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Encyclopedia > John Muir
John Muir

John Muir worked to preserve wilderness in America.
Born April 21, 1838(1838-04-21)
Dunbar, East Lothian, Scotland
Died December 24, 1914 (aged 76)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.
Occupation engineer, naturalist, writer
Spouse Louisa Wanda Strentzel
Children Wanda Muir Hanna (March 25, 1881–July 29, 1942) and Helen Muir Funk (January 23, 1886–June 7, 1964)
Parents Daniel Muir and Ann Gilrye
John Muir appears on the California quarter
John Muir appears on the California quarter

John Muir (April 21, 1838December 24, 1914) was one of the first modern preservationists. His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, and wildlife, especially in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, were read by millions and are still popular today. His direct activism helped to save the Yosemite Valley and other wilderness areas. The Sierra Club, which he founded, is now one of the most important conservation organizations in the United States. His writings and philosophy strongly influenced the formation of the modern environmental movement. John Muir can refer to: John Muir (1838–1914), Scottish-born American environmentalist John Muir, South African (1874-1947) medical doctor, naturalist and cultural historian John Muir (indologist) (1810–1882), Sanskrit expert John Muir (Liberal politician) (1872–1941), British Liberal Member of Parliament 1923–1924 John William Muir (1879–1931... Image File history File links John_Muir_Cane. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about Dunbar in Scotland. ... East Lothian (Lodainn an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council areas in Scotland, and a lieutenancy Area. ... This article is about the country. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Download high resolution version (1167x1189, 158 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1167x1189, 158 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Obverse of redesigned quarter The 50 State Quarters program is the release of a series of commemorative coins by the United States Mint. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A preservationist generally refers to one who wishes to preserve a historic structure from demolition or degradation. ... For other uses, see Essay (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the mountain range in the Western United States. ... Yosemite Valley with Half Dome in the distance. ... For other uses, see Wilderness (disambiguation). ... The Sierra Club is an American environmental organization founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. ... The environmental movement (a term that sometimes includes the conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement. ...

Contents

Biography

Muir was born in Dunbar, East Lothian, Scotland to Daniel Muir and Ann Gilrye. He was one of eight children: Margaret, Sarah, David, Daniel, Ann and Mary (twins), and the American-born Joanna. In his autobiography, he described his boyhood pursuits, fighting (either by re-enacting romantic battles of Scottish history or just scrapping on the playground) and hunting for birds nests (ostensibly to one-up his fellows as they compared notes on who knew where the most were located). Such pursuits would later prove formative to Muir's adult character. This article is about Dunbar in Scotland. ... East Lothian (Lodainn an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council areas in Scotland, and a lieutenancy Area. ... This article is about the country. ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ...

Entrance to Fountain Lake Farm near Portage, Wisconsin
Entrance to Fountain Lake Farm near Portage, Wisconsin

Muir immigrated to the United States in 1849, when his family started a farm near Portage, Wisconsin called Fountain Lake Farm. He attended the University of Wisconsin-Madison for several years. It was there, under a towering black locust tree beside North Hall, that Muir took his first botany lesson. A fellow student plucked a flower from the tree and used it to explain how the grand locust is a member of the pea family, related to the straggling pea plant. Fifty years later, the naturalist Muir described the day in his autobiography. "This fine lesson charmed me and sent me flying to the woods and meadows in wild enthusiasm," Muir wrote. But instead of graduating from a school built by the hand of man, Muir opted to enroll in the "university of the wilderness" and thus walked a thousand miles from Indiana to Florida after spending most of the years 1866 and 1867 working as an industrial engineer in Indianapolis, where a factory accident almost cost him his eyesight. He had planned to continue on to South America, but was stricken by malaria and went to California instead. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 793 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John Muir Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 793 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): John Muir Metadata This file contains... Portage, commonly referred to as Where the North Begins, is a city in Columbia County, Wisconsin, United States. ... Portage, commonly referred to as Where the North Begins, is a city in Columbia County, Wisconsin, United States. ... University of Wisconsin redirects here. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Indianapolis redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...

Yosemite Valley from Inspiration Point

Arriving in San Francisco in March 1868, Muir immediately left for a place he had only read about called Yosemite. After seeing Yosemite Valley for the first time he was captivated, and wrote, "No temple made with hands can compare with Yosemite," and "[Yosemite is] the grandest of all special temples of Nature." Image taken in May 2002 by Daniel Mayer. ... Image taken in May 2002 by Daniel Mayer. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Yosemite Valley with Half Dome in the distance. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ...


