FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > John Napier
John Napier

John Napier (1550-1617)
Born 1550
Merchiston Tower, Edinburgh, Scotland
Died 4 April 1617
Edinburgh, Scotland
Residence Scotland
Nationality Scottish
Fields Mathematician
Alma mater St Andrews University
Known for Logarithms
Napier's bones
Decimal notation
Influences Henry Briggs
Religious stance Protestant
For other people with the same name, see John Napier (disambiguation).

John Napier of Merchistoun (15504 April 1617) - also signed as Neper, Nepair - named Marvellous Merchiston, was a Scottish mathematician, physicist, astronomer/astrologer and 8th Laird of Merchistoun, son of Sir Archibald Napier of Merchiston. He is most remembered as the inventor of logarithms and Napier's bones, and for popularizing the use of the decimal point. Napier's birth place, Merchiston Tower, Edinburgh, Scotland, is now part of Napier University. After dying of gout, Napier was buried in St Cuthbert's Church, Edinburgh. Painting of John Napier This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... Merchiston Tower as it appeared in 1829, showing the addition to the front made by the Merchiston Castle School, which occupied it at that time. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... University of St Andrews The University of St Andrews was founded between 1410-1413 and is the oldest university in Scotland and the third oldest in the United Kingdom. ... Look up logarithm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Napiers bones are an abacus invented by John Napier for calculation of products and quotients of numbers. ... The decimal separator is used to mark the boundary between the integer and the fractional parts of a decimal numeral. ... Henry Briggs (February 1556 - January 26, 1630) was an English mathematician notable for changing Napiers logarithms into common/Briggesian logarithms He was born at Warley Wood, near Halifax, in Yorkshire Enland. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... John Napier is the name of: John Napier (1550–1617) was a Scottish mathematician, physicist and astronomer. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... This article is about the country. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Galileo is often referred to as the Father of Modern Astronomy. ... An astrologer practices one or more forms of astrology. ... A lord is a male who has power and authority. ... Look up logarithm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Napiers bones are an abacus invented by John Napier for calculation of products and quotients of numbers. ... The decimal separator is used to mark the boundary between the integer and the fractional parts of a decimal numeral. ... Merchiston Tower as it appeared in 1829, showing the addition to the front made by the Merchiston Castle School, which occupied it at that time. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Napier University is a university in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Advances in mathematics

Napier is relatively most-known inside mathematical and engineering circles, where he made what is undoubtedly a key advance in the use of mathematics. Logarithms made calculations by hand much easier and quicker, and thereby opened the way to many later scientific advances. His work, Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio, contained fifty-seven pages of explanatory matter and ninety pages of tables, which facilitated the furtherment of astronomy, dynamics, physics, and astrology. He also invented Napier's bones, a multiplication tool using a set of numbered rods. In mathematics, if two variables of bn = x are known, the third can be found. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... In physics, dynamics is the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the effects of forces on the motion of objects. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Napiers bones are an abacus invented by John Napier for calculation of products and quotients of numbers. ...


Theology

Napier used some of his mathematical talents for theology, as he used the Book of Revelation to predict the Apocalypse, in A Plaine Discovery of the Whole Revelation of St. John, which he regarded as his most important work. Napier believed that the end of the world would occur in 1688 or 1700. He is also sometimes claimed to have been a necromancer; however, it was common for scientifically talented people of the period to be accused of such things without basis. Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the general subject of necromancy. ...


Astrology and the Occult

John Napier
John Napier

In addition to his mathematical and religious interests, Napier was commonly believed to be a magician, and is thought to have dabbled in alchemy and necromancy. It was said that he would travel about with a black spider in a small box, and that his black rooster was his familiar spirit. [1] [2] Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... For other uses, see Occult (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links John_Napier. ... Image File history File links John_Napier. ... “Familiar” redirects here. ...


