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Encyclopedia > John R. Bolton
John Robert Bolton
John R. Bolton
In office
August 1, 2005 – December 9, 2006
President George W. Bush
Preceded by John Danforth, Anne W. Patterson (acting)
Succeeded by Alejandro Wolff (acting, Dec.2006-April 2007), Zalmay Khalilzad (May 2007 to present)

Born November 20 1948 ( 1948-11-20) (age 58)
Baltimore, Maryland
Political party Republican

John Robert Bolton (born November 20, 1948), is an jewish American diplomat in several Republican administrations, who served as the Permanent US Representative to the UN from August 2005 until December 2006, on a recess appointment. He resigned in December 2006, when his recess appointment would have ended. Bolton is now a senior fellow at the American Enterprise Institute.[1][2] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... John Danforth John Claggett Danforth (born September 5, 1936), also referred to as Jack Danforth, is a former United States Ambassador to the United Nations and former Republican United States Senator from Missouri. ... Anne W. Patterson (born 1949 in Fort Smith, Arkansas), was the acting United States Ambassador to the United Nations in 2005. ... Alejandro Wolf is the acting US Ambassador to the UN after the resignation of John Bolton. ... Dr. Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad (Pashtu/Persian: ‎ ) (born 22 March 1951) is the U.S. Ambassador to Iraq. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a conservative think tank, founded in 1943, whose stated mission is to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism — limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility, vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies...

Contents

Background and education

Bolton was born in Baltimore, Maryland and raised as a Lutheran. The son of a fireman[3], he grew up in the working-class neighborhood of Yale Heights and won a scholarship to the McDonogh School in Owings Mills, Maryland, graduating in 1966. He also ran the school's Students For Goldwater campaign in 1964. He then attended Yale University, where he was a member of the Yale Political Union, and where he ultimately earned a B.A. summa cum laude in 1970 and a J.D. in 1974. Though Bolton supported the Vietnam War, he enlisted in the National Guard and did not serve in Vietnam. He wrote in his Yale 25th reunion book "I confess I had no desire to die in a Southeast Asian rice paddy. I considered the war in Vietnam already lost."[4] Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... McDonogh School is a private, coeducational, K-12, college-preparatory school located in Owings Mills, Maryland, USA. // The school was established near Baltimore, Maryland in 1873 and funded by the estate of John McDonogh, a former Baltimore resident, who died in 1850. ... Owings Mills is an unincorporated community and a census-designated place in Baltimore County, Maryland, United States. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... A Bachelor of Arts (B.A. or A.B.) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or program in the arts and/or sciences. ... Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an academic degree was earned. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... J.D. redirects here; for alternate uses, see J.D. (disambiguation) J.D. is an abbreviation for the Latin Juris Doctor, also called a Doctor of Law or Doctorate of Jurisprudence, and is the law degree typically awarded by an accredited U.S. law school after successfully completing three years... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ...


Personal life

He is married to Gretchen Smith Bolton, who was born in Kansas City, Missouri, and went to high school in Scarsdale, New York. She has degrees from Wellesley College and New York University. The couple's home is currently in Bethesda, Maryland. They have one daughter, Jennifer Sarah Bolton, who graduated from the Holton-Arms School and currently attends Yale University in the same residential college as her father did, Calhoun College. She is the former Chairman of the Tory Party of the Yale Political Union (information verified by the family). A little known fact about John Bolton, is that he was the model for the "Diplomat" unit in Risk 2210 AD. Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Scarsdale is both a town and village in Westchester County, New York, USA postal code 10583. ... “NY” redirects here. ... Wellesley College is a womens liberal arts college that opened in 1875, founded by Henry Fowle Durant and his wife Pauline Fowle Durant. ... New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in New York City. ... Bethesda is an urbanized, but unincorporated, area in southern Montgomery County, Maryland, near Washington, D.C. It takes its name from a church located there, the Bethesda Presbyterian Church, built in 1820 and rebuilt in 1850, which in turn took its name from Jerusalems Pool of Bethesda. ... Holton-Arms is a prestigious independent college-preparatory school for girls in grades 3–12 dedicated to the “education not only of the mind, but of the soul and spirit. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Calhoun College is a residential college of Yale University. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Risk 2210 A.D. is a 2-5 player board game by Avalon Hill that is a futuristic variant of the classic board game Risk. ...


Legal career

From 1974 to 1981, Bolton was an associate at the Washington office of Covington & Burling (he returned to the firm again from 1983 to 1985). Bolton was also a partner in the law firm of Lerner, Reed, Bolton & McManus, from 1993-1999.[5][6] For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Covington & Burling is a major legal and lobbying firm focused on industry and regulatory and corporate, tax and benefits issues, and litigation. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ...


Public policy career

Between 1997 and 2000, Bolton served pro bono as an assistant to James Baker in Baker's capacity as Kofi Annan's personal envoy to the Western Sahara.[7] Before joining the George W. Bush administration, Bolton was Senior Vice President for Public Policy Research at the American Enterprise Institute, a conservative think tank. Pro bono is a phrase derived from Latin meaning for the good. The complete phrase is pro bono publico, for the public good. It is used to designate legal or other professional work undertaken voluntarily and without payment, as a public service. ... James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930) served as the Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W. Bush. ... Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a conservative think tank, founded in 1943, whose stated mission is to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism — limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility, vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies... This article is about the institution. ...


During the Reagan and George H. W. Bush administrations, he served in several positions within the State Department, the Justice Department and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). “Reagan” redirects here. ... George H. W. Bush - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the US government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ...


His Justice Department position required him to advance Reagan administration positions, including opposition to financial reparations to Japanese-Americans held in World War II era internment camps; the insistence of executive privilege by President Reagan during William Rehnquist's chief justice confirmation hearings, when Congress asked for memos written by Rehnquist as a Nixon Justice Department official; the framing of a bill to control illegal immigration as an essential drug war measure; and, issues related to the investigation of the Iran-Contra affair. Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas Japanese people heading off to an internment camp. ... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure, who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the Chief Justice of the United States. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... The Iran-Contra Affair (also Irangate), was a political scandal occurring in 1987 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration in which members of the executive branch sold weapons to Iran, an avowed enemy, and illegally used the profits to continue funding rebels, the Contras, in Nicaragua. ...


