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Encyclopedia > John Marshall
John Marshall


In office
February 4, 1801 – July 6, 1835
Nominated by John Adams
Preceded by Oliver Ellsworth
Succeeded by Roger B. Taney

In office
June 13, 1800 – February 4, 1801
President John Adams
Preceded by Timothy Pickering
Succeeded by James Madison

Born September 24, 1755(1755-09-24)
Germantown, Virginia
Died July 6, 1835 (aged 79)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Political party Federalist
Spouse Mary Willis Ambler
Profession Lawyer, Judge
Religion Episcopalian

John Marshall (September 24, 1755July 6, 1835) was an American statesman and jurist who shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court a center of power. Marshall was the fourth Chief Justice of the United States, serving from February 4, 1801 until his death in 1835. He served in the United States House of Representatives from March 4, 1799 to June 7, 1800, and, under President John Adams, was Secretary of State from June 6, 1800 to March 4, 1801. Marshall was a native of the Commonwealth of Virginia and a leader of the Federalist Party. John Marshall is the name of several notable people: John Marshall (1755–1835), United States politician John Marshall (1765-1845), English Industrialist and Member of Parliament. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (530x713, 53 KB) http://www. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Oliver Ellsworth (April 29, 1745 – November 26, 1807), an American lawyer and politician, was a revolutionary against British rule, a drafter of the United States Constitution, and third Chief Justice of the United States. ... Roger Brooke Taney (March 17, 1777 – October 12, 1864) was the fifth Chief Justice of the United States, from 1836 until his death in 1864, and the first Roman Catholic to hold that office. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Timothy Pickering Timothy Pickering (July 17, 1745 – January 29, 1829) was the third United States Secretary of State, serving in that office from 1795 to 1800 under Presidents George Washington and John Adams. ... Madison redirects here. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Germantown, Virginia is the resting place of John Jacob Richter (also spelled Rector). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1793 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1793 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. ...


The longest serving Chief Justice in Supreme Court history, Marshall dominated the Court for over three decades and played a significant role in the development of the American legal system. Most notably, he established that the courts are entitled to exercise judicial review, the power to strike down laws that violate the Constitution. Thus, Marshall has been credited with cementing the position of the judiciary as an independent and influential branch of government. Furthermore, Marshall made several important decisions relating to Federalism, shaping the balance of power between the federal government and the states during the early years of the republic. In particular, he repeatedly confirmed the supremacy of federal law over state law, and supported an expansive reading of the enumerated powers. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Judicial review is the power of a court to review the actions of public sector bodies in terms of their legality or constitutionality. ... The enumerated powers are a list of specific responsibilities found in Article 1 Section 8 of the United States Constitution, which enumerate the authority granted to the United States Congress. ...

Contents

Early years

John Marshall was born in a log cabin near Germantown, a rural community on the Virginia frontier, in what is now Fauquier County near Midland, Virginia. His parents were Thomas Marshall and Mary Randolph Keith (cousin of Thomas Jefferson); his family, like many of his class in the Virginia of his time period, owned slaves. John was the oldest of fifteen children (seven boys and eight girls), all of whom survived into adulthood, and many of whom were remarkably significant in the development of the republic. Marshall was of English descent.[1] For other uses, see Log cabin (disambiguation). ... Germantown, Virginia is the resting place of John Jacob Richter (also spelled Rector). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Fauquier County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ... Midland is a small community in Fauquier County, Virginia, USA. Midland is home to a Post Office with the local zip code of 22728. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


As a young man, he studied the classics and English literature, eventually working with a private tutor from Scotland. He also worked for the Reverend James Thompson. At the age of fourteen, he was sent to a classical academy in Westmoreland County for additional instruction. James Monroe, who would later become the fifth President of the United States, studied alongside Marshall. After a year, he returned home to resume studies with the Reverend Thompson. For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Westmoreland County is a county located in the Northern Neck of the state of Virginia. ... For other persons named James Monroe, see James Monroe (disambiguation). ...


