenced by the liberal political theorist and historian of ideas Isaiah Berlin and, more strongly, the legal theorist H.L.A. Hart. Next, he returned to the United States, serving first as an assistant and then associate professor at Cornell University. In 1962, he became a full professor of philosophy at Cornell, and soon achieved a tenured position at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1964 he moved to Harvard University, where he taught for almost forty years. Rawls suffered the first of several strokes in 1995, which severely impeded his ability to continue working. Nonetheless, he was still able to complete a work entitled The Law of Peoples, which contains the most complete statement of his views on international justice, before dying in November 2002. Baltimore redirects here. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... Kent School is an independent (private) co-ed prep school in Kent, Connecticut, USA. Currently situated between the Appalachian Trail and the Housatonic River, it was established in 1906 by The Reverend Frederick Herbert Sill. ... This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ... A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school (usually abbreviated to preparatory school, college prep school, or prep school) is a private secondary school designed to prepare a student for higher education. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Largest metro area Hartford Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[2] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... The Ivy Club, founded in 1879, was the first eating club at Princeton University. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A B.A. issused as a certificate Bachelor of Arts (B.A., BA or A.B.), from the Latin Artium Baccalaureus is an undergraduate bachelors degree awarded for either a course or a program in the liberal arts or the sciences, or both. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, bicycles, or other means. ... The Japanese city of Hiroshima ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the ChÅ«goku region of western HonshÅ«, the largest of Japans islands. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brown University is a private university located in Providence, Rhode Island. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a 19th-century German philosopher. ... A Theory of Justice is a book of political and moral philosophy by John Rawls. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Fulbright Program is program of educational grants (Fulbright Fellowships) sponsored by the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the United States Department of State. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... College name Christ Church Named after Jesus Christ Established 1546 Sister College Trinity College Dean The Very Revd Christopher Andrew Lewis JCR President William Dorsey Undergraduates 426 MCR or GCR President {{{MCR President}}} Graduates 154 Home page Boat Club Christ Church (Latin: Ædes Christi, the temple or house of Christ... Sir Isaiah Berlin, OM (June 6, 1909 – November 5, 1997), was a political philosopher and historian of ideas, regarded as one of the leading liberal thinkers of the 20th century. ... H. L. A. Hart (Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart) (1907-1992) is considered one of the most important legal philosophers of the twentieth century. ... “Cornell” redirects here. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... The Law of Peoples is American Philosopher John Rawlss work on international relations. ...


Rawls's contribution to political and moral philosophy

Rawls is noted for his contributions to liberal political philosophy. Among the ideas from Rawls's work that have received wide attention are: Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what...

Many academic philosophers believe that Rawls made an important and lasting contribution to political philosophy. There is general agreement that the publication of A Theory of Justice in 1971 led to a revival in the academic study of political philosophy. Rawls's work has crossed disciplinary lines, receiving serious attention from economists, legal scholars, political scientists, sociologists, and theologians. Rawls has the unique distinction among contemporary political philosophers of being frequently cited by the courts of law in the United States and referred to by practicing politicians in the United States and United Kingdom. Justice as Fairness is the phrase used by the philosopher John Rawls to refer to his distinctive theory of justice. ... The original position is a hypothetical situation created by American philosopher John Rawls as a thought experiment to replace the imagery of a savage state of nature of prior political philosophers like Thomas Hobbes. ... Reflective equilibrium is a state of balance or coherence among a set of beliefs arrived at by a process of deliberative mutual adjustment among general principles and particular judgments. ... Overlapping consensus is a term coined by John Rawls in Political Liberalism. ... Public reason is the phrase used by American philosopher John Rawls to refer to the common reason of all citizens in a pluralist society. ... A Theory of Justice is a book of political and moral philosophy by John Rawls. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


A Theory of Justice

Main article: A Theory of Justice

In A Theory of Justice, Rawls attempts to solve the intractable problem of distributive justice by utilizing a version of the familiar device of the social contract. The resultant theory is known as "Justice as Fairness", from which Rawls derives two principles of justice: the liberty principle and the difference principle. A Theory of Justice is a book of political and moral philosophy by John Rawls. ... Distributive justice - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article deals with the philosophical and political concept of the social contract, and not with juridical contract theory. ... Justice as Fairness is the phrase used by the philosopher John Rawls to refer to his distinctive theory of justice. ... Justice as Fairness is the phrase used by the philosopher John Rawls to refer to his distinctive theory of justice. ...