Bolton's government service included such positions as:

  • Assistant Secretary for International Organization Affairs at the Department of State (19891993), where he led in the successful effort to rescind the UN resolution from the 1970's that had equated Zionism with Racism, and also played a major role in obtaining UN resolutions endorsing the use of force to fight Iraq's invasion of Kuwait;
  • Assistant Attorney General, Department of Justice (1985–1989);
  • Assistant Administrator for Program and Policy Coordination, USAID (19821983); and
  • General Counsel, USAID (1981–1982).[5][6]

Bolton is also the former executive director of the Committee on Resolutions in the Republican National Committee.[5] The Bureau of International Organization Affairs (IO) is a bureau in the United States Department of State that creates and executes U.S. policy in the United Nations and other international organizations. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Many of the divisions and offices of the United States Department of Justice are headed by an Assistant Attorney General. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The Republican National Committee (RNC) provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States. ...


Under the administration of George W. Bush, Bolton has been the Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and International Security (since May 11, 2001) and, since August 1, 2005, U.S. Ambassador to the UN (He was nominated on March 7, 2005). is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Bolton has been a prominent participant in some neoconservative groups such as the Project for the New American Century (PNAC), the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA), and the Committee for Peace and Security in the Gulf (CPSG). But Bolton disputes the label "neo-conservative," pointing out that he was a conservative since high school, when he worked on the 1964 Goldwater campaign. Neoconservatism refers to the political movement, ideology, and public policy goals of new conservatives in the United States, who are mainly characterized by their relatively interventionist and hawkish views on foreign policy, and their lack of support for the small government principles and restrictions on social spending, when compared with... Project for the New American Centurys Logo The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ... The Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA) describes itself as a Washington, D.C.-based non-profit, non-partisan think-tank focusing on the national security interests of the United States. ... In February 1998, the Committee for Peace and Security in the Gulf (CPSG) called upon President William Jefferson Clinton to endorse a scenario which, more than five years later (August 2003), has become a familiar one to the world. ... American conservatism is a constellation of political ideologies within the United States under the blanket heading of conservative. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ...


Undersecretary of State for Arms Control

John Bolton

In office
2001 – 2005
Preceded by new position
Succeeded by Robert Joseph

Born November 20, 1948(1948-11-20)
Baltimore, Maryland

Bolton served as the Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and International Security, sworn in to this position on May 11, 2001. In this role, a key area of his responsibility was the prevention of proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Robert G. Joseph The Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security is a position within the U.S. Department of State that serves as Senior Adviser to the President and the Secretary of State for Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Disarmament. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Joseph Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security (May 2005 - Present) // Background Early Life Education Honors and Awards Family Career Views Speeches Memberships and Affiliations External Links Profile - Robert G. Joseph Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs Categories: American politician stubs ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ...


Bolton also led the Bush administration's opposition on constitutional grounds[8] to the International Criminal Court, negotiating with many countries to sign agreements, called Article 98 agreements, with the U.S. to exempt Americans from prosecution by the Court, which is not recognized by the U.S.; more than 100 countries have signed such agreements so far. Bolton said the decision to pull out of the ICC was the "happiest moment" of his political career so far.[9] Official logo of the ICC. The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, crime of aggression, and war crimes, as defined by several international agreements, most prominently the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ...


Weapons of mass destruction

Bolton was instrumental in derailing a 2001 bio-weapons conference in Geneva convened to endorse a UN proposal to enforce the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention. "U.S. officials, led by Bolton, argued that the plan would have put U.S. national security at risk by allowing spot inspections of suspected U.S. weapons sites, despite the fact that the U.S. claims not to have carried out any research for offensive purposes since 1969."[10] Biological Weapons Convention Opened for signature April 10, 1972 at Moscow, Washington and London Entered into force March 26, 1975 Conditions for entry into force ??? Parties ??? The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to...


Also in 2002, Bolton is said to have flown to Europe to demand the resignation of Jose Bustani, head of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), and to have orchestrated his removal at a special session of the organization.[citation needed] The United Nations' highest administrative tribunal later condemned the action as an "unacceptable violation" of principles protecting international civil servants. Bustani had been unanimously re-elected for a four-year term—with strong U.S. support—in May 2000, and in 2001 was praised for his leadership by Colin Powell.[11] José Maurício Bustani is a Brazilian diplomat who was the director-general of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons until he was ousted after an April 2002 falling out with the US government. ... The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an agency of the United Nations. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ...


He also pushed for reduced funding for the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction program to halt the proliferation of nuclear materials.[12] At the same time, he was involved in the implementation of the Proliferation Security Initiative, working with a number of countries to intercept the trafficking in weapons of mass destruction and in materials for use in building nuclear weapons. Following one such interception at sea, Libya made an agreement with the U.K. and the U.S. to dismantle its nuclear weapons industry. The Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program is a 1991 U.S. law sponsored by Senators Richard Lugar and Sam Nunn. ... The Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) is an international effort led by the United States to interdict transfer of banned weapons and weapons technology. ...


Diplomacy

According to an article in the The New Republic, he was highly successful in pushing his agenda, but his bluntness has won him many enemies. "Iran's Foreign Ministry has called Bolton 'rude' and 'undiplomatic'".[13] In response to critics, Bolton states that his record "demonstrates clear support for effective multilateral diplomacy." Bush administration officials have stated that his past statements would allow him to negotiate from a powerful position. "It's like the Palestinians having to negotiate with [Israeli Prime Minister] Ariel Sharon. If you have a deal, you know you have a deal," an anonymous official told CNN.[14] He also "won widespread praise for his work establishing the Proliferation Security Initiative,[15] a voluntary agreement supported by 60 countries".[16] For other uses, see New Republic. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...


He was part of the State Department's delegation to six-party talks on the North Korean nuclear program in 2003. He was removed from the delegation after describing Kim Jong-il as a "tyrannical dictator" of a country where for many, "life is a hellish nightmare."[17] In response, a North Korean spokesman said "such human scum and bloodsucker is not entitled to take part in the talks."[18] American Democrats argued that Bolton's words at the time were undiplomatic and endangered the talks. Critics argue that Bolton's record of allegedly politicizing intelligence will harm U.S. credibility with the United Nations[19] which has many current problems.[20][21] President Bush wants the organization reformed and said he wants John Bolton because he "can get the job done at the United Nations."[22] North Korea claims to possess nuclear weapons, and the CIA asserts that it has a substantial arsenal of chemical weapons. ... Kim Jong-il (also written as Kim Jong Il) (born February 16, 1942) is the leader of North Korea. ...


