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Encyclopedia > John Milton
John Milton

Born December 9, 1608(1608-12-09)
Bread Street, Cheapside, London, England
Died November 8, 1674 (aged 65)
Bunhill, London, England
Occupation Poet, prose polemicist, civil servant
Notable work(s) Paradise Lost

John Milton (December 9, 1608November 8, 1674) was an English poet, prose polemicist and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England. Most famed for his epic poem Paradise Lost, Milton is celebrated as well for his treatise condemning censorship, Areopagitica. Long considered the supreme English poet, Milton experienced a dip in popularity after attacks by T. S. Eliot and F. R. Leavis in the mid 20th century; but with multiple societies and scholarly journals devoted to his study, Milton's reputation remains as strong as ever in the 21st century. John Milton is a common personal name in English-speaking countries. ... John Milton - Project Gutenberg eText 13619 - http://www. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about work. ... For other uses, see Paradise Lost (disambiguation). ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... Polemic is the art or practice of disputation or controversy, as in religious, philosophical, or political matters. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ... For other uses, see Paradise Lost (disambiguation). ... First page of the 1644 edition of Areopagitica Areopagitica: A speech of Mr John Milton for the liberty of unlicensed printing to the Parliament of England is a prose tract or polemic by John Milton, published November 23, 1644, at the height of the English Civil War. ... For other persons named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot (disambiguation). ... Frank Raymond Leavis (July 14, 1895 - April 14, 1978) was an influential British literary critic of the early-to-mid-twentieth century. ...


Very soon after his death (and continuing to the present day) Milton became the subject of partisan biographies, confirming T. S. Eliot's belief that "of no other poet is it so difficult to consider the poetry simply as poetry, without our theological and political dispositions... making unlawful entry".[1] Milton's radical, republican politics and heretical religious views, coupled with the perceived artificiality of his complicated Latinate verse, alienated Eliot and other readers; yet by dint of the overriding influence of his poetry and personality on subsequent generations(particularly the Romantic movement) the man whom Samuel Johnson disparaged as "an acrimonious and surly republican" must be counted one of the most significant writers and thinkers of all time. Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Heresy, as a blanket term, describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox. ... Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Biography

The phases of Milton's life closely parallel the major historical divisions of Stuart Britain - the Caroline ancien régime, the Commonwealth of England and the Restoration - and it is important to situate his poetry and politics historically in order to see how both spring from the philosophical and religious beliefs Milton developed during the English Revolution.[2] At his death in 1674, blind, impoverished and yet unrepentant for his political choices, Milton had attained Europe-wide notoriety for his radical political and religious beliefs. Especially after the Glorious Revolution, Paradise Lost and his political writings would bring him lasting fame as the greatest poet of the sublime and an unalloyed champion of liberty. The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... For other uses, see Restoration. ... The English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651, specifically to the first (1642–1645) and second (1648–1649) civil wars between the supporters of Charles I of England and the supporters... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublimis (exalted)) is the quality of transcendent greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual or artistic. ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ...


Family life and childhood

John Milton's father, also named John Milton (1562 - 1647), moved to London around 1583 after being disinherited by his devout Catholic father, Richard Milton, for embracing Protestantism. In London, Milton senior married Sarah Jeffrey (1572 - 1637), the poet's mother, and found lasting financial success as a scrivener (a profession that combined the functions of solicitor, realtor, public notary and moneylender), where he lived and worked out of a house on Bread Street[3] in Cheapside. The elder Milton was noted for his skill as a musical composer, and this talent left Milton with a lifetime appreciation for music and friendship with musicians like Henry Lawes.[4] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Telling a problem to a public scrivener. ... This article is about the street in London. ... Henry Lawes (December 5, 1595 - October 21, 1662) was an English musician and composer. ...


After Milton was born on 9 December 1608, his father's prosperity provided his eldest son with private tutoring, and a place at St. Paul's School in London, where he began the study of Latin and Greek that would leave such an imprint on his poetry. The fledgling poet, whose first datable compositions are two psalms done at age 15 at Long Bennington, was remarkable for his work ethic: "When he was young", recalled Christopher, his younger brother, "he studied very hard and sat up very late, commonly till twelve or one o'clock at night". Milton was born on Bread Street, the same road where The Mermaid Tavern was located, where legend has it that Ben Jonson and other poets often caroused. is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... Bread Street is a ward of the City of London and is named from its principal street, which was antiently (anciently) the bread market; for by the records it appears that in 1302[1], the bakers of London were ordered to sell no bread at their houses but in the... The Mermaid Tavern was a tavern in London during the Elizabethan Era. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ...