After his initial eight-day visit, he returned to the Sierra foothills and became a ferry operator, sheepherder and bronco buster. In May 1869 a rancher named Pat Delaney offered Muir a summer job in the mountains to accompany and watch over Delaney's sheep and sheepherder. Muir enthusiastically accepted the offer and spent that summer with the sheep in the Yosemite area. That summer Muir climbed Cathedral Peak, Mount Dana and hiked the old Indian trail down Bloody Canyon to Mono Lake. During this time, he started to create theories about how the area was developed and how its ecosystem functioned. This article is about the mountain range in the Western United States. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... Cathedral Peak is the crowning peak of the Cathedral Range, a mountain range in the south-central portion of Yosemite National Park in Tuolumne County, California. ... Mount Dana is a mountain on the eastern edge of Yosemite National Park and is the second highest peak within the park after Mount Lyell. ... Mono Lake is an alkaline and hypersaline lake in California, United States that is a critical nesting habitat for several bird species and is one of the most productive ecosystems in North America[citation needed]. // Satellite photo of Mono Lake Mono Craters to the right of the image are rhyolitic...


Now more enthusiastic about the area than before, Muir secured a job operating a sawmill in the Yosemite Valley under the supervision of innkeeper James Hutchings. A natural born inventor, Muir designed a water-powered mill to cut wind-felled trees and he built a small cabin for himself along Yosemite Creek. For the 1922 film starring Oliver Hardy, see The Sawmill. ... Watermill of Braine-le-Château, Belgium (12th century) A watermill is a structure that uses a water wheel or turbine to drive a mechanical process such as flour or lumber production, or metal shaping (rolling, grinding or wire drawing). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... For other uses, see Log cabin (disambiguation). ... Yosemite Creek, located in northern area of Yosemite National Park along Tioga Road (HWY 120), is a first-come first-served campground outside of Yosemite Valley. ...


Pursuit of his love of science, especially geology, often occupied his free time and he soon became convinced that glaciers had sculpted many of the features of the valley and surrounding area. This notion was in stark contradiction to the accepted theory of the day, promulgated by Josiah Whitney (head of the California Geological Survey), which attributed the formation of the valley to a catastrophic earthquake. As Muir's ideas spread, Whitney would try to discredit Muir by branding him as an amateur and even an ignoramus. The premier geologist of the day, Louis Agassiz, however, saw merit in Muir's ideas, and lauded him as "the first man who has any adequate conception of glacial action." Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... Portrait of Josiah Whitney by Silas Selleck, 1863 Josiah Dwight Whitney (November 23, 1819-August 15, 1896) was a professor of geology at Harvard University (from 1865), and was chief of the California Geological Survey (1860-1874). ... Although it was not until 1880 that the California State Mining Bureau, predecessor to the California Geological Survey, was established, the roots of Californias state geological survey date to an earlier time. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Look up amateur in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Louis Agassiz After the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Stanford President David Starr Jordan wrote, Somebody—Dr. Angell, perhaps—remarked that Agassiz was great in the abstract but not in the concrete. ...


In 1871 Muir discovered an active alpine glacier below Merced Peak, which further helped his theories to gain acceptance. He was also a highly productive writer and had many of his accounts and papers published as far away as New York. Also that year, one of Muir's heroes, Ralph Waldo Emerson, arrived in Yosemite and sought Muir out. Muir's former professor at the University of Wisconsin, Ezra Carr, and Carr's wife Jeanne encouraged Muir to publish his ideas. They also introduced Muir to notables such as Emerson, as well as many leading scientists such as Louis Agassiz, John Tyndall, John Torrey, Clinton Hart Merriam, and Joseph LeConte. This article is about the state. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... Louis Agassiz After the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Stanford President David Starr Jordan wrote, Somebody—Dr. Angell, perhaps—remarked that Agassiz was great in the abstract but not in the concrete. ... John Tyndall. ... John Torrey (August 15, 1796 - March 10, 1873) was an American botanist. ... Clinton Hart Merriam (December 5, 1855-March 19, 1942) was an American zoologist and ornithologist. ... Joseph LeConte Joseph Le Conte (February 26, 1823 - June 6, 1901) was an American geologist. ...