Criticism

Critics allege Bolton tried to spin intelligence to support his views and political objectives on a number of occasions. Greg Thielmann, of the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR), was assigned as the daily intelligence liaison to Bolton. Thielmann stated to Seymour Hersh that, "Bolton seemed troubled because INR was not telling him what he wanted to hear ... I was intercepted at the door of his office and told, 'The Undersecretary doesn't need you to attend this meeting anymore.'" According to former coworkers, Bolton withheld information that ran counter to his goals from Secretary of State Colin Powell on multiple occasions, and from Powell's successor Condoleezza Rice on at least one occasion.[23] The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Biography Greg Thielmann served as a top intelligence official at the U.S. State Department until resigning shortly before the war with Iraq and charging the Bush administration with cooking its intelligence. ... Seymour Myron Sy Hersh (born April 8, 1937 Chicago) is an American Pulitzer Prize winning investigative journalist and author based in Washington, DC. He is a regular contributor to The New Yorker magazine on military and security matters. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ...


In 2002, Bolton accused Cuba of transfers of biological weapons technology to rogue states and called on it "to fully comply with all of its obligations under the Biological Weapons Convention."[24] According to a Scripps Howard News Service article, Bolton "wanted to say that Cuba had a biological weapons capacity and that it was exporting it to other nations. The intelligence analysts seemed to want to limit the assessment to a declaration that Cuba 'could' develop such weapons."[25] Bolton attempted to have the chief bioweapons analyst in the State Department's bureau of intelligence and research and the CIA's national intelligence officer for Latin America reassigned. Under oath at his Senate hearings for confirmation as Ambassador, he denied trying to have the men fired, but seven intelligence officials contradicted him.[12] Ultimately, "intelligence officials refused to allow Bolton to make the harsh criticism of Cuba he sought to deliver,"[25] and were able to keep their positions. Bolton claims that the issue was procedural rather than related to the content of his speech and that the officers, who did not work under him, behaved unprofessionally. Biological Weapons Convention Opened for signature April 10, 1972 at Moscow, Washington and London Entered into force March 26, 1975 Conditions for entry into force ??? Parties ??? The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to...


Bolton is alleged by Democratic Congressman Henry Waxman to have played a role in encouraging the inclusion of statement that British Intelligence had determined Iraq attempted to procure yellowcake uranium from Niger in President Bush's 2003 State of the Union Address.[26] These statements were claimed by critics of the President to be partly based on documents later found to be forged.[27] Waxman's allegations have no visible means of support as they are based on classified documents.[26] Henry Arnold Waxman (born September 12, 1939) is an American politician. ... The term Yellowcake Forgery refers to falsified classified documents initially uncovered by Italian intelligence which possibly depicted an attempt by Iraqs Saddam Hussein regime to purchase yellowcake uranium from the country of Niger, in defiance of United Nations sanctions. ... 2003 State of the Union address given by U.S. President George W. Bush The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the...


Bolton is alleged by the Knight Ridder news agency to have been scheduled to tell the House of Representatives International Relations subcommittee that Syria's development of biological, chemical and nuclear weapons had progressed to such a point that they posed a threat to stability in the region. Knight Ridder reported that Bolton’s appearance was cancelled after CIA and other intelligence agencies said that assessment was exaggerated.[28] Partial list of newspapers The following is a partial list of newspapers owned by Knight Ridder: Contra Costa Times Detroit Free Press Kansas City Star The Miami Herald Philadelphia Inquirer Saint Paul Pioneer Press San Jose Mercury News The State External link Knight Ridder corporate website Categories: Companies traded on... Partial list of newspapers The following is a partial list of newspapers owned by Knight Ridder: Contra Costa Times Detroit Free Press Kansas City Star The Miami Herald Philadelphia Inquirer Saint Paul Pioneer Press San Jose Mercury News The State External link Knight Ridder corporate website Categories: Companies traded on...


Bolton stated in June 2004 congressional testimony Iran was lying about enriched uranium contamination: "Another unmistakable indicator of Iran's intentions is the pattern of repeatedly lying to ... the IAEA, ... when evidence of uranium enriched to 36 percent was found, it attributed this to contamination from imported centrifuge parts." However later isotope analysis supported Iran’s explanation of foreign contamination for most of the observed enriched uranium.[29] At their August 2005 meeting the IAEA's Board of Governors concluded: "Based on the information currently available to the Agency, the results of that analysis tend, on balance, to support Iran’s statement about the foreign origin of most of the observed HEU contamination."[30]. These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ...


Permanent Representative to the UN

President George W. Bush announces the nomination of Bolton as the U.S. Ambassador to UN as Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice looks on.

On March 7, 2005 Bolton was nominated to the post of U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations by President George W. Bush. As a result of a Democratic filibuster, he was never confirmed by the Senate and thus never obtained the official title of Ambassador. However, Bolton's nomination received strong support from Republicans but faced heavy opposition from Democrats due initially to concerns about his strongly expressed views on the United Nations,[31] and, later, alleged actions while at the State Department.[32] Image File history File linksMetadata BOLTONWH.jpg‎ www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata BOLTONWH.jpg‎ www. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... As a form of obstructionism in a legislature or other decision making body, a filibuster is an attempt to extend debate upon a proposal in order to delay or completely prevent a vote on its passage. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...


Holding a 10-8 majority in the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (tasked with vetting ambassadorial nominees), the Republican leadership hoped to send Mr. Bolton's nomination to the full Senate with a positive recommendation. Concern among some Republicans on the committee, however, prompted the leadership not to risk losing such a motion and instead to send the nomination forward with no recommendation. In the full Senate, Republican support for the nomination remained uncertain, with the most vocal Republican critic, Ohio Senator George V. Voinovich, circulating a letter urging his Republican colleagues to oppose the nomination.[33] Democrats insisted that a vote on the nomination was premature, given the resistance of the White House to share classified documents related to Bolton's alleged actions. The Republican leadership moved on two occasions to end debate, but because a supermajority of 60 votes is needed to end debate, the leadership was unable to muster the required votes with only a 55-44 majority in the body. An earlier agreement between moderates in both parties to prevent filibustering of nominees was interpreted by the Democrats to relate only to judicial nominees,[34] not ambassadorships, although the leader of the effort, Sen. John McCain, said the spirit of the agreement was to include all nominees. George Victor Voinovich (born July 15, 1936) is an American politician from Ohio. ...