Cambridge years

John Milton matriculated Christ's College, Cambridge, in 1625 and, in preparation for becoming an Anglican priest, stayed on to obtain his Master of Arts degree on 3 July 1632. At Cambridge Milton befriended Anglo-American dissident and theologian, Roger Williams. Milton tutored Williams in Hebrew in exchange for lessons in Dutch.[5] Though at Cambridge he developed a reputation for poetic skill and general erudition, Milton experienced alienation from his peers and university life as a whole. Watching his fellow students attempting comedy upon the college stage, he later observed that 'they thought themselves gallant men, and I thought them fools'.[6] The feeling it seems was mutual; Milton, due to his hair, which he wore long, and his general delicacy of manner, was known as the "Lady of Christ's", an epithet probably applied with some degree of scorn. At some point Milton was probably rusticated for quarrelling with his tutor, which reflects the general disdain in which he held the university curriculum, consisting of stilted formal debates on abstruse topics conducted in Latin. Yet his corpus is not devoid of "quips, and cranks, and jollities", notably his sixth prolusion and his jocular epitaphs on the death of Hobson, the driver of a coach between Cambridge and London. [1] While at Cambridge he wrote a number of his well-known shorter English poems, among them Ode on the Morning of Christ's Nativity, [2] his Epitaph on the admirable Dramatick Poet, W. Shakespeare, [3] his first poem to appear in print, L'Allegro [4] and Il Penseroso. [5] The matriculation ceremony at Oxford Matriculation refers to the formal process of entering a university, or of becoming eligible to enter by acquiring the required prior qualifications. ... College name Christ’s College Named after Jesus Christ Established 1505 Previously named God’s-house (1437-1505) Location St. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... In the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin, the degree of Master of Arts (MA) is awarded to Bachelors of Arts of those universities on application after seven years seniority as members of the university. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... For other persons named Roger Williams, see Roger Williams (disambiguation). ... Rustication is a term used at British universities, particularly Oxford University and Cambridge University, for a disciplinary action consisting of a temporary expulsion from the university. ... LAllegro by Thomas Cole LAllegro (1631) is a famous pastoral poem by John Milton. ... Il Penseroso is a famous pastoral poem by Milton, written in 1633. ...


Study, poetry and travel

Upon receiving his MA in 1632, Milton retired to his father’s country homes at Hammersmith and Horton and undertook six years of self-directed private study by reading both ancient and modern works of theology, philosophy, history, politics, literature and science, in preparation for his prospective poetical career. Milton’s intellectual development can be charted via entries in his commonplace book, now in the British Library. As a result of such intensive study, Milton is considered to be among the most learned of all English poets; in addition to his six years of private study, Milton had command of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, Spanish, and Italian from his school and undergraduate days; he also added Old English to his linguistic repertoire in the 1650s while researching his History of Britain, and probably acquired proficiency in Dutch soon after.[7] Hammersmith is an urban centre in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham in West London, England, approximately 5 miles (8km) west of Charing Cross on the north bank of the River Thames. ... John Milton (1608-1674). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... During the Renaissance (especially in England), commonplaces (or commonplace books) were for some people a popular way to compile knowledge, usually done by writing information into books. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ...


Milton continued to write poetry during this period of study: his masques Arcades[6] and Comus[7] were composed for noble patrons, and he contributed his pastoral elegy Lycidas[8] to a memorial collection for one of his Cambridge classmates in 1638. Drafts of these poems are preserved in Milton’s poetry notebook, known as the Trinity Manuscript because it is now kept at Trinity College, Cambridge. The masque was a form of festive courtly entertainment which flourished in 16th and early 17th century Europe, though it was developed earlier in Italy. ... Comus (also known as Comus: A masque and The Masque of Comus and The Masque at Ludlow) is a masque in celebration of chastity, written by John Milton and first presented on Michaelmas, 1634, before the Earl of Bridgewater at Ludlow Castle. ... For other uses, see Pastoral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Elegy (disambiguation). ... Lycidas is a major poem by John Milton, written in 1637 as a pastoral elegy, first appearing in a 1638 collection of elegies entitled Justa Edouardo King Naufrago dedicated to the memory of Edward King, a collegemate of Miltons at Cambridge who had been drowned when his ship sank... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street...


After completing his course of private study in early 1638, Milton embarked upon a tour of France and Italy in May of the same year that was cut short 13 months later by what he later termed ‘sad tidings of civil war in England.’[8] Moving quickly through France, where he met Hugo Grotius, Milton sailed to Genoa, and quickly took in Pisa before he arrived in Florence around June. Florence, Rome, Naples, and Venice were Milton’s primary stops on his lengthy Italian visit, during which his candor of manner and erudite neo-Latin poetry made him many friends in intellectual circles. Milton met a number of famous and influential people through these connections, ranging from the astronomer Galileo to the nobleman Giovanni Battista Manso, patron of Torquato Tasso, to Cardinal Francesco Barberini, nephew of Pope Urban VIII. After some time spent in Venice and other northern Italian cities, Milton returned to England in July via Switzerland and France. Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10 April 1583 – Rostock, 28 August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pisa (disambiguation). ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Francesco Barberini seniore (September 23, 1597 - December 10, 1679) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, a member of the powerful Barberini family. ... Pope Urban VIII (April 1568 – July 29, 1644), born Maffeo Barberini, was Pope from 1623 to 1644. ...