As the American Revolutionary War began in 1775, Marshall joined the Culpeper Minutemen and was appointed as a lieutenant. He fought at the Battle of Great Bridge, where the minutemen defeated British troops under Lord Dunmore, permanently ending British control of Virginia. In 1776, Marshall's company was attached to the Eleventh Virginia Continental Regiment. He participated in many battles, including Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth, Stony Point and Paulus Hook. In the winter of 1777–1778, he was at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, with General George Washington's troops.[2] During his military service, he became personally acquainted with Washington. This article is about military actions only. ... The Culpeper Minutemen was a militia group formed in 1775 in the district around Culpeper, Virginia. ... Combatants Patriot militia British militia Commanders William Woodford Lord Dunmore Strength 8,845 7,500 Casualties Americans: 20 killed, 56 wounded French: 52 killed, 134 wounded 156 killed 326 wounded 7,018 captured The Battle of Great Bridge was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, fought in the area... John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore (1730 – February 25, 1809) was the British governor of the Province of New York from 1770 to 1771 and the Virginia Colony, from September 25, 1771 until his departure to New York on New Years Eve, 1776. ... The 11th Virginia Regiment was raised on September 16, 1776 at Williamsburg, Virginia from Daniel Morgans Independent Rifle Company for service with the (U.S.) Continental Army. ... outside the town of Dilworth to hold off the British long enough for the rest of the Continental Army to retreat. ... , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|Germantown]] || result = inconclusive || combatant1 = Continental Army || combatant2 = Great Britain|Hessian Forces || commander1 = George Washington || commander2 = William Howe || strength1 = 13,000 || strength2 = 8,000 || casualties1 = 152 killed, 521 wounded, 400 captured || casualties2 = 71 killed, 450 wounded, 14 missing |}} |- | |} The Battle of Germantown was a battle in the American Revolutionary... Combatants United States of America Great Britain Commanders George Washington Sir Henry Clinton Strength 11,000 10,000 Casualties 69 killed, 37 died of heat-stroke 160 wounded 95 missing Total: 361 65 killed 59 died of heat-stroke 170 wounded 50 captured 14 missing Total: 358 The Battle of... Combatants United States British Commanders Anthony Wayne Henry Johnson Strength 1,350 700 Casualties 15 killed, 83 wounded 63 killed, 70 wounded, 543 prisoners The Battle of Stony Point was a battle of the American Revolutionary War. ... The Battle of Paulus Hook was fought on August 19, 1779 between Colonial and British forces. ... This article is about the American Revolutionary War winter encampment. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ...


Having reached the rank of captain, Marshall returned to Virginia in 1779. He studied law privately, attending lectures conducted by George Wythe at the College of William and Mary. He was admitted to the bar in 1780, but returned to the army when British troops invaded Virginia later in the same year. He served under the Baron von Steuben until 1781, when he resigned his army commission in order to begin private law practice. Soon, Marshall gained a reputation as a leading lawyer. He married seventeen-year-old Mary Willis Ambler in 1783; the couple would have ten children, of whom six would survive into adulthood. With his new wife, the young lawyer settled in Richmond, the state capital.[3] George Wythe George Wythe (1726 – June 8, 1806), was a lawyer, a judge, a prominent law professor and a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. ... The College of William and Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M or The College) is a small, selective, coeducational public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. ... Baron von Steuben Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin Steuben, Baron von Steuben (* September 17, 1730; † November 28, 1794) was a German-Prussian General who served with George Washington in the American Revolutionary War and is credited with teaching the Continental Army the essentials of military drill and discipline. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ...


State political career

In 1782, Marshall entered politics, winning a seat in the Virginia House of Delegates, in which he served until 1789, and again from 1795–1796. The Virginia General Assembly elected him to serve on the Council of State later in the same year. In 1785, Marshall took up the additional office of Recorder of the Richmond City Hustings Court.[4] The Virginia House of Delegates is the lower house of the Virginia General Assembly. ... The Virginia General Assembly is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Virginia, a U.S. state. ... Husting (Old English: hiesting; Old Norwegian: hzesthing), the thing or ting, i. ...


In 1788, Marshall was selected as a delegate to the Virginia convention responsible for ratifying or rejecting the United States Constitution, which had been proposed by the Philadelphia Convention a year earlier. Together with James Madison and Edmund Randolph, Marshall led the fight for ratification. He was especially active in defense of Article III, which provides for the Federal judiciary.[2] His most prominent opponent at the ratification convention was the anti-Federalist leader Patrick Henry. Ultimately, the convention approved the constitution by a vote of 89-79. Marshall identified with the new Federalist Party (which supported a strong national government and commercial interests), rather than Jefferson's Democratic-Republican Party (which advocated states' rights and idealized the yeoman farmer and the French Revolution). Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... Madison redirects here. ... Edmund Jennings Randolph (August 10, 1753 – September 12, 1813) was an American attorney, Governor of Virginia, Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General. ... The Anti-Federalist Party, though not a true political party, but a faction, left a major legacy on the country by initiating the Bill of Rights. ... Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 – June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered primarily for his stirring oratory. ... The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1793 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Meanwhile, Marshall's private law practice continued to flourish. He successfully represented the heirs of Lord Fairfax in Hite v. Fairfax (1786), an important Virginia Supreme Court case involving a large tract of land in the Northern Neck of Virginia. In 1796, he appeared before the United States Supreme Court in another important case, Ware v. Hylton, a case involving the validity of a Virginia law providing for the confiscation of debts owed to British subjects. Marshall argued that the law was a legitimate exercise of the state's power; however, the Supreme Court ruled against him, holding that the Treaty of Paris required the collection of such debts.[3] Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron was born in 1692 at Leeds Castle in Kent, England and died at his seat at Greenway Court near White Post in Clarke County, Virginia on December 12, 1781. ... was a case ruled by John Marshall in 1786. ... The Supreme Court of Virginia is one of the oldest continuous judicial bodies in the United States. ... The Northern Neck is the northernmost of three peninsulas on the western shore of Chesapeake Bay in Virginia, USA. This peninsula is bounded by the Potomac River on the north and the Rappahannock River on the south. ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ...