On November 9, 2006, President George W. Bush, only days after losing both houses to a Democratic majority, sent the nomination[35] for John Robert Bolton to continue as representative for the United States at the UN.[36] He said: "I believe that the leaders of both political parties must try to work through our differences. And I believe we will be able to work through differences. I reassured the House and Senate leaders that I intend to work with the new Congress in a bipartisan way to address issues confronting this country." George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Views on the United Nations

Bolton has been a strong critic of the United Nations for much of his career. In a 1994 Global Structures Convocation hosted by the World Federalist Association (now Citizens for Global Solutions), he stated, Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Citizens for Global Solutions (CGS) is a non-profit grassroots membership organization dedicated to promoting a future in which nations work together to abolish war, protect our rights and freedoms and solve the problems facing humanity that no nation can solve alone. ... Citizens for Global Solutions, a grassroots membership organization in the United States, envisions a future in which nations work together to abolish war, protect our rights and freedoms and solve the problems facing humanity that no nation can solve alone and to building the political will in the United States...

There is no such thing as the United Nations. There is only the international community, which can only be led by the only remaining superpower, which is the United States."[37] He also stated that "The Secretariat building in New York has 38 stories. If you lost ten stories today, it wouldn't make a bit of difference."[38]

Both Bolton's opponents[39] and his supporters[40] have used the same video of his remarks at the 1994 event in support of their points of view. United Nations Headquarters in New York City, viewed from the East River. ...


When pressed on the statement during the confirmation process, he responded, "There's not a bureaucracy in the world that couldn't be made leaner."[41] In a paper on U.S. participation in the UN, John Bolton stated "the United Nations can be a useful instrument in the conduct of American foreign policy."[42]


A member of the Project for the New American Century, Bolton was also one of the signers of the January 26, 1998 PNAC letter sent to President Clinton urging him to remove Saddam Hussein from power using U.S. diplomatic, political and military power.[43] The letter also stated "American policy cannot continue to be crippled by a misguided insistence on unanimity in the UN Security Council."[44] Project for the New American Centurys Logo The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


The Nov. 15, 2005 Washington Times article Can the U.S. find a substitute for the U.N.? noted that Bolton advocates "a revolution of reform" at the UN. Specifically, he called for: The Washington Times is a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C.. It was founded in 1982 as a conservative alternative to the Washington Post by members of the controversial Unification Church. ...

  • The five permanent members of the UN Security Council to work more closely to craft powerful resolutions and make sure they are enforced, and to address the underlying causes of conflicts, rather than turning them over to the Secretariat and special envoys;
  • A focus on administrative skills in choosing the next secretary-general; and
  • A more credible and responsible Human Rights Commission.

Bolton warned that the U.S. had the option of relying on regional or other international organizations to advance its goals if the U.N. proves inadequate.[45] United Nations Commission on Human Rights - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


2005 nomination, Senate confirmation hearings

Day 1

On April 11, 2005, The Senate Foreign Relations Committee reviewed Bolton's qualifications. Bolton said that he and his colleagues "view the U.N. as an important component of our diplomacy" and will work to solve its problems and enhance its strengths. is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ...


Republican committee chairman Richard Lugar of Indiana criticized Bolton for ignoring the "policy consequences" of his statements, saying diplomatic speech "should never be undertaken simply to score international debating points to appeal to segments of the U.S. public opinion or to validate a personal point of view."[46] The committee's top Democrat, Joe Biden of Delaware, compared sending Bolton to the UN to sending a "bull into a china shop," and expressed "grave concern" about Bolton's "diplomatic temperament" and his record: "In my judgment," Biden said, "your judgment about how to deal with the emerging threats have not been particularly useful." Richard Green Dick Lugar (born April 4, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Indiana. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Joseph Robinette Joe Biden, Jr. ... Capital Dover Largest city Wilmington Area  Ranked 49th  - Total 2,491 sq mi (6,452 km²)  - Width 30 miles (48 km)  - Length 100 miles (161 km)  - % water 21. ...


Republican George Allen of Virginia said that Bolton had the "experience," "knowledge," "background," "and the right principles to come into the United Nations at this time," calling him "the absolute perfect person for the job." George Felix Allen (born March 8, 1952) is a Republican U.S. Senator from Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Russ Feingold, a Democrat on the committee from Wisconsin, asked Bolton about what he would have done had the Rwandan genocide occurred while he was ambassador to the United Nations, and criticized his answer – which focused on logistics – as "amazingly passive." Russell Dana Russ Feingold (born March 2, 1953) is an American politician from the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42°30N to 47°3N  - Longitude 86°49W to 92°54W Population  Ranked... The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of hundreds of thousands of ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutu sympathizers in Rwanda and was the largest atrocity during the Rwandan Civil War. ...


According to Newsday, Lincoln Chafee, a Republican from Rhode Island, "may be pivotal for Bolton's nomination."[47] His initial remarks were cautiously favorable: "You said all the right things in your opening statement," he said. Chafee stated that he would probably support Bolton "unless something surprising shows up." Newsday is a daily tabloid-size newspaper that primarily serves Long Island and the New York City borough of Queens, although it is sold throughout the New York City metropolitan area. ... Lincoln Davenport Chafee (IPA pronunciation: , [CHAY-fee]) (born March 26, 1953) is a former United States Senator from Rhode Island. ... “RI” redirects here. ...


According to an Associated Press story on the hearing, "[T]hree protesters briefly interrupted the proceedings, standing up in succession with pink T-shirts and banners, one reading: 'Diplomat for hire. No bully please.'" These protesters were part of a group advocating representation in the Senate for residents of the District of Columbia that is known for such demonstrations at a variety of hearings. The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...


On the whole, Bolton "displayed not the slightest bit of energy, one way or the other, when discussing the challenges facing international organizations," according to Fred Kaplan of Slate Magazine.[19] Categories: Magazines stubs | Microsoft subsidiaries | Websites | The Washington Post ...


Day 2

On April 12, 2005, the Senate panel focused on allegations discussed above that Bolton pressured intelligence analysts. "I've never seen anybody quite like Secretary Bolton. ... I don't have a second, third or fourth in terms of the way that he abuses his power and authority with little people," former State Department intelligence chief Carl W. Ford Jr., said, calling Bolton a "serial abuser." Ford contradicted Bolton's earlier testimony, saying: "I had been asked for the first time to fire an intelligence analyst for what he had said and done." is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carl Ford (Carl W. Ford, Jr. ...


Lugar, who criticized Bolton at his April 11 hearing, said that the "paramount issue" was supporting the president's nominee. He conceded that "[b]luntness may be required," even though it is not "very good diplomacy."


Chafee, the key member for Bolton's approval, said that "the bar is very high" for rejecting the president's nominees, suggesting that Bolton would make it to the Senate.