Overall, in Italy Milton rejoiced in discovering the intellectual community he had missed at Cambridge—he even altered his handwriting and pronunciation of Latin to make them more Italian. At the same time, his firsthand observation of what he viewed as the superstitious tyranny of Catholicism increased his hatred for absolutist confessional states. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Civil war, prose tracts, and marriage

Upon returning to England, where the Bishops' Wars suggested that armed conflict between King Charles and his parliamentary opponents was imminent, Milton put poetry aside and began to write anti-episcopal prose tracts in the service of the Puritan and Parliamentary cause. Milton’s first foray into polemics was Of Reformation touching Church Discipline in England (1641), followed by Of Prelatical Episcopacy, the two defences of Smectymnuus (an organization of Protestant divines named from their initials: the "TY" belonged to Milton's favorite teacher from St Paul's, Thomas Young), and The Reason of Church Government Urged against Prelaty. With frequent passages of real eloquence lighting up the rough controversial style of the period, and with a wide knowledge of ecclesiastical antiquity, he vigorously attacked the High-church party of the Church of England and their leader, William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury. The Bishops’ Wars—Bellum Episcopale—refers to two armed encounters between Charles I and the Scottish Covenanters in 1639 and 1640, which helped to set the stage for the English Civil War and the subsequent Wars of the Three Kingdoms // The Scottish Reformation in 1560 was intended to settle the... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ... Smectymnuus was the name of a pamphlet written in 1641. ... There have been several well-known people named Thomas Young, including: Thomas Young, 16th century archbishop of York Thomas Young, M.A., Master of Jesus College, Cambridge 1644-50 Thomas Young (1773-1829), scientist Thomas Young VC, the recipient of the Victoria Cross Thomas Young, the Baptist Evangelist from Piedmont... Archbishop William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...


Though supported by his father’s investments, at this time Milton also became a private schoolmaster, educating his nephews and other children of the well-to-do. This experience, and discussions with educational reformer Samuel Hartlib, led him to write in 1644 his short tract, Of Education, urging a reform of the national universities. Samuel Hartlieb (ca. ... The tractate Of Education was published in 1644, first appearing anonymously as a single eight-page quarto sheet (Ainsworth 6). ...


In June 1642, Milton took a mysterious trip into the countryside and returned with a 16-year-old bride, Mary Powell. A month later, finding life difficult with the severe 33-year-old schoolmaster and pamphleteer, Mary returned to her family. Because of the outbreak of the Civil War, she did not return until 1645; in the meantime her desertion prompted Milton, over the next three years, to publish a series of pamphlets arguing for the legality and morality of divorce. It was the hostile response accorded the divorce tracts that spurred Milton to write Areopagitica, his celebrated attack on censorship. In the midst of the excitement attending the possibility of establishing a new English government, Milton published his 1645 Poems—the only poetry of his to see print until Paradise Lost appeared in 1667. For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Miltons divorce tracts refer to the four interlinked polemical pamphlets--The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, The Judgment of Martin Bucer, Tetrachordon, and Colasterion--written by John Milton from 1643-45 arguing for the legitimacy for divorce on grounds of spousal incompatibility. ... First page of the 1644 edition of Areopagitica Areopagitica: A speech of Mr John Milton for the liberty of unlicensed printing to the Parliament of England is a prose tract or polemic by John Milton, published November 23, 1644, at the height of the English Civil War. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... Miltons 1645 Poems is a collection, divided into separate English and Latin sections, of the poets youthful poetry in a variety of genres, including such notable works as An Ode on the Morning of Christs Nativity, Comus, and Lycidas. ... For other uses, see Paradise Lost (disambiguation). ...


Secretary of Foreign Tongues

With the parliamentary victory in the Civil War, Milton used his pen in defence of the republican principles represented by the Commonwealth. The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates (1649) defended popular government and implicitly sanctioned the regicide; Milton’s political reputation got him appointed Secretary for Foreign Tongues by the Council of State in March 1649. Though Milton's main job description was to compose the English Republic's foreign correspondence in Latin, he also was called upon to produce propaganda for the regime and to serve as a censor. In October 1649 he published Eikonoklastes, an explicit defence of the regicide, in response to the Eikon Basilike, a phenomenal best-seller popularly attributed to Charles I that portrayed the King as an innocent Christian martyr. In The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, John Milton defends the right of people to execute a guilty sovereign. ... Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Regicide (disambiguation). ... The Eikon Basilike (Greek: Eικων Bασιλικη, the Royal Portrait), The Pourtrature of His Sacred Majestie in His Solitudes and Sufferings, was a purported spiritual autobiography attributed to King Charles I of England. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ...