A large earthquake centered near Lone Pine, California in Owens Valley (see 1872 Lone Pine earthquake) was felt very strongly in Yosemite Valley in March 1872. The quake woke Muir in the early morning and he ran out of his cabin "both glad and frightened," exclaiming, "A noble earthquake!" Other valley settlers, who still adhered to Whitney's ideas, feared that the quake was a prelude to a cataclysmic deepening of the valley. Muir had no such fear and promptly made a moonlit survey of new talus piles created by earthquake-triggered rockslides. This event led more people to believe in Muir's ideas about the formation of the valley. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... John Muirs home in Martinez, California. ... John Muirs home. ... The main street in Lone Pine retains a frontier look Lone Pine is a census-designated place (CDP) in Inyo County, California, United States. ... Owens Valley is the arid ranching valley of the Owens River in southeastern California in the United States. ... Lone Pine fault scarp The Great Lone Pine earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes to hit California in recorded history. ... Scree or detritic cone is a term given to broken rock that appears at the bottom of crags, mountain cliffs or valley shoulders. ...


In addition to his geologic studies, Muir also investigated the living Yosemite area. He made two field studies along the western flank of the Sierra of the distribution and ecology of isolated groves of Giant Sequoia in 1873 and 1874. In fact, in 1876 the American Association for the Advancement of Science published a paper Muir wrote about the trees' ecology and distribution. For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Binomial name Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ...


In 1880 Muir married Louisa Wanda Strentzel, whose parents owned a large ranch and fruit orchards in Martinez, California, a small town northeast of San Francisco. For the next ten years he devoted himself to managing the family ranch, consisting of 2,600 acres (11 km²) of orchards and vineyards which became very successful. (When he died he left an estate of $250,000, worth more than $4 million dollars in 2005 terms (Worster). Their house and part of the ranch are now a National Historical Site.) During this time two daughters were born, Wanda and Helen. John Muirs home. ... John Muirs home in Martinez, California. ...


Muir's travels in the Northwest

In 1888 after seven years of managing the ranch his health began to suffer. With his wife's prompting he returned to the hills to recover his old self, climbing Mt Rainier and writing "Ascent of Mount Rainier".


Muir travelled with the party that landed on Wrangell Island on the USS Corwin and claimed that island for the United States in 1881. He documented this experience in his book The Cruise of the Corwin. This article is about the Alaskan island. ... Corwin may refer to: People: Franklin Corwin, a U.S. Representative from Illinois Jeff Corwin, a television show host on Animal Planet Jim Corwin, a physician running for congress in Maryland Moses Bledso Corwin, a U.S. Representative from Ohio Norman Corwin, an American writer and producer Thomas Corwin, a...

John Muir's home in 1972 (Robert E. Nylund)
John Muir's home in 1972 (Robert E. Nylund)

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 457 pixelsFull resolution (936 × 535 pixel, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author:Robert E. Nylund Source:Personal Photos I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 457 pixelsFull resolution (936 × 535 pixel, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author:Robert E. Nylund Source:Personal Photos I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

From studying to protecting

Preservation Efforts

Muir threw himself into his new role with great vigor. He envisioned the Yosemite area and the Sierras as pristine lands.[1] He saw the greatest threat to the Yosemite area and the Sierras to be livestock, especially domestic sheep (calling them "hoofed locusts"). In June 1889, the influential associate editor of Century magazine, Robert Underwood Johnson, camped with Muir in Tuolumne Meadows and saw firsthand the damage a large flock of sheep had done to the grassland. Johnson agreed to publish any article Muir wrote on the subject of excluding livestock from the Sierra high country. He also agreed to use his influence to introduce a bill to Congress that would make the Yosemite area into a national park, modeled after Yellowstone National Park. Robert Underwood Johnson (January 12, 1853 – October 14, 1937) was a U.S. writer and diplomat. ... Tuolumne Meadows, as viewed from Lembert Dome Tuolumne Meadows is a gentle, dome-studded meadowy section of the Tuolumne River, in the eastern section of Yosemite National Park. ... Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada A national park is a reserve of land, usually, but not always (see National Parks of England and Wales), declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ... “Yellowstone” redirects here. ...


