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Encyclopedia > John Newton
John Newton
John Newton

John Henry Newton, Jr. (July 24, 1725December 21, 1807) was an Anglican clergyman and former slave-ship captain. He was the author of many hymns, including Amazing Grace. John Newton refers to: John Newton (1725–1807), English slaveship master and Anglican clergyman, author of “Amazing Grace” John Haymes Newton (b. ... Image File history File links Newton_j. ... Image File history File links Newton_j. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... For other uses, see Amazing Grace (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early life

John H. Newton Jr. was born in Wapping, London,in 1725, the son of John Newton, Sr., a shipmaster in the Mediterranean service, and Elizabeth Newton (née Seatclife). His mother brought him up as a Nonconformist Christian. She died of tuberculosis when he was 6. [1] Newton spent 2 years at boarding school, at the age of 11 he went to sea with his father and sailed with him on a total of six voyages until the elder Newton retired in 1742. Newton's father had planned for him to take up a position as a slave master at a sugar plantation in Jamaica but in 1743, he was pressed into naval service, and became a midshipman aboard HMS Harwich. After attempting to desert, Newton was put in irons and court martialed. The captain was determined to make an example of Newton for the rest of the crew. Thus, in the presence of 350 members of the crew, the 19-year old midshipman was stripped to the waist, tied to the grating, and received a flogging of eight dozen lashes, and was reduced to the rank of a common seaman. [2] Following that disgrace and humiliation, Newton initially contemplated suicide, [3] but he recovered, both physically and mentally, and, at his own request, he was placed in service on a slave ship bound for West Africa which eventually took him to the coast of Sierra Leone. He became the servant of a slave trader, who abused him. It was this period that Newton later remembered as the time he was "once an infidel and libertine, a servant of slaves in Africa." Early in 1748 he was rescued by a sea captain who had been asked by Newton’s father to search for him on his next voyage. Wapping Old Stairs, one of many points of access to the foreshore in the area. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... A nonconformist is an English or Welsh Protestant of any non-Anglican denomination, chiefly advocating religious liberty. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Look up Impressment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...


Religious Conversion

Sailing back to England in 1748 aboard the slave-ship Greyhound on the Atlantic triangle trade route, the ship encountered a severe storm and almost sank. Newton awoke in the middle of the night and prayed to God as the ship filled with water. It was this experience which he later marked as the beginnings of his conversion to evangelical Christianity.[4] As the ship sailed home, Newton began to read the Bible and other religious literature. By the time he reached Britain, he had accepted the doctrines of Christianity. The date was March 10, 1748, an anniversary he marked for the rest of his life. From that point on, he avoided profanity, gambling, and drinking, although he continued to work in the slave trade. He later said that his true conversion did not happen until some time later: "I cannot consider myself to have been a believer in the full sense of the word, until a considerable time afterwards."[5] A triangular trade is any three-way exchange, but the term is often used to refer to one particular instance: the 18th century trade between Europe, the west coast of Africa, and the Caribbean. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... In cartoons, profanity is often depicted by substituting symbols for words, as a form of non-specific censorship. ... Gamble redirects here. ... A Canada goose drinking A lion drinking Drinking is the act of consuming a liquid through the mouth. ...


Newton returned to Liverpool, England and, partly due to the influence of Joseph Manestay, a friend of his father’s, obtained a position as first mate aboard a slave trading vessel, the Brownlow, bound for the West Indies via the coast of Guinea. During the first leg of this voyage, while in west Africa (1748-49), Newton acknowledged the inadequacy of his spiritual life. Sick with fever, he professed his full belief in Christ. He later said that this experience was his true conversion and the turning point in his spiritual life. He claimed it was the first time he felt totally at peace with God. For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...


Still, he did not renounce the slave trade until later in his life (when he wrote a tract decrying it in aid of abolitionist William Wilberforce). After his return to England in 1750, he made three further voyages as captain of the slave-trading ships Duke of Argyle (1750) and the African (1752-53 and 1753-54). He only gave up seafaring and his slave-trading activities in 1754, after a serious illness. William Wilberforce (August 24, 1759 – July 29, 1833) was a British politician, philanthropist and slavery abolitionist. ...


Anglican priest

In 1755 Newton became tide surveyor of the port of Liverpool, again through the influence of Manestay and, in his spare time, was able to study Greek, Hebrew, and Syriac. He became well-known as an evangelical lay minister, and applied for the Anglican priesthood in 1757, although it was more than seven years before he was eventually accepted and ordained into the Church of England. Such had been his frustration during this period of rejection that he had sought also to apply to the Methodists, Independents and Presbyterians, as well as directly to the Bishops of Chester and Lincoln and the Archbishops of Canterbury and York. Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Arms of the Bishop of Chester The Bishop of Chester heads the Anglican Diocese of Chester in the Province of York. ... Arms of the Bishop of Lincoln The Bishop of Lincoln heads the Anglican Diocese of Lincoln in the Province of Canterbury. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ...