Political Liberalism

Main article: Political Liberalism

Rawls's later work focused on the question of stability: could a society ordered by the two principles of justice endure? His answer to this question is contained in a collection of lectures titled Political Liberalism. In Political Liberalism, Rawls introduced the idea of an overlapping consensus—or agreement on justice as fairness between citizens who hold different religious and philosophical views (or conceptions of the good). Political Liberalism also introduced the idea of public reason—the common reason of all citizens. Political Liberalism is an update to John Rawls 1971 Theory of Justice in which Rawls attempts to show that his theory of justice is not a comprehensive conception of the good, but is instead compatible with a liberal conception of the role of justice: namely, that government should be neutral... Overlapping consensus is a term coined by John Rawls in Political Liberalism. ... Public reason is the phrase used by American philosopher John Rawls to refer to the common reason of all citizens in a pluralist society. ...


In Political Liberalism Rawls addressed the most common criticism levelled at Theory—the criticism that the principles of justice were simply an alternative systematic conception of justice that was superior to utilitarianism or any other comprehensive theory. This meant that justice as fairness turned out to be simply another reasonable comprehensive doctrine that was incompatible with other reasonable doctrines. It failed to distinguish between a comprehensive moral theory which addressed the problem of justice and that of a political conception of justice that was independent of any comprehensive theory. This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ...


The political conception of justice that Rawls introduces in Political Liberalism is the view of justice that people with conflicting, but reasonable, metaphysical and/or religious views would agree to regulate the basic structure of society. What distinguishes Rawls's account from previous conceptions of liberalism is that it seeks to arrive at a consensus without appealing to any one metaphysical source of his own. Hence the idea of "political liberalism:" contrary to, say, Locke or Mill, who promote a more robust cultural and metaphysical liberal philosophy, Rawls's account is an attempt to secure the possibility of a liberal consensus regardless of the "deep" religious or metaphysical values that the parties endorse (so long as these remain open to compromise, i.e., "reasonable"). The ideal result is therefore conceived as an "overlapping consensus" because different and often conflicting accounts of morality, nature, etc., are intended to "overlap" with each other on the question of governance. Of course, a more traditional Lockean (or early Rawlsian) liberal perspective can still be embraced by those who see it as a deep metaphysical and moral source in their lives. But in the public sphere, the idea is to arrive at rules that all reasonable sides, liberals and non-liberals alike, can come to understand as just.


Rawls also modified the principles of justice to become the following (with the first principle having priority over the second, and the first half of the second having priority over the latter half.):

  1. Each person has an equal claim to a fully adequate scheme of basic rights and liberties, which scheme is compatible with the same scheme for all; and in this scheme the equal political liberties, and only those liberties, are to be guaranteed their fair value.
  2. Social and economic inequalities are to satisfy two conditions: first they are to be attached to positions and offices open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity; and second they are to be to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged members of society.

These principles are subtly modified from the principles in Theory. The first principle now reads 'equal claim' instead of 'equal right', and he also replaces the phrase 'system of basic liberties' with 'a fully adequate scheme of equal basic rights and liberties.'


The Law of Peoples

Main article: The Law of Peoples

Although there were passing comments on international affairs in A Theory of Justice, it wasn't until late in his career that Rawls formulated a comprehensive theory of international politics with the publication of The Law of Peoples. This work shocked many of his liberal allies. He claimed that "well-ordered" peoples could be either "liberal" or "decent hierarchical." The tolerance of the latter by the former was needed to ensure that a liberal foreign policy was not "unreasonable" to the rest of the world. Decent hierarchies could have state religions and deny adherents of minority faiths to hold positions of power within the state. They could organise participation via corporatism rather than via elections. However, they were not allowed to violate human rights, or else would be amongst the other categories of "outlaw states," "societies burdened by unfavourable conditions" and "benevolent absolutisms." The Law of Peoples is American Philosopher John Rawlss work on international relations. ... The definition of a minority group can vary, depending on specific context, but generally refers to either a sociological sub-group that does not form either a majority or a plurality of the total population, or a group that, while not necessarily a numerical minority, is disadvantaged or otherwise has... Faith has two general implications which can be implied either exclusively or mutually; To Trust: Believing a certain variable will act a specific way despite the potential influence of known or unknown change. ...