A bill essentially following recommendations that Muir put forward in two Century articles ("The Treasure of the Yosemite" and "Features of the Proposed National Park", both published in 1890), was passed by Congress on September 30, 1890. To the dismay of Muir, however, the bill left Yosemite Valley in state control. With this partial victory under his belt, Muir helped form an environmental organization called the Sierra Club on May 28, 1892 and was elected as its first president (a position he held until his death 22 years later). In 1894 his first book, The Mountains of California, was published. is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... The Sierra Club is an American environmental organization founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Preservation vs Conservation

In July of 1896 Muir became good friends with another leader in the conservation movement, Gifford Pinchot. That friendship was ended late in the summer of 1897 when Pinchot released a statement to a Seattle newspaper supporting sheep grazing in forest reserves. Muir confronted Pinchot and demanded an explanation. When Pinchot reiterated his position Muir told him "I don't want any thing more to do with you." This philosophical divide soon expanded and split the conservationist movement into two camps: the preservationists, led by Muir, and Pinchot's camp, who co-opted the term "conservationist." Muir was deeply opposed to commercializing nature. The two men debated their positions in popular magazines as Outlook, Harper's Weekly, Atlantic Monthly, World's Work, and Century. Muir argued for the preservation of resources for their spiritual and uplifting values; Pinchot saw conservation as a means of intelligently managing the nation's resources. Both men opposed reckless exploitation of natural resources, including clear-cutting of forests. Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865 – October 4, 1946) was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905–1910) and the Republican Governor of Pennsylvania (1923–1927, 1931–1935). ...

Roosevelt and Muir
Roosevelt and Muir

In 1899, Muir accompanied railroad executive E. H. Harriman and other esteemed scientists on Harriman's famous exploratory voyage along the Alaska coast aboard the luxuriously refitted 250 foot (76 m) steamer called the George W. Elder. He would later rely on his friendship with Harriman to apply political pressure on Congress to pass conservation legislation. Download high resolution version (750x905, 110 KB)public domain photo from 1903 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (750x905, 110 KB)public domain photo from 1903 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Edward Henry Harriman (February 20, 1848 – September 9, 1909), better known as E. H. Harriman, was a wealthy railroad executive. ... The Harriman Alaska Expedition was organized by E. H. Harriman to explore the coastal waters and territory of Alaska in 1899. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ...


In 1903 President Theodore Roosevelt accompanied Muir on a visit to the park. Muir joined Roosevelt in Oakland, California for the train trip to Raymond. The presidential entourage then traveled by stagecoach into the park. While traveling to the park, Muir told the president about state mismanagement of the valley and rampant exploitation of the valley's resources. Even before they entered the park, he was able to convince Roosevelt that the best way to protect the valley was through federal control and management. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... “Oakland” redirects here. ... Raymond, California is located approx. ... Stagecoach in Switzerland A stagecoach is a type of four-wheeled enclosed passenger and/or mail coach, strongly sprung and drawn by four horses, widely used before the introduction of railway transport. ...


After entering the park and seeing the magnificent splendor of the valley, the president asked Muir to show him the real Yosemite. Muir and Roosevelt set off largely by themselves and camped in the backcountry. While circling around a fire, the duo talked late into the night, slept in the brisk open air of Glacier Point and were dusted by a fresh snowfall in the morning - a night Roosevelt never would forget. Snow is a type of precipitation in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. ...


Muir then increased efforts by the Sierra Club to consolidate park management and was rewarded in 1905 when Congress transferred the Mariposa Grove and Yosemite Valley into the park. His wife Louisa died on 6 August 1905. The Sierra Club is an American environmental organization founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. ... Giant Sequoia in the Mariposa Grove, Yosemite Mariposa Grove is a sequoia grove located near Wawona, California in the southernmost part of Yosemite National Park, at 37°31′ N 119°36′ W. It is the largest grove of Giant Sequoias in the park, with several hundred mature examples...


Hetch Hetchy and the Legacy of John Muir

Pressure started to mount to dam the Tuolumne River for use as a water reservoir for San Francisco. The damming of Hetch Hetchy Valley was passionately opposed by Muir who called Hetch Hetchy a "second Yosemite." Muir, the Sierra Club and Robert Underwood Johnson fought against inundating the valley and Muir even wrote Roosevelt pleading for him to scuttle the project. After years of national debate that polarized the nation, Roosevelt's successor, Woodrow Wilson signed the dam bill into law on December 19, 1913. Muir felt a great loss from the destruction of the valley, his last major battle. The Tuolumne River is one of the major rivers draining the western slope Sierra Nevada mountains of California. ... The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It is one of 19 that supplies New York City with drinking water. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Hetch Hetchy Valley is a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in California. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


John Muir died in Los Angeles on December 24, 1914 of pneumonia[2] after a brief visit to his daughter Helen. Some, such as Steve Roper, a California climber, say he would like to think he died of a "broken heart".[3] is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nomad (left) and Roper from the December 10, 2004 strip Steve Roper and Mike Nomad was an American adventure comic strip which ran under various titles from November 1936 to December 26, 2004. ...