Erosion of Republican support

On April 19, Democrats, with the unexpected support of Senator George V. Voinovich, Republican of Ohio, forced Senator Lugar to delay the committee vote on Mr. Bolton's nomination until May. The debate concerning his nomination raged in the Senate prior to the Memorial Day recess. Two other Republicans on the Foreign Relations Committee, Senators Lincoln Chafee and Chuck Hagel, also expressed serious concerns about the Bolton nomination. Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... George Victor Voinovich (born July 15, 1936) is an American politician from Ohio. ... Memorial Day is a United States federal holiday that is observed on the last Monday of May (observed this year on 2007-05-28). ... Lincoln Davenport Chafee (IPA pronunciation: , [CHAY-fee]) (born March 26, 1953) is a former United States Senator from Rhode Island. ... Charles Timothy Chuck Hagel (born October 4, 1946) is the senior United States Senator from Nebraska. ...


Asked on April 20 if he was now less inclined to support the nomination, Mr. Chafee said, "That would be accurate." He further elaborated that Mr. Bolton's prospects were "hard to predict" but said he expected that "the administration is really going to put some pressure on Senator Voinovich. Then it comes to the rest of us that have had some reservations." is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On April 20, it emerged that Melody Townsel, a former US AID contractor, had reported to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that Bolton had used inflammatory language and thrown objects in the course of her work activities in Moscow. Townsel's encounter with Bolton occurred when she served as a whistleblower against a poorly performing minority contractor for US AID, IBTCI. Townsel told the Senate Foreign Relations Committee staff that Bolton had made derogatory remarks about her sexual orientation and weight, among other workplace improprieties. In an official interview with Senate Foreign Relation Committee staff, Townsel detailed her accusations against Bolton, which were confirmed by Canadian designer Uno Ramat, who had served as an IBTCI employee and one of Townsel's AID colleagues. Time Magazine, among other publications, verified Townsel's accusations and Ramat's supporting testimony, and Townsel's story was transcribed and entered into the official Senate committee record. Townsel, who was an employee of Young & Rubicam at the time of her encounter with Bolton, continued working for the company on a variety of other US AID projects.


On April 22 the New York Times and other media alleged that Bolton's former boss, former Secretary of State Colin Powell, was personally opposed to the nomination and had been in personal contact with Republican Senators Chafee and Hagel. This development was interpreted as a further rift between Powell and the Bush Administration. Reuters reported, also on April 22, that a spokesman for Senator Lisa Murkowski (R-Alaska) said that the Senator felt the committee "did the right thing delaying the vote on Bolton in light of the recent information presented to the committee."[48] is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... Lisa Ann Murkowski (born May 22, 1957) is an American politician. ... Official language(s) English[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ...


On 28 April The Guardian reported that Powell was "conducting a campaign" against Bolton because of the acrimonious battles they had had while working together, which among other things had resulted in Powell cutting Bolton out of talks with Iran and Libya after complaints about Bolton's involvement from the British. It added that "The foreign relations committee has discovered that Bolton made a highly unusual request and gained access to 10 intercepts by the National Security Agency... Staff members on the committee believe that Bolton was probably spying on Powell, his senior advisers and other officials reporting to him on diplomatic initiatives that Bolton opposed."[49] However, Rich Lowry pointed out that "During the same four-year period, other State Department officials made roughly 400 similar requests."[50] The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Lieutenant General Keith B. Alexander, 16th and current director of the NSA (2005–). The National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) is the United States governments cryptologic organization that was officially established on November 4, 1952. ...


Also on May 11 Newsweek reported allegations that the American position at the 7th Review Conference in May 2005[51] of the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty had been undercut by Bolton's "absence without leave" during the nomination fight, quoting anonymous sources "close to the negotiations".[52] The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a treaty, opened for signature on July 1, 1968, restricting the possession of nuclear weapons. ...


The Democrats' filibuster

On Thursday, May 26, 2005, the Senate Democrats postponed the vote on John Bolton's UN nomination. The Republican leadership failed to gain enough Republican or Democratic support to pass a cloture motion on the floor debate over Bolton, and minority leader Harry Reid conceded the move signaled the "first filibuster of the year." The Democrats claimed that key documents regarding Bolton and his career at the Department of State were being withheld by the Bush administration. Scott McClellan, White House press secretary, responded by saying, "Just 72 hours after all the good will and bipartisanship (over a deal on judicial nominees), it's disappointing to see the Democratic leadership resort back to such a partisan approach."[53] is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harry Mason Reid (born December 2, 1939) is the senior United States Senator from Nevada and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Scott McClellan in the press room of the White House Puffy McMoonface (born February 14, 1968) was the White House Press Secretary (2003-2006) for President George W. Bush. ...


The failure of the Senate to end debate on Bolton's nomination provided one surprise for some: Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist (R-TN) voted against cloture for procedural reasons, so that he could bring up a cloture vote in the future.[54] (Although Senator George Voinovich (R-OH) once spoke against confirming Bolton, he voted for cloture.) Senator John Thune (R-SD) voted to end debate but announced that he would vote against Bolton in the up-or-down vote as a protest against the government's plans to close a military base (Ellsworth) in his state of South Dakota. William Harrison Bill Frist, Sr. ... George Victor Voinovich (born July 15, 1936) is an American politician of the Republican Party. ... John Randolph Thune (born January 7, 1961) is the junior U.S. Senator from the state of South Dakota. ... Ellsworth Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base near Rapid City, South Dakota and is home to the B-1B Lancer. ...


On June 20, 2005 the Senate voted again on cloture. The vote failed 54-38, six votes short of ending debate. That marked an increase of two "no" votes, including the defection of Republican Voinovich, who switched his previous "yes" vote and urged President Bush to pick another nominee (Democrats Mark Pryor, Mary Landrieu and Ben Nelson voted to end debate both times). On June 21, Frist expressed his view that attempting another vote would be pointless, but later that day, following a lunch at the White House, changed his position, saying that he would continue to push for an up-or-down vote.[55] Voinovich later recanted his opposition and stated that if Bolton were renominated he would have supported the nomination.[56] is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mark Lunsford Pryor (born January 10, 1963) is a politician in Arkansas. ... Mary Loretta Landrieu (born November 23, 1955) is the senior Democratic United States Senator for the state of Louisiana. ... Earl Benjamin Ben Nelson (born May 17, 1941) is the junior U.S. Senator from Nebraska, where he was born and has lived for most of his life. ...