Eventually, in 1764, he was introduced by Thomas Haweis to Lord Dartmouth, who was influential in recommending Newton to the Bishop of Chester, and who had suggested him for the living of Olney, Buckinghamshire. On 29 April 1764 Newton received deacon’s orders, and finally became a priest on 17 June. William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth (June 20, 1731 - July 7, 1801) was a British statesman who is most remembered for his part in the government before and during the American Revolution. ... Olney is a small town near Milton Keynes, England with a population of around 6,000 people. ... Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is one of the home counties in South East England. ...


As curate of Olney, Newton was partly sponsored by the evangelical philanthropist John Thornton, who supplemented his stipend of £60 a year with £200 a year "for hospitality and to help the poor". He soon became well-known for his pastoral care, as much as for his beliefs, and his friendship with dissenters and evangelical clergy caused him to be respected by Anglicans and non-conformists alike. He was to spend sixteen years at Olney, during which time so popular was his preaching that the church had a gallery added to accommodate the large numbers who flocked to hear him. John Thornton (1720-1790) was a merchant banker and Christian philanthropist. ... English Dissenters were dissenters from England who opposed State interference in religious matters and founded their own communities over the 16th to 18th century period. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... Nonconformism means to refuse to conform to common standards, conventions, rules, traditions, laws or the status quo. ...


Some five years later, in 1772, Thomas Scott, later to become a biblical commentator and co-founder of the Church Missionary Society, took up the curacy of the neighbouring parishes of Stoke Goldington and Weston Underwood. Newton was instrumental in converting Scott from a cynical 'career priest' to a true believer, a conversion Scott related in his spiritual autobiography The Force Of Truth (1779). Thomas Scott (1747-1821) is principally known for his best-selling work A Commentary On The Whole Bible, and as one of the founders of the Church Missionary Society. ... The Church Mission Society (formerly the Church Missionary Society) is a voluntary society working with the Anglican Church and other Protestant Christians around the world. ... Stoke Goldington is a village in the Borough of Milton Keynes, England. ... Weston Underwood is a village in the County of Milton Keynes, England. ...


In 1779 Newton was invited by the wealthy Christian merchant John Thornton to become Rector of St Mary Woolnoth, Lombard Street, London, where he officiated until his death. The church had been built by Nicholas Hawksmoor in 1727 in the fashionable Baroque style. Newton then became one of only two evangelical preachers in the capital, and he soon found himself gaining in popularity amongst the growing evangelical party. He was a strong supporter of evangelicalism in the Church of England, and was a friend of the dissenting clergy as well as of the ministry of his own church. John Thornton (1720-1790) was a merchant banker and Christian philanthropist. ... Exterior of St Mary Woolnoth St Mary Woolnoth is an Anglican church in the City of London, located on Lombard Street near the Bank of England. ... St Edmund the King, Lombard Street Lombard Street is a street in the City of London. ... The career of Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 - 25 March 1736) formed the brilliant middle link in Britains trio of great baroque architects. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens: dynamic figures spiral down around a void: draperies blow: a whirl of movement lit in a shaft of light, rendered in a free bravura handling of paint The Baroque was a style in art that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ...


Many young churchmen and others enquiring about their faith visited him and sought his advice, including such well-known social figures as the writer and philanthropist Hannah More and the young M.P., William Wilberforce, who had recently undergone a crisis of conscience and religious conversion experience as he was contemplating leaving politics. A philanthropist is someone who engages in philanthropy; that is, someone who donates his or her time, money, or reputation to a charitable cause. ... Hannah More (February 2, 1745 - September 7, 1833) was an English religious writer and philanthropist. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... William Wilberforce (August 24, 1759 – July 29, 1833) was a British politician, philanthropist and slavery abolitionist. ... François Chifflart (1825-1901), The Conscience (after Victor Hugo) Conscience is an ability or faculty or sense that leads to feelings of remorse when we do things that go against our moral values, or which informs our moral judgment before performing such an action. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ...


Abolitionist

John Newton has been called hypocritical by some modern writers for continuing to participate in the slave trade while holding strong Christian convictions. However, during his early years as a slave trader he did not consider himself to be a true Christian: 'I was greatly deficient in many respects...I cannot consider myself to have been a believer in the full sense of the word, until a considerable time later."[6] For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


It is true, after what he felt was his true conversion to Christianity, he continued working the slave routes for a few years, but he eventually came to repent. He later joined William Wilberforce in the campaign for abolition. In 1787 he wrote a tract supporting the campaign, Thoughts Upon the African Slave Trade. William Wilberforce (August 24, 1759 – July 29, 1833) was a British politician, philanthropist and slavery abolitionist. ... This article is about slavery. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Among his greatest contributions to history was encouraging William Wilberforce, a Member of Parliament for Hull, to stay in Parliament and "serve God where he was", rather than enter the ministry. Wilberforce heeded the ex-slaveship captain's advice, and spent the next twenty years successfully working for the abolition of the slave trade in the British Empire. William Wilberforce (August 24, 1759 – July 29, 1833) was a British politician, philanthropist and slavery abolitionist. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ...