John Muir's legacy is carried on by his great-grandson, Michael Muir, who founded a group called Access Adventure, to help people with disabilities experience the outdoors in their wheelchairs. [4]


Honors

Two John Muir Trails (in California and Tennessee), the John Muir Wilderness, Mount Muir just off the John Muir Trail, the Muir Woods National Monument, John Muir High School, John Muir College (a residential college of the University of California, San Diego), John Muir Country Park in Dunbar and the John Muir Way in East Lothian are named in his honor, as is the asteroid 128523 Johnmuir. An image of John Muir, with the California Condor and Half Dome, appears on the California state quarter which was released in 2005. A quote of his appears on the reverse side of the Indianapolis Prize Lilly Medal for conservation. John Muir Trail is a long-distance trail in California, running 211 miles (340 km) from the Yosemite Valley to Mount Whitney. ... The John Muir National Recreation Trail (#152) is a 20. ... Typical terrain in the John Muir Wilderness The John Muir Wilderness is a wilderness area that extends along the crest of the Sierra Nevada of California, USA for approximately 100 miles (150 km), in the Inyo and Sierra National Forests. ... Muir Woods National Monument is a unit of the National Park Service in Marin County, California, 12 miles (19 km) north of San Francisco. ... John Muir High School is a four year comprehensive secondary school located in Pasadena, California. ... John Muir College is one of the six undergraduate colleges at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). ... The University of California, San Diego (popularly known as UCSD, or sometimes UC San Diego) is a public, coeducational research university located in La Jolla, a seaside resort community of San Diego, California. ... View from the park looking north-west. ... The John Muir Way is a continuous coastal path project currently in development by the local authority, East Lothian Council, Scotland, UK. It is named in honour of the American 19th century conservationist, John Muir, who was born at Dunbar, East Lothian in 1838. ... 253 Mathilde, a C-type asteroid. ... Binomial name (Shaw, 1797) Synonyms Genus-level: Antillovultur Arredondo, 1976 Pseudogryphus Species-level: Vultur californianus Shaw, 1797 Gymnogyps amplus L. H. Miller, 1911 For other uses, see condor (disambiguation). ... Half Dome is a granite dome in Yosemite National Park, located at the eastern end of Yosemite Valley — possibly Yosemites most familiar sight. ... Obverse of redesigned quarter The 50 State Quarters program is the release of a series of commemorative coins by the United States Mint. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


On December 6, 2006, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted John Muir into the California Hall of Fame located at The California Museum for History, Women, and the Arts. Conceived by First Lady Maria Shriver, the California Hall of Fame was established with The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts to honor legendary individuals and families who embody California’s innovative spirit and have made their mark on history. ... The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts – home of the California Hall of Fame – is housed in the State Archives Building in Sacramento, one block from the State Capitol. ...


Criticism

Muir has been criticized for his views of wilderness as pure, according to Carolyn Merchant "John Muir envisioned national parks as pristine wilderness, without domesticated animals or Indians. In My First Summer in the Sierra (1911), a saga of his Sierra Nevada travels in 1868, Muir wrote disparagingly of the Indians he encountered there, equating Indians with unclean animals that did not belong in the wilderness."[5] His travels in Canada after President Lincoln ordered a draft of half a million men has been seen by historian Roderick Nash as not simply a journeys into wilderness but a trip to avoid the draft writing: "Muir's first encounter with the idea that nature had rights came as a consequence of draft-dodging. ... Muir, who was twenty-six and single, felt certain he would be called, and he apparently had no interest in the fight to save the Union or free the slaves."[5] Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Quotes

"Most people are on the world, not in it; have no conscious sympathy or relationship to anything about them, undiffused, separate, and rigidly alone like marbles of polished stone, touching but separate."[6]
"Why should man value himself as more than a small part of the one great unit of creation? And what creature of all that the Lord has taken the pains to make is not essential to the completeness of that unit - the cosmos? The universe would be incomplete without man; but it would also be incomplete without the smallest transmicroscopic creature that dwells beyond our conceitful eyes and knowledge."[7]
"This grand show is eternal. It is always sunrise somewhere; the dew is never all dried at once; a shower is forever falling; vapor ever rising. Eternal sunrise, eternal sunset, eternal dawn and gloaming, on seas and continents and islands, each in its turn, as the round earth rolls."[6]
"In every walk with nature one receives far more than he seeks."[8]
"When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe."[9]