Accusations of false statement

On July 28, 2005 it was revealed that a statement made by Bolton on forms submitted to the Senate was false. Bolton indicated that in the prior five years he had not been questioned in any investigation, but in fact he had been interviewed by the State Department Inspector General on July 18, 2003 as part of an investigation into the sources of pre-war claims of weapons of mass destruction evidence in Iraq. After insisting for weeks that Bolton had testified truthfully on the form, the State Department reversed itself, stating that Bolton had simply forgotten about the investigation.[citation needed] is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Recess appointment

On August 1, 2005, President Bush officially made a recess appointment of Bolton, installing him as Permanent US Representative to the UN. A recess appointment lasts until the adjournment of the sitting Congress or until the individual is renominated and confirmed by the Senate. During the announcement, Bush said, "This post is too important to leave vacant any longer, especially during a war and a vital debate about U.N. reform." Democrats criticized the appointment, and Republican Sen. George Voinovich, whose opposition originally stalled a vote on the nominee, said Bolton would lack credibility in the U.N. because he lacked Senate confirmation.[citation needed] Voinovich later complimented Bolton on his work at the UN and supported confirmation when he was renominated in 2006. U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan said, "We look forward to working with him as I do with the other 190 ambassadors and we will welcome him at a time when we are in the midst of major reform. I think it is the president's prerogative, and the president has decided to appoint him through this process." Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A recess appointment occurs when the President of the United States fills a vacant Federal position during a recess of the United States Senate. ... Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ...


Term at the UN

The Economist called Bolton "the most controversial Ambassador ever sent by America to the United Nations." Some colleagues in the UN appreciated the goals Bolton was trying to achieve, but not his abrasive style.[57][58] The New York Times, in its editorial The Shame of the United Nations, praised Bolton's stance on "reforming the disgraceful United Nations Human Rights Commission",[59] saying "John Bolton, is right; Secretary-General Kofi Annan is wrong." The Times also said that the commission at that time was composed of "some of the world's most abusive regimes" who used their membership as cover to continue their abusiveness. The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, a commission supervised by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, is composed of representatives from 53 member states, and meets each year in regular session in March/April for six weeks in Geneva. ... Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ...


Bolton also opposed the proposed replacement for the Human Right Commission, the UN Human Rights Council, as not going far enough for reform, saying: “We want a butterfly. We don't intend to put lipstick on a caterpillar and call it a success.”[60] The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, a commission supervised by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, is composed of representatives from 53 member states, and meets each year in regular session in March/April for six weeks in Geneva. ... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptora. ... Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments, oils, waxes, and emollients that applies color and texture to the lips. ... This article is about a form of an insect. ...


2006 nomination

President Bush announced his intention to renominate Bolton for confirmation as U.N. ambassador at the beginning of 2006, and a new confirmation hearing was held on July 27,2006, in the hope of completing the process before the expiration of Bolton's recess appointment at the end of the 109th Congress.[61] Senator George Voinovich, who had previously stood in opposition to Bolton, had amended his views and determined that John Bolton was doing a "good job" as UN Ambassador; in February 2006, he said "I spend a lot of time with John on the phone. I think he is really working very constructively to move forward."[62]


Over the summer and during the fall election campaign, no action was taken on the nomination because Senator Lincoln Chafee, Republican from Rhode Island, who was in a difficult re-election campaign, blocked a Senate Foreign Relations Committee vote. Without his concurrence, the SFRC would be deadlocked 9-9, and the nomination could not go to the Senate floor for a full vote. President Bush formally resubmitted the nomination on November 9, 2006, immediately following a midterm election that would give control of the 110th Congress to the Democratic party.[63] Senator Chafee, who had just lost his re-election bid, issued a statement saying he would vote against recommending Bolton for a Senate vote, citing what he considered to be a mandate from the recent election results: "On Tuesday, the American people sent a clear message of dissatisfaction with the foreign policy approach of the Bush administration. To confirm Mr. Bolton to the position of U.N. ambassador would fly in the face of the clear consensus of the country that a new direction is called for."[64] Lincoln Davenport Chafee (IPA pronunciation: , [CHAY-fee]) (born March 26, 1953) is a former United States Senator from Rhode Island. ... U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... United States Capitol (2002) // The One Hundred Tenth United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, comprised of the Senate and the House of Representatives. ...


On December 4, 2006, Bolton announced that he would terminate his work as U.S. Representative to the UN at the end of the recess appointment and would not continue to seek confirmation.[65] His letter of resignation from the Bush administration was accepted on December 4, 2006, effective when his recess appointment ended December 9 at the formal adjournment of the 109th Congress. The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A recess appointment occurs when the President of the United States fills a vacant Federal position during a recess of the United States Senate. ... United States Capitol (2002) // The One Hundred Ninth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, comprised of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. ...


The announcement was characterized as Bolton's "resignation" by the Associated Press,[66] United Press International,[67] ABC News,[68] and other news sources, as well as a White House press release[69] and President Bush himself.[70] The White House, however, later objected to the use of this language. Deputy Press Secretary Dana Perino told CBS News "it is not a resignation."[71] The actual language of the President's written acceptance was: "It is with deep regret that I accept John Bolton’s decision to end his service in the Administration as Permanent Representative of the United States to the United Nations when his commission expires." However, at press conference, the president said, "I received the resignation of Ambassador John Bolton. I accept it. I'm not happy about it. I think he deserved to be confirmed."[72] Some news organizations subsequently altered their language to phrases such as "to step down," "to leave," or "to exit." Dana Marie Perino (born May 9, 1972) currently occupies the positions of Deputy White House Press Secretary and director of communications for the press team. ... CBS News is the news division of American television and radio network CBS. Its current president is Sean McManus who is also head of CBS Sports. ...


Support for Bolton

On Dec. 4, 2006, quotations praising Bolton's work at the UN from supporters of a cross-section of political persuasions and from a variety of different publications were published on the Heritage Foundation website. During his confirmation hearings in 2005, letters with signatures of more than 100 co-workers and professional colleagues were sent to Senator Lugar, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, in praise of Bolton and contradicting other criticisms and allegations concerning his diplomatic style and his treatment of colleagues and staff. In the fall of 2006, when his nomination was again before the Committee, another letter signed by more than 56 professional colleagues supporting the renomination was sent to Senator Lugar.[73] A Wall Street Journal op ed by Claudia Rossett on Dec. 5, 2006, said in part, "Bolton has been valiant in his efforts to clean up UN corruption and malfeasance, and follow UN procedure in dealing with such threats as a nuclear North Korea, a Hezbollah bid to take over Lebanon, and the nuclearization of Hezbollah's terror-masters in Iran. But it has been like watching one man trying to move a tsunami of mud."[74] The Heritage Foundation is a public policy research institute based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... Richard Green Dick Lugar (born April 4, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Indiana. ... U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... An Op-Ed is a piece of writing expressing an opinion. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ...