A month after Milton had tried to break this powerful image of Charles I (the literal translation of Eikonklastes is 'the image breaker'), the exiled Charles II and his party published a defence of monarchy, Defensio Regia Pro Carolo Primo, written by one of Europe's most renowned orators and scholars, Claudius Salmasius. By January of the following year, Milton was ordered to write a defence of the English people by the Council of State. Given the European audience and the English Republic's desire to establish diplomatic and cultural legitimacy, Milton worked much slower than usual, as he drew upon the vast array of learning marshalled throughout his years of study to compose a suitably withering riposte. On 24 February 1652 Milton published his Latin defence of the English People, Pro Populo Anglicano Defensio, also known as the First Defence. Milton's pure Latin prose and evident learning, exemplified in the First Defence, quickly made him the toast of all Europe. In 1654, in response to a Royalist tract, Regii sanguinis clamor, that made many personal attacks on Milton, he completed a second defence of the English nation, Defensio secunda, which praised Oliver Cromwell, now Lord Protector, while exhorting him to remain true to the principles of the Revolution. Alexander More, to whom Milton wrongly attributed the Clamor, published an attack on Milton, in response to which Milton published the autobiographical Defensio pro se in 1655. In addition to these literary defences of the Commonwealth and his character, Milton continued to translate official correspondence into Latin. The probable onset of glaucoma finally resulted by 1654 in total blindness, forcing him to dictate his verse and prose to amanuenses, one of whom was the poet Andrew Marvell. Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... Claudius Salmasius is the Latin name of Claude Saumaise (April 15, 1588 - September 3, 1653), a French classical scholar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 6 - Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, and founded Cape Town. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the visual condition. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A secretary is a person who performs routine, administrative, or personal tasks for a superior. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


After bearing him four children—Anne, Mary, John, and Deborah—Milton’s wife, Mary, died on May 5, 1652 from complications following Deborah's birth on May 2. In June, John died at age 15 months; Milton’s daughters survived to adulthood, but he always had a strained relationship with them. On November 12, 1656, Milton remarried, this time to Katherine Woodcock. Her death on February 3, 1658, less than four months after giving birth to their daughter, Katherine, who also died, prompted one of Milton’s most moving sonnets.[9] is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 6 - Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, and founded Cape Town. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by...


Milton and the Restoration

Milton later in life
Milton later in life

Though Cromwell’s death in 1658 caused the English Republic to collapse into feuding military and political factions, Milton stubbornly clung to the beliefs which had originally inspired him to write for the Commonwealth. In 1659 he published A Treatise of Civil Power, attacking the concept of a state church (known as Erastianism), as well as Considerations touching the likeliest means to remove hirelings, denouncing corrupt practises in church governance. As the Republic disintegrated Milton wrote several proposals to retain parliamentary supremacy over the army: A Letter to a Friend, Concerning the Ruptures of the Commonwealth, written in October 1659 in response to General Lambert’s recent dissolution of the Rump Parliament; Proposals of certain expedients for the preventing of a civil war now feared in November; and finally, as General Monck marched toward London to restore the Stuart monarchy, two editions of The Ready and Easy Way to Establishing a Free Commonwealth, an impassioned, bitter, and futile jeremiad damning the English people for backsliding from the cause of liberty. Image File history File links John_Milton_1. ... Image File history File links John_Milton_1. ... Thomas Erastus (September 7, 1524 - December 31, 1583), German-Swiss theologian, whose surname was Liber, Lieber, or Liebler, was born of poor parents, probably at Baden, canton of Aargau, Switzerland. ... John Lambert (1619 - 1684) served as an English Parliamentary general in the English Civil War. ... The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ... George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... A Jeremiad is a long literary work, usually in prose, but sometimes in poetry, that bitterly laments the state of society and its morals in a serious tone of sustained invective, and often contains a prophecy of its coming downfall. ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ...


Upon the Restoration in May 1660, Milton went into hiding for his life as a warrant was issued for his arrest and his writings burnt. Re-emerging after a general pardon was issued, he was nevertheless arrested and briefly imprisoned before influential friends, such as Marvell, now an MP, intervened. On February 24, 1663 Milton remarried, for a third and final time, a Wistaston, Cheshire-born woman Elizabeth (Betty) Minshull, then aged 24, and spent the remaining decade of his life living quietly in London, with the exception of retiring to a cottage in Chalfont St. Giles (his only extant home) during the Great Plague. Milton died of kidney failure on 8 November 1674 and was buried in the church of St Giles Cripplegate; according to an early biographer, his funeral was attended by “his learned and great Friends in London, not without a friendly concourse of the Vulgar.”[9] For other uses, see Restoration. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1663 (MDCLXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Wistaston in Bloom - flowerbed opposite Memorial Hall St Marys Church, Wistaston St. ... For other uses, see Cheshire (disambiguation). ... Miltons Cottage is a timber framed 16th century building located in the Buckinghamshire village of Chalfont St Giles. ... Chalfont St Giles is a village in south east Bucks on the edge of the Chilterns, 25 miles from London, and near to Seer Green, Jordans, Chalfont St Peter, Little Chalfont and Amersham. ... The Great Plague (AD 1665-1666) was a massive outbreak of disease in Britain that killed 75,000 to 100,000 people, up to a fifth of Londons population. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... St Giles, Cripplegate Church Barbican London St Giles-without-Cripplegate is an Anglican church in the City of London, located within the modern Barbican complex. ...