References

  1. ^ John Muir (September, 1890). "Features of the Proposed Yosemite National Park". The Century Magazine (No. 5). Retrieved on 2007-04-08. 
  2. ^ On this Day. Obituary: John Muir. Retrieved on 2007-04-23.
  3. ^ Steve Roper. John Muir's Yosemite. Retrieved on 2007-04-23.
  4. ^ Muir Heritage Land Trust. Retrieved on 2007-04-23.
  5. ^ a b Carolyn Merchant. Shades of Darkness: Race and Environmental History. Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
  6. ^ a b John Muir (1938). John of the Mountains. 
  7. ^ John Muir (1916). A Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf.
  8. ^ John Muir (1877). Sequoia National Park. 
  9. ^ John Muir (1911). My First Summer in the Sierra. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Carolyn Merchant (born in Rochester, New York, USA) is an American ecofeminist philosopher most famous for her theory on the Death of Nature, whereby she identifies the Enlightenment as the period when science began to atomise, objectify and dissect nature, foretelling its eventual conception as inert. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ...

Primary sources

Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... The logo of Internet Archive The Internet Archive (IA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to maintaining an on-line library and archive of Web and multimedia resources. ... Not to be confused with Pacific University. ...

Secondary sources

  • Ehrlich, Gretel (2000). John Muir: Nature's Visionary. National Geographic. ISBN 0-7922-7954-9. 
  • Fox, Stephen (1981). John Muir and His Legacy: The American Conservation Movement. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-29110-2. 
  • Meyer, John M. (1997). "Gifford Pinchot, John Muir, and the Boundaries of Politics in American Thought". Polity 30 (2): 267-284. ISSN 0032-3497. 
  • Miller, Char (2001). Gifford Pinchot and the Making of Modern Environmentalism. Island Press. ISBN 1-55963-822-2. 
  • Smith, Michael B. (June 1998). "The Value of a Tree: Public Debates of John Muir and Gifford Pinchot". The Historian 60 (4): 757-778. ISSN 0018-2370. 
  • Turner, Fredrick (1985). Rediscovering America, John Muir in His Time and Ours. Viking Press. ISBN 0-87156-704-0. 
  • Williams, Dennis (2002). God's Wilds: John Muir's Vision of Nature. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 1-58544-143-0. 
  • Wolfe, Linnie Marsh (1945). Son of the Wilderness: The Life of John Muir. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-18634-2. 
  • Worster, Donald (January 2005). "John Muir and the Modern Passion for Nature". Environmental History 10(1): 8-19. 
  • Wuerthner, George (1994). Yosemite: A Visitor's Companion. Stackpole Books, 25-37. ISBN 0-8117-2598-7. 

The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Polity may refer to one of the following. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Viking Press was founded on March 1, 1925, in New York City, by Harold K. Guinzburg and George S. Oppenheim. ... The University of Wisconsin Press (or UW Press), founded in 1936, is a university press that is part of the Graduate School of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. ...

See also

Other books

  • Sachs, Aaron (2006). The Humboldt Current: Nineteenth-Century Exploration and the Roots of American Environmentalism. Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-03775-3.  Muir is one of four people the author focuses on who were influenced by Alexander von Humboldt.

An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
John Muir Exhibit (706 words)
The John Muir Exhibit features the life and legacy of John Muir: naturalist, writer, conservationist, and founder of the Sierra Club.
In 1892, John Muir and other supporters formed the Sierra Club "to make the mountains glad." John Muir was the Club's first president, an office he held until his death in 1914.
On April 15, 2000, John Muir's vision was behind the Presidential Proclamation of Giant Sequoia National Monument, a process which John Muir was instrumental in starting nearly 100 years ago by urging President Theodore Roosevelt to protect America's treasures under the authority of the Antiquities Act of 1906.
KtB - The Happiness of Alligators (1369 words)
Muir could not accept the explanations of his Calvinist father or most of the men of his time: that these fiendish animals resided on man's green earth because a certain woman took a bite of a certain fruit and doomed humanity to a life outside of the Garden.
Daniel Muir, John's father, was a human priest in spirit and a driven farmer in body.
Muir's thoughts are interrupted by the sound of long-winged gulls, pelicans and other marsh birds taking flight, startled from their positions in the wet sand of low tide, rising up into the air in unison.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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