Charles Beitz had previously written a study that applied Rawls' second principle of justice to international relations. He believed that redistribution could be justified by the inequality of natural resources amongst countries. Rawls, to the amazement of many, refuted this application and claimed that states were self-sufficient, unlike the cooperative enterprises that domestic societies are. Although Rawls recognised that aid should be given to governments who must suspend human rights in times of great trouble, he claimed that there must be a cut-off point for such aid. Continuing to give aid indefinitely would see nations with industrious populations subsidise those with idle populations and would create a moral hazard problem where governments could spend irresponsibly in the knowledge that they will be bailed out by those nations who had spent responsibly. These arguments seemed to parallel those offered by Nozick against domestic welfare and were widely considered to be inconsistent with Rawls' domestic theory. Rawls claimed that natural resources do not determine a country's wealth, but that it is determined by human capital and the political culture of a country. His theory seems not to account for nations like Botswana whose affluence has been gained mostly through natural resources or of the tendency of human capital to migrate towards nations that are already affluent and cause a brain drain. On the other hand, the success of Botswana, compared to a failed state with similar resources, such as Angola, might be seen as supporting his theory, although one could also cite many other causes for these outcomes as well. This section is studied by Argagui monopoli In law and economics, moral hazard is the name given to the risk that one party to a contract can change their behaviour to the detriment of the other party once the contract has been concluded. ... Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher and Pellegrino University Professor at Harvard University. ... This article is about the emigration term. ...


More predictable comments included a condemnation of bombing civilians and of the American firebombing of Japanese cities in World War II. A near-mythical picture of a "Statesman" is detailed, who looks to the next generation, promotes international harmony and rises above the jingoism of the electorate. Every country had to respect human rights, or face the prospect of intervention by the international community. This may seem reminiscent of neo-conservativism, but Rawls was optimistic in believing that non-liberal nations would eventually see the benefits of liberalism for themselves and come to respect human rights. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip, an 1898 political cartoon depicting the extension of the United States dominion Jingoism is chauvinistic patriotism, usually associated with a War Hawk political stance. ... Neoconservatism is a political current and movement, mainly in the United States, which is generally held to have emerged in the 1960s, coalesced in the 1970s, and has had a significant presence in the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush. ...


Publications

Bibliography

  • A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971. The revised edition of 1999 incorporates changes that Rawls made for translated editions of A Theory of Justice. Some Rawls scholars use the abbreviation TJ to refer to this work.
  • Political Liberalism. The John Dewey Essays in Philosophy, 4. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993. The hardback edition published in 1993 is not identical. The paperback adds a valuable new introduction and an essay titled "Reply to Habermas.”
  • The Law of Peoples: with "The Idea of Public Reason Revisited.” Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1999. This slim book includes two works; a further development of his essay entitled "The Law of Peoples” and another entitled "Public Reason Revisited”, both published earlier in his career.
  • Collected Papers. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1999. This collection of shorter papers was edited by Samuel Freeman. Two of the papers in this collection, "The Law of Peoples” and "Public Reason Revisited,” are available separately in the Law of Peoples monograph published the same year. One other essay, "Reply to Habermas,” was added to the paperback edition of Political Liberalism. Otherwise, this collection is comprehensive. However, one important unpublished work, Rawls's dissertation, is not included.
  • Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 2000. This collection of lectures was edited by Barbara Herman. It has an introduction on modern moral philosophy from 1600–1800 and then lectures on Hume, Leibniz, Kant, and Hegel.
  • Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press, 2001. This shorter summary of the main arguments of Rawls's political philosophy was edited by Erin Kelly. Many versions of this were circulated in typescript and much of the material was delivered by Rawls in lectures when he taught courses covering his own work at Harvard University.
  • Lectures on the History of Political Philosophy. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2007. Collection of lectures on Hobbes, Locke, Butler, Rousseau, Hume, Mill, and Marx, edited by Samuel Freeman.

A Theory of Justice is a book of political and moral philosophy by John Rawls. ... Political Liberalism is an update to John Rawls 1971 Theory of Justice in which Rawls attempts to show that his theory of justice is not a comprehensive conception of the good, but is instead compatible with a liberal conception of the role of justice: namely, that government should be neutral... The Law of Peoples is American Philosopher John Rawlss work on international relations. ...