Paradise Lost

Main article: Paradise Lost

Milton’s magnum opus, the blank-verse epic poem Paradise Lost, which appeared in a quarto edition in 1667, was composed by the blind Milton from 1658-1664. It reflects his personal despair at the failure of the Revolution, yet affirms an ultimate optimism in human potential. Milton encoded many references to his unyielding support for the “Good Old Cause.”[10] Though Milton notoriously sold the copyright of this monumental work to his publisher for a seemingly trifling £10, this was not a particularly outlandish deal at the time.[11] Milton followed up Paradise Lost with its sequel, Paradise Regained, published alongside the tragedy Samson Agonistes, in 1671. Both these works also resonate with Milton’s post-Restoration political situation. Just before his death in 1674, Milton supervised the release of a second edition of Paradise Lost, accompanied by an explanation of “why the poem rhymes not” and prefatory verses by Marvell. Milton republished his 1645 Poems in 1673, as well a collection of his letters and the Latin prolusions from his Cambridge days. A 1668 edition of Paradise Lost, reported to have been Milton's personal copy, is now housed in the archives of the University of Western Ontario. For other uses, see Paradise Lost (disambiguation). ... Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera), from the Latin meaning great work,[1] refers to the best, most popular, or most renowned achievement of an author, artist, or composer, and most commonly one who has contributed a very large amount of material. ... Blank verse is a type of poetry, distinguished by having a regular meter, but no rhyme. ... For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ... For other uses, see Paradise Lost (disambiguation). ... Old book binding and cover Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of paper or other material. ... The Good Old Cause was the name given by the soldiers of the New Model Army for the reasons they fought for Parliament against King Charles I and the Royalists during the English Civil War and the support they gave to the republic, particularly the English Commonwealth, of the Interregnum... Paradise Regaind is a poem by the 17th century English poet John Milton, published in 1671. ... An Etching of Samson, from an 1882 German Bible Samson Agonistes (Greek: Samson the agonist) is a work of blank verse tragedy by John Milton. ... Miltons 1645 Poems is a collection, divided into separate English and Latin sections, of the poets youthful poetry in a variety of genres, including such notable works as An Ode on the Morning of Christs Nativity, Comus, and Lycidas. ... The University of Western Ontario (known as Western, as well as UWO or Western Ontario) is a research university located in London, Ontario. ...


During the Restoration Milton also published several minor prose works, such as a grammar textbook, his Art of Logic, and his History of Britain. His only explicitly political tracts were the 1672 Of True Religion, arguing for toleration (except for Catholics), and a translation of a Polish tract advocating an elective monarchy. Both these works participated in the Exclusion debate that would preoccupy politics in the 1670s and 80s and precipitate the formation of the Whig party and the Glorious Revolution. Milton's unfinished religious manifesto, De doctrina christiana, in which he laid out many of his heretical views, was not discovered and published until 1823. “Tolerance” redirects here. ... During the reign of Charles II of England, the Exclusion Bill crisis ran from 1678 till 1681. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William...


Philosophical, political, and religious views

In all of his strongly held opinions, Milton can generally be called a "party of one" for going well beyond the orthodoxy of the time. Milton's idiosyncratic beliefs stemmed from the Puritan mandate emphasis on the centrality and inviolability of conscience.[12] For the record label, see Puritan Records. ...


Philosophy

By the late 1650s, Milton was a proponent of monism or animist materialism, the notion that a single material substance which is "animate, self-active, and free" composes everything in the universe: from stones and trees and bodies to minds, souls, angels, and God.[13] Milton devised this position to avoid the mind-body dualism of Plato and Descartes as well as the mechanistic determinism of Hobbes. Milton's monism is most notably reflected in Paradise Lost when he has angels eat (5.433-39) and have sex (8.622-29). For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... René Descartes illustration of dualism. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... In philosophy, mechanism is a theory that all natural phenomena can be explained by physical causes. ... This article is about the general notion of determinism in philosophy. ... This article is about the philosopher Thomas Hobbes. ...


Politics

Milton's fervent commitment to republicanism in an age of absolute monarchies was both unpopular and dangerous. In coming centuries, Milton would be claimed as an early apostle of liberalism.[14] Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule of law, popular sovereignty and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ...


Religion

Milton was writing at a time of religious and political flux in England. His poetry and prose reflect deep convictions, often reacting to contemporary circumstances, but it is not always easy to locate the writer in any obvious religious category. His views may be described as broadly Protestant. As an accomplished artist and an official in the government of Oliver Cromwell, it is not always easy to distinguish where artistic licence and polemical intent overshadow Milton's personal views. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ...


Milton embraced many theological views that put him outside of contemporary Christianity. A prime example is Milton's rejection of the Trinity in the belief that the Son was subordinate to the Father, a position known as Arianism; and his probable sympathy with Socinianism (modern-day Unitarianism), which held that Jesus was not divine. Another controversial view Milton subscribed to, illustrated by Paradise Lost, is mortalism, the belief that the soul dies with the body.[15] Milton abandoned his campaign to legitimize divorce after 1645, but he expressed support for polygamy in the De doctrina christiana, the unpublished theological treatise that provides evidence for his heretical views. [16] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... Socinianism is a form of Antitrinitarianism, named for Laelius Socinus (died 1562 in Zürich) and of his nephew Faustus Socinus (died 1604 in Poland). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Unitarianism is the belief... The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ...