Nobel Peace Prize nomination

Bolton was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize along with Ken Timmerman on February 7, 2006 by Sweden's former deputy prime minister and Liberal party leader Per Ahlmark "for their repeated warnings and documentation of Iran's secret nuclear buildup and revealing Iran's 'repeated lying' and false reports to the International Atomic Energy Agency."[75][76][77][78] Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize Image:Nobel-medal. ... Kenneth R. Timmerman (born November 4, 1953- ) is a neo-conservative Republican activist from Maryland, and a former nominee for a US Senate seat. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Liberal Party of Sweden (in Swedish: Folkpartiet liberalerna, abbreviated fp, meaning Peoples Party the Liberals) is a political party in Sweden. ... Per Ahlmark Photo: Ann Ek Per Axel Ahlmark (born January 15, 1939, Stockholm) is a Swedish writer and former leader of the Liberal Peoples Party. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


American Enterprise Institute

In Bolton's time at the American Enterprise Institute, a conservative think tank, he has spoken against the policy of rewarding North Korea for ending its nuclear weapons program.[79] He said the policy would encourage others to violate nuclear non-proliferation rules so that they could then be rewarded for following the rules they'd already agreed to.[79] The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a conservative think tank, founded in 1943, whose stated mission is to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism — limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility, vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies... This article is about the institution. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


References

  1. ^ "White House announces John Bolton's resignation", International Herald Tribune, 2006-12-04. Retrieved on 2006-12-04. 
  2. ^ "President Bush Accepts John Bolton's Resignation as U.S. Representative to the United Nations", White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 2006-12-04. Retrieved on 2006-12-04. 
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Ross Goldberg and Sam Kahn, "Bolton's conservative ideology has roots in Yale experience", Yale Daily News, April 28, 2005.
  5. ^ a b c http://www.results.gov/leadership/bio_44.html
  6. ^ a b http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/biog/2976.htm
  7. ^ US Department of State (2005-03-07). Announcement of Nomination of John Bolton as U.S. Ambassador to the UN. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-08-15.
  8. ^ http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa-311.html
  9. ^ "Let the child live", The Economist, 2007-01-25. Retrieved on 2007-08-16. 
  10. ^ Slavin, Barbara, Bill Nichols. "Bolton a 'guided missile'", USA Today, 2003-11-30. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  11. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/06/05/AR2005060500182.html
  12. ^ a b http://www.alternet.org/columnists/story/21841/
  13. ^ Kaplan, Lawrence F.. "THE SECRETS OF JOHN BOLTON'S SUCCESS.", The New Republic, 2004-03-29. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  14. ^ "Bush nominates Bolton as U.N. ambassador", CNN, 2005-03-08. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  15. ^ http://www.state.gov/t/np/rls/other/34726.htm
  16. ^ "Profile: John Bolton", BBC News, 2005-08-01. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  17. ^ Kralev, Nicholas. "Bush backs Bolton's tough talk", The Washington Times, 2003-08-04. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  18. ^ Lee, Soo-Jeong. "North Korea bans Bolton from talks", The Washington Times, 2003-08-04. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  19. ^ a b Kaplan, Fred. "It's Time To Write a Dear John", Slate Magazine, 2005-04-11. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  20. ^ Clayton, Jonathan, James Bone. "Sex scandal in Congo threatens to engulf UN's peacekeepers", The Times, 2004-12-23. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  21. ^ Porteus, Liza. "3 Indicted in U.N. Oil-for-Food Scandal", Fox News, 2005-04-15. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  22. ^ http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/Archive/2005/Apr/29-239439.html
  23. ^ Linzer, Dafna. "Bolton Often Blocked Information, Officials Say", The Washington Post, 2005-04-18, pp. A04. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  24. ^ "U.S.: Cuba Developing Biological Weapons", Fox News, 2002-05-06. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  25. ^ a b http://www.knoxstudio.com/shns/story.cfm?pk=BOLTON-04-11-05&cat=WW
  26. ^ a b http://www.democrats.reform.house.gov/Documents/20050301112122-90349.pdf
  27. ^ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline.jsp?timeline=complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq&general_topic_areas=africaUraniumClaim
  28. ^ Democracy Now, Headlines (July 16, 2003). "CIA Says Administration Exaggerating Syria's WMD Threat". Democracy Now. Retrieved on 2006-12-22.
  29. ^ Linzer, Dafna. "No Proof Found of Iran Arms Program", The Washington Post, 2005-08-23, pp. A01. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  30. ^ http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents/Board/2005/gov2005-67.pdf
  31. ^ http://www.stopbolton.org/video.html
  32. ^ http://www.thewashingtonnote.com/archives/bolton.pdf
  33. ^ Jehl, Douglas. "Republican urges colleagues to reject UN", he International Herald Tribune, 2005-05-26. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  34. ^ http://www.confirmthem.com/?p=588
  35. ^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/11/20061109-1.html
  36. ^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/11/20061108-2.html
  37. ^ Watson, Roland. "Bush deploys hawk as new UN envoy", The Times, 2005-03-08. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  38. ^ Applebaum, Anne. "Defending Bolton", The Washington Post, 2005-03-09, pp. A21. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  39. ^ http://www.stopbolton.org
  40. ^ http://www.moveamericaforward.org/index.php/SpecialProjects/SupportBolton
  41. ^ http://www.cumberlink.com/articles/2005/04/11/ap/headlines/d89ddcug0.txt
  42. ^ http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itps/0597/ijpe/pj2bolt.htm
  43. ^ http://www.theindyvoice.com/pnac/
  44. ^ http://www.theindyvoice.com/index.blog?entry_id=417960
  45. ^ Pisik, Betsy. "Can the U.S. find a substitute for the U.N.?", The Washington Times, 2005-11-15. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  46. ^ Borger, Julian. "Democrats try to block Bush's man for UN job", The Guardian, 2005-04-12. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  47. ^ http://www.newsday.com/news/politics/wire/sns-ap-bush-un-ambassador-quotes,0,3383126.story?coll=sns-ap-politics-headlines
  48. ^ http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=topNews&storyID=8270328
  49. ^ Blumenthal, Sidney. "The good soldier's revenge", The Guardian, 2005-04-28. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  50. ^ http://www.townhall.com/columnists/richlowry/rl20050422.shtml
  51. ^ http://www.un.org/events/npt2005/
  52. ^ Hirsh, Michael, Eve Conant. "A Nuclear Blunder?", Newsweek, 2005-05-11. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  53. ^ Jehl, Douglas. "DEMOCRATS FORCE SENATE TO DELAY A VOTE ON BOLTON", The New York Times, 2005-05-27, pp. A1, Column 6. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  54. ^ http://sayanythingblog.com/2005/05/26/bolton-nomination-stalled-2/
  55. ^ http://www.boston.com/news/nation/washington/articles/2005/06/21/frist_says_no_new_vote_planned_for_bolton/
  56. ^ Babington, Charles. "Bolton's Nomination Revives After Senator Changes Mind", The Washington Post, 2006-07-22, pp. A02. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  57. ^ "His UNdoing", The Economist, 2006-12-07, pp. 33-34. Retrieved on 2007-08-16. 
  58. ^ "A matter of honour", The Economist, 2007-07-26. Retrieved on 2007-08-16. 
  59. ^ "The Shame of the United Nations", New York Times, 2006-02-26. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 
  60. ^ "Bad counsel", The Economist, 2007-04-04. Retrieved on 2007-08-16. 
  61. ^ U.S. Congress (27 July 2006). "Nominations". Congressional Record Daily Digest. 
  62. ^ [2]
  63. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2006/POLITICS/11/10/bolton.congress/
  64. ^ "Bolton May Not Return As U.N. Envoy", Dafna Linzer, Washington Post, Friday, November 10, 2006
  65. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2006/POLITICS/12/04/bolton.resignation.ap/index.html
  66. ^ Terence Hunt (2006-12-04). Bush Accepts Bolton's UN Resignation. CBS News. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  67. ^ Russians hope for better ties to U.S.. United Press International (2006-12-04). Retrieved on 2006-12-04.: "They were reacting to the resignation of U.S. Ambassador to the U.N. John Bolton earlier Monday, Bolton resigned after it became clear that the incoming Democratic-controlled Senate in the 110th Congress would not vote to confirm his appointment as ambassador."
  68. ^ Ben Feller (2006-12-04). Bush Accepts Bolton's U.N. Resignation. ABC News. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  69. ^ President Bush Accepts Ambassador John Bolton's Resignation as U.S. Representative to the United Nations. Office of the Press Secretary, The White house (2006-12-04). Retrieved on 2006-12-14.
  70. ^ President Bush Meets with United Nations Ambassador John Bolton. Office of the Press Secretary, The White House (2006-12-04). Retrieved on 2006-12-04.: "I received the resignation of Ambassador John Bolton. I accepted."
  71. ^ White House Contests Claim That Bolton 'Resigned'. CBS News (2006-12-04). Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  72. ^ President Bush Meets with United Nations Ambassador John Bolton. Office of the Press Secretary, The White House (2006-12-04). Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  73. ^ [3]
  74. ^ [4]
  75. ^ Kamen, Al. "What's Next for Bolton -- The Peace Prize?", The Washington Post, 2006-02-13, pp. A19. Retrieved on 2006-09-26. 
  76. ^ http://www.jinsa.org/articles/articles.html/function/view/categoryid/2170/documentid/3307/history/3,2359,2167,2170,3307
  77. ^ http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=60668
  78. ^ http://nobelprize.org/peace/nomination/nominators.html
  79. ^ a b "Fighting fires", The Economist, 2007-02-16. Retrieved on 2007-08-16. 