Articles

  • "A Study in the Grounds of Ethical Knowledge: Considered with Reference to Judgments on the Moral Worth of Character.” Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1950.
  • "Outline of a Decision Procedure for Ethics.” Philosophical Review (April 1951), 60 (2): 177-197.
  • "Two Concepts of Rules.” Philosophical Review (January 1955), 64 (1):3-32.
  • "Justice as Fairness.” Journal of Philosophy (October 24, 1957), 54 (22): 653-662.
  • "Justice as Fairness.” Philosophical Review (April 1958), 67 (2): 164-194.
  • "The Sense of Justice.” Philosophical Review (July 1963), 72 (3): 281-305.
  • "Constitutional Liberty and the Concept of Justice" Nomos VI (1963) (Hayek refers to this article to show that Rawls agrees with his opinion)
  • "Distributive Justice: Some Addenda.” Natural Law Forum (1968), 13: 51-71.
  • "Reply to Lyons and Teitelman.” Journal of Philosophy (October 5, 1972), 69 (18): 556-557.
  • "Reply to Alexander and Musgrave.” Quarterly Journal of Economics (November 1974), 88 (4): 633-655.
  • "Some Reasons for the Maximin Criterion.” American Economic Review (May 1974), 64 (2): 141-146.
  • "Fairness to Goodness.” Philosophical Review (October 1975), 84 (4): 536-554.
  • "The Independence of Moral Theory.” Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association (November 1975), 48: 5-22.
  • "A Kantian Conception of Equality.” Cambridge Review (February 1975), 96 (2225): 94-99.
  • "The Basic Structure as Subject.” American Philosophical Quarterly (April 1977), 14 (2): 159-165.
  • "Kantian Constructivism in Moral Theory.” Journal of Philosophy (September 1980), 77 (9): 515-572.
  • "Justice as Fairness: Political not Metaphysical.” Philosophy & Public Affairs (Summer 1985), 14 (3): 223-251.
  • "The Idea of an Overlapping Consensus.” Oxford Journal for Legal Studies (Spring 1987), 7 (1): 1-25.
  • "The Priority of Right and Ideas of the Good.” Philosophy & Public Affairs (Fall 1988), 17 (4): 251-276.
  • "The Domain of the Political and Overlapping Consensus.” New York University Law Review (May 1989), 64 (2): 233-255.
  • "Roderick Firth: His Life and Work.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (March 1991), 51 (1): 109-118.
  • "The Law of Peoples.” Critical Inquiry (Fall 1993), 20 (1): 36-68.
  • "Reconciliation through the Public Use of Reason.” Journal of Philosophy (March 1995), 92 (3):132-180.

Book chapters

  • "Constitutional Liberty and the Concept of Justice.” In Carl J. Friedrich and John W. Chapman, eds., Nomos, VI: Justice, pp. 98-125. Yearbook of the American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy. New York: Atherton Press, 1963.
  • "Legal Obligation and the Duty of Fair Play.” In Sidney Hook, ed., Law and Philosophy: A Symposium, pp. 3-18. New York: New York University Press, 1964. Proceedings of the 6th Annual New York University Institute of Philosophy.
  • "Distributive Justice.” In Peter Laslett and W. G. Runciman, eds., Philosophy, Politics, and Society. Third Series, pp. 58-82. London: Blackwell; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1967.
  • "The Justification of Civil Disobedience.” In Hugo A. Bedau, ed., Civil Disobedience: Theory and Practice, pp. 240-255. New York: Pegasus Books, 1969.
  • "Justice as Reciprocity.” In Samuel Gorovitz, ed., Utilitarianism: John Stuart Mill: With Critical Essays, pp. 242-268. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1971.
  • "Author's Note.” In Thomas Schwartz, ed., Freedom and Authority: An Introduction to Social and Political Philosophy, p. 260. Encino & Belmont, California: Dickenson, 1973.
  • "Distributive Justice." In Edmund S. Phelps, ed., Economic Justice: Selected Readings, pp. 319-362. Penguin Modern Economics Readings. Harmondsworth & Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1973.
  • "Personal Communication, January 31, 1976." In Thomas Nagel's "The Justification of Equality." Critica (April 1978), 10 (28): 9n4.
  • "The Basic Liberties and Their Priority." In Sterling M. McMurrin, ed., The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, III (1982), pp. 1-87. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
  • "Social Unity and Primary Goods." In Amartya Sen and Bernard Williams, eds., Utilitarianism and Beyond, pp. 159-185. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Paris: Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 1982.
  • "Themes in Kant's Moral Philosophy." In Eckhart Forster, ed., Kant's Transcendental Deductions: The Three Critiques and the Opus postumum, pp. 81-113, 253-256. Stanford Series in Philosophy. Studies in Kant and German Idealism. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1989.

(Thomas) Peter Ruffell Laslett (18 December 1915 - 8 November 2001) was an English historian. ... For other persons named Walter Runciman, see Walter Runciman (disambiguation). ... Edmund Strother Phelps (born July 26, 1933 in Evanston, Illinois) is an American professor of economics at Columbia University, who was awarded the 2006 The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, commonly known as the Nobel Prize in Economics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bernard Arthur Owen Williams (September 21, 1929 – June 10, 2003) was a British philosopher, widely cited as the most important British moral philosopher of his time. ...