Like many Renaissance artists before him, Milton integrated Christian theology into classical modes. In his early poems, the poet narrator express a tension between vice and virtue, the latter invariably related to Protestantism. In Comus Milton may make ironic use of the Caroline court masque by elevating notions of purity and virtue over the conventions of court revelry and superstition. In his later poems, Milton's theological concerns become more explicit. In his 1641 treatise, Of Reformation, Milton expressed his dislike for Catholicism and episcopacy, presenting Rome as a modern Babylon, and bishops as Egyptian taskmasters. These analogies conform to Milton's puritanical preference for Old Testament imagery. Through the Interregnum, Milton often presents England, rescued from the trappings of a worldly monarchy, as an elect nation akin to the Old Testament Israel, and shows its leader, Oliver Cromwell, as a latter-day Moses. These views were bound up in Protestant views of the Millennium, which some sects, such as the Fifth Monarchists predicted would arrive in England. The Restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660 began a new phase in Milton's work. In Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes Milton mourns the end of the godly Commonwealth. The Garden of Eden allegory reflects Milton's view of England's recent Fall from Grace, while Samson's blindness and captivity – mirroring Milton's own failing sight – is a metaphor for England's blind acceptance of Charles II as king. However, despite the Restoration of the monarchy Milton did not lose his own faith; Samson shows how the loss of national salvation did not necessarily preclude the salvation of the individual, while Paradise Regained expresses Milton's continuing belief in the promise of Christian salvation through Jesus Christ. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. ... Costume for a Knight, by Inigo Jones: the plumed helmet, the heroic torso in armour and other conventions were still employed for opera seria in the 18th century. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... Episcopacy is the regime of church government by bishops (Lat. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... For other uses, see Interregnum (disambiguation). ... ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... A millennium (pl. ... The Fifth Monarchists or Fifth Monarchy Men were active from 1649 to 1661 during the Interregnum, following the English Civil Wars of the 1600s. ... For other uses, see Restoration. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... For other uses, see Paradise Lost (disambiguation). ... Paradise Regaind is a poem by the 17th century English poet John Milton, published in 1671. ... An Etching of Samson, from an 1882 German Bible Samson Agonistes (Greek: Samson the agonist) is a work of blank verse tragedy by John Milton. ... The Commonwealth was the republican government which ruled first England and then the whole of Britain, Ireland, the colonies and other Crown possessions during the periods from 1649 (the monarch Charles I being beheaded on January 30 and An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth being passed by the... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ... In Abrahamic religion, The Fall of Man or The Story of the Fall, or simply The Fall, refers to humanitys transition from a state of innocent bliss to a state of sinful understanding. ... Samson and Delilah, by Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641) This article is about Biblical figure. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... Paradise Regaind is a poem by the 17th century English poet John Milton, published in 1671. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Though he may have maintained his personal faith in spite of the defeats suffered by his cause, the Dictionary of National Biography recounts how he had been alienated from the Church of England by Archbishop William Laud, and then moved similarly from the Dissenters by their denunciation of religious tolerance in England. "Milton had come to stand apart from all sects, though apparently finding the Quakers most congenial. He never went to any religious services in his later years. When a servant brought back accounts of sermons from nonconformist meetings, Milton became so sarcastic that the man at last gave up his place". The Dictionary of National Biography (or DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... Archbishop William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ... The term dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, to disagree), labels one who dissents or disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... A nonconformist is an English or Welsh Protestant of any non-Anglican denomination, chiefly advocating religious liberty. ...


Legacy and influence

Milton's literary career cast a formidable shadow over English poetry in the 18th and 19th centuries; he was often judged equal or superior to all other English poets, including Shakespeare. We can point to Lucy Hutchinson's epic poem about the fall of Humanity, Order and Disorder (1679), and John Dryden's The State of Innocence and the Fall of Man: an Opera (1677) as evidence of an immediate cultural influence. Shakespeare redirects here. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles...


The influence of Milton's poetry and personality on the literature of the Romantic era was profound: the relationship is a quintessential example of Harold Bloom's "anxiety of influence." William Wordsworth began his sonnet "London, 1802" with "Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour" [10] and modeled The Prelude, his own blank verse epic, on Paradise Lost. John Keats found the yoke of Milton's style debilitating; he exclaimed that "Miltonic verse cannot be written but in an artful or rather artist's humour." Keats felt that Paradise Lost was a "beautiful and grand curiosity," but his own unfinished attempt at epic poetry, Hyperion, is said to have suffered from Keats's failed attempt to cultivate a distinct epic voice. Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein draws heavily on Paradise Lost. The novel begins with a quotation from Paradise Lost, and the relationship between the Creature and Frankenstein is often seen as a metaphor for the relationship between God and Adam in Paradise Lost. Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ... The Anxiety of Influence is a book published in 1973 by Harold Bloom. ... Wordsworth redirects here. ... The Prelude is an autobiographical poem in blank verse by the English poet William Wordsworth. ... Keats redirects here. ... Hyperion is an uncompleted epic poem by 19th-century English Romantic poet John Keats. ... Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin) (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... This article is about the 1818 novel. ...