Napier was able to use his black rooster to tell which of his servants had been stealing from his home. He would shut the suspects in a room with the rooster one at a time and told them to stroke it and it would then tell Napier who had done it. In actual fact what would happen is that he would cover the rooster in charcoal and the servants who were innocent would have no problem stroking it but the guilty would pretend he had and when Napier examined their hands, the one with the clean hands was guilty. [3] For other uses, see Rooster (disambiguation). ... Servant has a number of meaning: A servant is another word for domestic worker, a person who is hired to provide regular household or other duties, and receives compensation. ...


Another occasion which may have contributed to his reputation as a sorcerer was one involving a neighbor, whose pigeons were found to be eating Napier's grain. Napier warned his neighbor that he intended to keep any of the pigeons that he found on his property. The next day, it is said, Napier was witnessed scooping up the passive pigeons and putting them in a sack. In fact, he had sown peas soaked in brandy, which the pigeons then ate, making themselves too inebriated to fly. [4]


Also of note is that a contract still exists between John Napier and one Robert Logan of Restalrig to search Fast Castle (by means of magic) for treasure allegedly hidden there, and wherein it is stated that Napier should Fast Castle ,(55°9312N,2°2224W),(Grid reference -NT861710) is the ruined remains of coastal fortress in Berwickshire, Scotland. ...

"...do his utmost diligence to search and seek out, and by all craft and ingine to find out the same, or make it sure that no such thing has been there."[5]

Eponyms

An alternative unit to the decibel used in electrical engineering, the neper, is named after John Napier, as is Napier University in Edinburgh. For other uses, see Decibel (disambiguation). ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... A neper (Symbol: Np) is a unit of ratio. ... Napier University is a university in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Neper crater, on the Moon, is also named after him,[1] as was a 1992 asteroid, 7096 Napier. Neper is an old lunar impact crater located near the eastern lunar limb. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... 7096 Napier is a Mars-crossing asteroid named after John Napier, the Scottish mathematician. ...


List of works

  • (1593) A Plaine Discovery of the Whole Revelation of St. John.
  • (1614) Mirifici logarithmorum canonis descriptio (a translation into English by Edward Wright was published in 1616).
  • (1617) Rhabdologia (published posthumously).
  • (1619) Mirifici logarithmorum canonis constructio (written before the 'Descriptio', but published posthumously by his son Robert)

Posthumous means after death. ...

See also

This is a list of universities named after people. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://news.scotsman.com/scitech.cfm?id=523542005 Scotsman article about John Napier
  2. ^ http://heritage.scotsman.com/myths.cfm?id=41962005 Scotsman article specifically about Napier's interest in the occult
  3. ^ http://www.johnnapier.com/john_napier_and_the_devil.htm John Napier and the Devil
  4. ^ http://www.twinfield.net/teachers/buret/documents/biographies/Napier.pdf A Biography of John Napier
  5. ^ http://www.siol-nan-gaidheal.com/manuscripts/3/LXXV-3.htm Scans of the original charter and a later typed translation

References

  • O'Connor, John J; Edmund F. Robertson "John Napier". MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.  
  • Diploudis, Alexandros. Undusting Napier's Bones. Heriot-Watt University, 1997.
  • "John Napier." Math & Mathematicians: The History of Math Discoveries around the World. 2 vols. U*X*L, 1999.
  • John Napier. The History of Computing Project.
  • John Napier--Short biography and translation of work on logarithms
  • Johnston, Ian. Scots genius who paved way for Newton's discoveries. The Scotsman, May 14, 2005.
  • Intro to Spherical Trig. Includes discussion of The Napier circle and Napier's rules
  • EEBO (Early English Books Online) has electronic copies of some of his work, in facsimilies of editions of Napier's time (subscription or Athens login required).
Persondata
NAME Napier, John
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Scottish mathematician, physicist, astronomer/astrologer and 8th Laird of Merchistoun
DATE OF BIRTH 1550
PLACE OF BIRTH Merchiston Castle, Edinburgh, Scotland
DATE OF DEATH 4 April 1617
PLACE OF DEATH
The MacTutor history of mathematics archive is a website hosted by University of St Andrews in Scotland. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... Merchiston Tower as it appeared in 1829, showing the addition to the front made by the Merchiston Castle School, which occupied it at that time. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ...

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m