See also Reuters report and direct quotation from Bolton on December 6, 2006. The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A front page of the Yale Daily News. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A press release (sometimes known as a news release or press statement) is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Democracy Now! is an independent, award-winning news and opinion radio program airing on over 300 stations across North America every weekday, as well as both satellite television networks. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
John R. Bolton
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
John R. Bolton
  • U.S. Mission to the United Nations Biography
  • Profile: John R. Bolton, RightWeb
  • John R. Bolton, Notable Names Database
  • Bolton: There is no such thing as the United Nations, CGS video, February 3, 1994.
  • State Department biography
  • Resume from the AEI, American Enterprise Institute
  • New York Magazine article, "Bolton in a China Shop," by Jennifer Senior, 6 January 2006.
  • Announcement of Nomination of John Bolton as U.S. Ambassador to the UN
  • The Creation, Fall, Rise, and Fall of the United Nations John Bolton's chapter from the Cato Institute book, Delusions of Grandeur: The United Nations and Global Intervention
  • "In their own Words: Ambassador Bolton's Record of Effectiveness at the U.N.," by Janice A. Smith, Heritage webmemo #1269. December 4, 2006. [5]
  • Stop Bolton Campaign Site
  • Blogging for Bolton, an online activist campaign in support of the Bolton nomination
  • John Bolton interviewed by Jon Stewart on "The Daily Show" from March 20, 2007
  • John Bolton interview by Neal Conan on Talk of the Nation, May 1, 2007
  • John Bolton (heated) interview by BBC's John Humphreys on Today, May 17, 2007 (starting at 10:42)

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... NNDB standing for Notable Names Database is a database of biographical details of notable persons. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a conservative think tank, founded in 1943, whose stated mission is to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism — limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility, vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies... The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Institutes stated mission is to broaden the parameters of public policy debate to allow consideration of the traditional American principles of limited government, individual liberty, free markets, and peace by striving to achieve greater involvement...

News articles

  • Goldberg, Ross and Sam Kahn. "Bolton's conservative ideology has roots in Yale experience", Yale Daily News, April 28, 2005.
  • Knowlton, Brian. "Bush picks a hawkish skeptic as UN envoy", International Herald Tribune, March 8, 2005.
  • Tony Benn vs Bolton. "John Bolton criticised by Tony Benn on the BBC .

is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Commentary (favorable)

National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative American political commentator. ... The Chicago Sun-Times is an American daily newspaper published in Chicago. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Commentary (critical)

The Financial Times (FT) is an international business newspaper printed on distinctive salmon pink broadsheet paper. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Center for American Progress is a progressive American political policy research and advocacy organization. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Header image from LewRockwell. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Header image from LewRockwell. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Commentary (neutral)

  • David Bosco, "The World According to Bolton," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, July/August 2005.
  • Tom Barry: Israel's Man at the UN (International Relations Center, 26 July 2006)
Preceded by
None
Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security
2001 - 2005
Succeeded by
Robert Joseph
Preceded by
Anne W. Patterson(acting)
United States Ambassador to the United Nations
2005 - 2006
Succeeded by
Alejandro Daniel Wolff (acting)

 
 

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