The Victorian age witnessed a continuation of Milton's influence; George Eliot[17] and Thomas Hardy being particularly inspired by Milton's poetry and biography. By contrast, the early 20th century, owing to the critical efforts of T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound, witnessed a reduction in Milton's stature. Mary Ann (Marian) Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880), better known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist. ... Thomas Hardy redirects here. ... For other persons named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot (disambiguation). ... Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States, October 30, 1885 – Venice, Italy, November 1, 1972) was an American expatriate poet, critic and intellectual who was a major figure of the Modernist movement in early-to-mid 20th century poetry. ...


Aside from his importance to literary history, Milton's career has influenced the modern world in other ways. Milton coined many words that are now familiar; in Paradise Lost readers were confronted by neologisms like dreary, pandæmonium, acclaim, rebuff, self-esteem, unaided, impassive, enslaved, jubilant, serried, solaced, and satanic. Pandæmonium is the capital of Hell in epic poem Paradise Lost by the 17th century English poet John Milton. ...


In the political arena, Milton's Areopagitica and republican writings were consulted during the drafting of the Constitution of the United States of America. Also, the quotation from Areopagitica – "A good book is the precious lifeblood of a master spirit, embalmed and treasured up on purpose to a life beyond life" – is seen in many public libraries, including the New York Public Library. First page of the 1644 edition of Areopagitica Areopagitica: A speech of Mr John Milton for the liberty of unlicensed printing to the Parliament of England is a prose tract or polemic by John Milton, published November 23, 1644, at the height of the English Civil War. ... First page of the 1644 edition of Areopagitica Areopagitica: A speech of Mr John Milton for the liberty of unlicensed printing to the Parliament of England is a prose tract or polemic by John Milton, published November 23, 1644, at the height of the English Civil War. ... The New York Public Library (NYPL) is one of the leading public libraries of the world and is one of Americas most significant research libraries. ...


The John Milton Society for the Blind was founded in 1928 by Helen Keller to develop an interdenominational ministry that would bring spiritual guidance and religious literature to deaf and blind persons. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was an American author, activist and lecturer. ...


See also

Major General Robert Overton (abt 1609–1678) He was a Major General in the New Model Army. ... Miltons Cottage is a timber framed 16th century building located in the Buckinghamshire village of Chalfont St Giles. ...

Poetic and dramatic works

LAllegro by Thomas Cole LAllegro (1631) is a famous pastoral poem by John Milton. ... Il Penseroso is a famous pastoral poem by Milton, written in 1633. ... Comus (also known as Comus: A masque and The Masque of Comus and The Masque at Ludlow) is a masque in celebration of chastity, written by John Milton and first presented on Michaelmas, 1634, before the Earl of Bridgewater at Ludlow Castle. ... Costume for a Knight, by Inigo Jones: the plumed helmet, the heroic torso in armour and other conventions were still employed for opera seria in the 18th century. ... Lycidas is a major poem by John Milton, written in 1637 as a pastoral elegy, first appearing in a 1638 collection of elegies entitled Justa Edouardo King Naufrago dedicated to the memory of Edward King, a collegemate of Miltons at Cambridge who had been drowned when his ship sank... Miltons 1645 Poems is a collection, divided into separate English and Latin sections, of the poets youthful poetry in a variety of genres, including such notable works as An Ode on the Morning of Christs Nativity, Comus, and Lycidas. ... For other uses, see Paradise Lost (disambiguation). ... Paradise Regaind is a poem by the 17th century English poet John Milton, published in 1671. ... An Etching of Samson, from an 1882 German Bible Samson Agonistes (Greek: Samson the agonist) is a work of blank verse tragedy by John Milton. ... Miltons 1645 Poems is a collection, divided into separate English and Latin sections, of the poets youthful poetry in a variety of genres, including such notable works as An Ode on the Morning of Christs Nativity, Comus, and Lycidas. ...

Political, philosophical and religious prose

  • Of Reformation (1641)
  • Of Prelatical Episcopacy (1641)
  • Animadversions (1641)
  • The Reason of Church Government (1642)
  • Apology for Smectymnuus (1642)
  • Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce (1643)
  • Judgement of Martin Bucer Concerning Divorce (1644)
  • Of Education (1644)
  • Areopagitica (1644)
  • Tetrachordon (1645)
  • Colasterion (1645)
  • The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates (1649)
  • Eikonoklastes (1649)
  • Defensio pro Populo Anglicano [First Defense] (1651)
  • Defensio Secunda [Second Defense] (1654)
  • A treatise of Civil Power (1659)
  • The Likeliest Means to Remove Hirelings from the Church (1659)
  • The Ready and Easy Way to Establish a Free Commonwealth (1660)
  • Brief Notes Upon a Late Sermon (1660)
  • Accedence Commenced Grammar (1669)
  • History of Britain (1670)
  • Artis logicae plenior institutio [Art of Logic] (1672)
  • Of True Religion (1673)
  • Epistolae Familiaries (1674)
  • Prolusiones (1674)
  • A brief History of Moscovia, and other less known Countries lying Eastward of Russia as far as Cathay, gathered from the writings of several Eye-witnesses (1682) [11]
  • De Doctrina Christiana (1823)