Writer and hymnist

In 1767 William Cowper, the poet, moved to Olney. He worshipped in the church, and collaborated with Newton on producing a volume of hymns, which was eventually published as Olney Hymns in 1779. This work was to have a great influence on English hymnology. The volume included Newton's well -known hymns "Glorious Things of Thee are Spoken", "How Sweet the Name of Jesus Sounds!", "Come, My Soul, Thy Suit Prepare", "Approach, My Soul, the Mercy-seat", and "Faith's Review and Expectation" which became to be known by its opening phrase, "Amazing Grace". Portrait of William Cowper attributed to Romney. ... The Olney Hymns is a famous collection of hymns written by John Newton, William Cowper, and other hymnodists. ... For other uses, see Amazing Grace (disambiguation). ...


Many of Newton's (as well as Cowper's) hymns are preserved in the Sacred Harp. Sacred Harp singing is a tradition of sacred choral music that took root in the Southern region of the United States. ...


Commemoration

  • The town of Newton, Sierra Leone is named after John Newton. To this day there is a philanthropic link between John Newton's church of Olney and Newton, Sierra Leone.
  • Olney has a museum to commemorate its most famous son.

The Gospel Music Association (GMA) was founded in 1964 for the purpose of supporting and promoting the development of all forms of Gospel music. ... The Gospel Music Hall of Fame, created in 1971 by the Gospel Music Association, is a Hall of Fame dedicated exclusively to recognizing meaningful contributions by individuals in all forms of gospel music. ...

Portrayals in literature, movies and other media

  • Newton is portrayed by actor John Castle in the 1975 British television miniseries "The Fight Against Slavery."
  • Caryl Phillips's novel Crossing the River (1993) includes nearly verbatim excerpts from Newton's books.
  • The 2006 film The Amazing Grace, by Nigerian director/writer/producer Jeta Amata, provides a refreshing and creative African perspective on the familiar Amazing Grace theme. Nigerian actors Joke Silva, Mbong Odungide, and Fred Amata (brother of the director) portray Africans who are captured and wrested away from their homeland by slave traders. English actor Nick Moran portrays John Newton.

John Castle (born 14 January 1940 in Croydon, Surrey, England) is an actor. ... Caryl Phillips (born 13 March 1958) is a British writer with a Caribbean background, best known as a novelist. ... Albert Finney (born May 9, 1936 in Salford, Lancashire, England) is a five-time Academy Award-nominated English actor of Irish descent. ... Amazing Grace is a 2006 film directed by Michael Apted about the campaign against the slave trade in 18th century Britain, led by famous abolitionist William Wilberforce, who was responsible for steering anti-slave trade legislation through the British parliament. ... The slave trade is almost as old as civilisation itself. ... Nicholas James Moran, better known as Nick Moran (born 23 December 1969), is a British actor, writer and producer. ... The York Theatre Royal is a theatre in St. ... Riding Lights is a British independent theatre company who have been touring shows nationally and internationally since 1977. ... Trafalgar Studios is a West End theatre in Whitehall in the City of Westminster. ... Roger Alborough: British actor (50s), experienced in thought provoking drama, comedy and West End musicals. ... Olaudah Equiano Olaudah Equiano (c. ...

References

  1. ^ The Cowper and Newton Museum
  2. ^ [www.newcreation.org.au/books/pdf/285_JohnNewton.pdf]
  3. ^ [www.newcreation.org.au/books/pdf/285_JohnNewton.pdf]
  4. ^ The Rev. John Newton
  5. ^ John Newton. Out of the Depths. Ed. Dennis Hillman. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2003. 84.
  6. ^ John Newton. Out of the Depths. Ed. Dennis Hillman. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2003. 84.

Bibliography

  • Aitken, Jonathan, John Newton: From Disgrace to Amazing Grace (Crossway Books, 2007).
  • Bennett, H.L. John Newton in Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: University Press, 1894)
  • Hindmarsh, D. Bruce. John Newton in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: University Press, 2004)
  • Hochschild, Adam. Bury the Chains, The British Struggle to Abolish Slavery (Basingstoke: Pan Macmillan, 2005)
  • Turner, Steve, "Amazing Grace: The Story of America's Most Beloved Song" (New York: Ecco/HarperCollins, 2002)
  • Rediker, Marcus, The Slave Ship: A Human History (Viking)

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
John Newton: The Tough Roots of His Habitual Tenderness :: Desiring God Christian Resource Library (7943 words)
John Newton was born July 24, 1725 in London to a godly mother and an irreligious, sea-faring father.
Newton wrote in his Narrative that he was in school only two of all his growing-up years, from ages 8 to 10, at a boarding school in Stratford.
Newton wrote to her in a letter dated July, 1764, "Things which abate the comfort and alacrity of our Christian profession are rather impediments than properly sinful, and will not be imputed to us by him who knows our frame, and remembers that we are but dust.
The John Newton Project (496 words)
"The John Newton Project's web launch of the correspondence of John Newton and William Wilberforce is very special event indeed.
drawing from John Newton's previously unpublished sermon notes
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