Reviews

  • Review of Axel Hägerstrom's Inquiries into the Nature of Law and Morals (C.D. Broad, tr.). Mind (July 1955), 64 (255):421-422.
  • Review of Stephen Toulmin's An Examination of the Place of Reason in Ethics (1950). Philosophical Review (October 1951), 60 (4): 572-580.
  • Review of A. Vilhelm Lundstedt's Legal Thinking Revised. Cornell Law Quarterly (1959), 44: 169.
  • Review of Raymond Klibansky, ed., Philosophy in Mid-Century: A Survey. Philosophical Review (January 1961), 70 (1): 131-132.
  • Review of Richard B. Brandt, ed., Social Justice (1962). Philosophical Review (July 1965), 74(3): 406-409.

Axel Hägerstrom (September 6, 1868 – July 7, 1939) was a Swedish philosopher. ... Stephen Edelston Toulmin (born March 25, 1922) is a British philosopher, author, and educator. ... Anders Vilhelm Lundstedt (September 11th, 1882 – August 20th, 1955) was a Swedish legal philosopher, particularly known as a proponent of Scandinavian Legal Realism, having been influenced by his compatriot Axel Hägerström. ... Raymond Klibansky (born October 15, 1905) is a Canadian professor of philosophy. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...

Selected secondary literature

  • Norman Daniels ed., Reading Rawls: Critical Studies of A Theory of Justice. New York: Basic Books, 1974. This anthology collects many of the important early reactions to A Theory of Justice, including a famous essay by H. L. A. Hart.
  • Chandran Kukathas & Philip Pettit, Rawls: A Theory of Justice and its Critics. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990. This is a short study of Rawls's work and critical reactions. Philip Pettit is a prominent political philosopher in his own right.
  • Samuel Freeman ed., Cambridge Companion to Rawls. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. This anthology includes essays by prominent philosophers, including Thomas Nagel, T.M. Scanlon, Onora O'Neill, and Martha Nussbaum as well as an extensive bibliography listing books and articles that respond to Rawls.
  • J. Judd Owen, Religion and the Demise of Liberal Rationalism. Chapter 5, "Religion and Rawls's Freestanding Liberalism." University of Chicago Press, 2001.

Thomas Nagel (born July 4, 1937, in Belgrade, Serbia) is University Professor of Philosophy and Law at New York University and member of the Board of Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Thomas M. Tim Scanlon is Alford professor of natural religion, moral philosophy, and civil polity at Harvard Universitys Department of Philosophy. ... Onora Sylvia ONeill, Baroness ONeill of Bengarve (born 23 August 1941) is a cross-bench member of the House of Lords. ... Martha Nussbaum Martha Nussbaum (born Martha Craven on May 6, 1947) is an American philosopher, with a particular interest in ancient philosophy, political philosophy and ethics. ...

Awards

  • Schock Prize for Logic and Philosophy (1999)
  • National Humanities Medal (1999)
  • Asteroid 16561 Rawls is named in his honor.

The Schock Prizes were instituted by the will of philosopher and artist Rolf Schock (1933-1986). ...

See also

The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... A Theory of Justice is a book of political and moral philosophy by John Rawls. ... The original position is a hypothetical situation created by American philosopher John Rawls as a thought experiment to replace the imagery of a savage state of nature of prior political philosophers like Thomas Hobbes. ... Public reason is the phrase used by American philosopher John Rawls to refer to the common reason of all citizens in a pluralist society. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Contributions to liberal theory is a partial list of individual contributions on a worldwide scale. ...

References

  • Robinson, Dave & Groves, Judy (2003). Introducing Political Philosophy. Icon Books. ISBN 1-84046-450-X.

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
John Rawls
John Rawls
A Theory of Justice - Political Liberalism - The Law of Peoples - Justice as Fairness: A Restatement
See also: Liberalism - Political philosophy - Original position - Justice


  Results from FactBites:
 
Guardian Unlimited | Obituaries | Obituary: John Rawls (2370 words)
Rawls contended that with the banishment of this sort of bias-inducing knowledge, the participants in the original position are forced, even if self-centred, into the moral point of view - or, as he called it in the last rousing chapters of A Theory Of Justice, "the perspective of eternity".
Rawls, moreover, always insisted that the abstract principles in which political philosophers dealt had to be tested against pre-theoretical convictions of "common sense" - he suggested that political philosophers had to learn to adjust first principles and moral intuitions until they cohered in what he termed, in another famous phrase, "reflective equilibrium".
Rawls was born, the second of five brothers, to an old and wealthy Baltimore family, and acquired, early on, almost Puritan good manners and moral earnestness.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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