Miltons divorce tracts refer to the four interlinked polemical pamphlets--The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, The Judgment of Martin Bucer, Tetrachordon, and Colasterion--written by John Milton from 1643-45 arguing for the legitimacy for divorce on grounds of spousal incompatibility. ... Miltons divorce tracts refer to the four interlinked polemical pamphlets--The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, The Judgment of Martin Bucer, Tetrachordon, and Colasterion--written by John Milton from 1643-45 arguing for the legitimacy for divorce on grounds of spousal incompatibility. ... The tractate Of Education was published in 1644, first appearing anonymously as a single eight-page quarto sheet (Ainsworth 6). ... First page of the 1644 edition of Areopagitica Areopagitica: A speech of Mr John Milton for the liberty of unlicensed printing to the Parliament of England is a prose tract or polemic by John Milton, published November 23, 1644, at the height of the English Civil War. ... Tetrachordon is a prose work written by the poet John Milton in 1645. ... Miltons divorce tracts refer to the four interlinked polemical pamphlets--The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, The Judgment of Martin Bucer, Tetrachordon, and Colasterion--written by John Milton from 1643-45 arguing for the legitimacy for divorce on grounds of spousal incompatibility. ... In The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, John Milton defends the right of people to execute a guilty sovereign. ... Defensio pro Populo Anglicano is a Latin polemic by John Milton, published in 1651. ... The History of Britain, that Part especially now called England; from the first traditional Beginning, continued to the Norman Conquest. ...

Trivia

  • Singer/Songwriter Tom Milton from the Punk Rock band Super Games is a direct descendant of John Milton.
  • Al Pacino's character in the movie The Devil's Advocate is named John Milton. In the movie Milton is Satan, in the guise of a lawyer.

This page is about the movie. ...

References

  1. ^ "Annual Lecture on a Master Mind: Milton", Proceedings of the British Academy 33 (1947): p. 63.
  2. ^ David Masson, The Life of John Milton and History of His Time, vol. 1 (Cambridge: 1859), pp. v-vi.
  3. ^ for map, see http://www.pepysdiary.com/p/6372.php
  4. ^ Barbara K. Lewalski,The Life of John Milton (Oxford: Blackwells Publishers, 2003), p.3.
  5. ^ Robert H. Pfeiffer, "The Teaching of Hebrew in Colonial America" The Jewish Quarterly Review, (April 1955), pp. 363-373, accessed through JSTOR
  6. ^ John Milton, Complete Prose Works, vol. I gen. Ed. Don M. Wolfe, 8 vols. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959), pp. 887-8.
  7. ^ Lewalski, Life of Milton, p. 103.
  8. ^ Milton, Complete Prose Works, vol. IV, ed.Wolfe, pp. 618-9.
  9. ^ John Toland, Life of Milton (1698), in Helen Darbishere, ed., The Early Lives of Milton (London: Constable, 1932), p. 193.
  10. ^ Christopher Hill, Milton and the English Revolution (New York: Viking 1977).
  11. ^ A.N. Wilson, The Life of John Milton (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983), pp. 241-42.
  12. ^ See, for instance, Barker, Arthur. Milton and the Puritan Dilemma, 1641-1660. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1942: 338 and passim; Wolfe, Don M. Milton in the Puritan Revolution. New York: T. Nelson and Sons, 1941: 19.
  13. ^ Stephen Fallon, Milton Among the Philosophers (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991), p. 81.
  14. ^ Milton and Republicanism, ed. David Armitage, Armand Himy, and Quentin Skinner (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995)
  15. ^ John Rogers, The Matter of Revolution (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998), p. xi.
  16. ^ John Milton, The Christian Doctrine in Complete Poems and Major Prose, ed. Merritt Hughes (Hackett: Indianapolis, 2003), pp. 994-1000; Leo Miller, John Milton among the Polygamophiles (New York: Loewenthal Press, 1974)
  17. ^ Nardo, Anna, K. George Eliot’s Dialogue with Milton

JSTOR®, begun in 1995, is an online system for archiving academic journals. ...

External links

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NAME Milton, John
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION English poet and prose polemicist
DATE OF BIRTH December 9, 1608(1608-12-09)
PLACE OF BIRTH Bread Street, Cheapside, London
DATE OF DEATH November 8, 1674
PLACE OF DEATH Bunhill, London

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... // Random House is a publishing house based in New York City. ... College name Christ’s College Named after Jesus Christ Established 1505 Previously named God’s-house (1437-1505) Location St. ... old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... In Our Time is a discussion programme hosted by Melvyn Bragg on BBC Radio 4 in the United Kingdom. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ...


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Milton was educated at St Paul's School and then at Christ's College, Cambridge (1625-32), where he was called, half in scorn, "The Lady of Christ's." During his Cambridge period, while considering himself destined for the ministry, he began to write poetry in Latin, Italian, and English.
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