In 1795, Marshall declined Washington's offer of Attorney General of the United States, and, in 1796, declined to serve as minister to France. In 1797, he accepted when President John Adams appointed him to a three-member commission to represent the United States in France. (The other members of this commission were Charles Pinckney and Elbridge Gerry.) However, when the envoys arrived, the French refused to conduct diplomatic negotiations unless the United States paid enormous bribes. This diplomatic scandal became known as the XYZ Affair, inflaming anti-French opinion in the United States. Hostility increased even further when the Directoire expelled Marshall and Pinckney from France. Marshall's handling of the affair, as well as public resentment towards the French, made him popular with the American public when he returned to the United States.[3] The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Several people shared the name of Charles Pinckney: Charles Pinckney - (d. ... Elbridge Thomas Gerry (pronounced ) (July 17, 1744 – November 23, 1814) was an American statesman and diplomat. ... This article is about the diplomatic situation between the United States and France in 1798. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ...


In 1798, Marshall declined a Supreme Court appointment, recommending Bushrod Washington, who would later become one of Marshall's staunchest allies on the Court.[5] In 1799, Marshall reluctantly ran for a seat in the United States House of Representatives. Although his congressional district (which included the city of Richmond) favored the Democratic-Republican Party, Marshall won the race, in part due to his conduct during the XYZ Affair and in part due to the support of Patrick Henry. His most notable speech was related to the case of Thomas Nash (alias Jonathan Robbins), whom the government had extradited to Great Britain on charges of murder. Marshall defended the government's actions, arguing that nothing in the Constitution prevents the United States from extraditing one of its citizens.[1] External link Biography from the OYEZ Project Categories: People stubs | 1762 births | 1829 deaths | U.S. Supreme Court justices ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 – June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered primarily for his stirring oratory. ...


On May 7, 1799, President Adams nominated Congressman Marshall as Secretary of War. However, on May 12, Adams withdrew the nomination, instead naming him Secretary of State, as a replacement for Timothy Pickering. Confirmed by the Senate on May 13, Marshall took office on June 6, 1800. As Secretary of State, Marshall directed the negotiation of the Convention of 1800, which ended the Quasi-War with France and brought peace to the new nation. is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Timothy Pickering Timothy Pickering (July 17, 1745 – January 29, 1829) was the third United States Secretary of State, serving in that office from 1795 to 1800 under Presidents George Washington and John Adams. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... The Convention of 1800 was a meeting between the United States of America and France to terminate the alliance that had existed between them since 1778. ... The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1801. ...


The Marshall Court from 1801 to 1835

It was in 1801 that Marshall embarked upon the most important work of his life, that of leading the Supreme Court of the United States. On January 20 of that year, President Adams nominated him to replace Oliver Ellsworth as Chief Justice. Adams had first offered the seat to ex-Chief Justice John Jay, who declined on the grounds that the Court lacked "energy, weight, and dignity."[6] Marshall was unanimously confirmed by the Senate on January 27 and took office on February 4. However, he continued to serve as Secretary of State until President Adams' term expired on March 4. is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Oliver Ellsworth (April 29, 1745 – November 26, 1807), an American lawyer and politician, was a revolutionary against British rule, a drafter of the United States Constitution, and third Chief Justice of the United States. ... John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, and jurist. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Soon after becoming Chief Justice, Marshall revolutionized the manner in which the Supreme Court announced its decisions. Previously, each Justice would author a separate opinion (known as a seriatim opinion). Under Marshall, however, the Supreme Court adopted the practice of handing down a single opinion of the Court. As Marshall was almost always the author of this opinion, he essentially became the Court's sole mouthpiece in important cases. His forceful personality allowed him to dominate his fellow Justices; he very rarely found himself on the losing side. (The case of Ogden v. Saunders, in 1827, was the sole constitutional case in which he dissented from the majority.)[5] We dont have an article called Ogden v. ...


The first important case of Marshall's career was Marbury v. Madison (1803), in which the Supreme Court invalidated a provision of the Judiciary Act of 1789 on the grounds that it violated the Constitution by attempting to expand the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. Marbury was the first case in which the Supreme Court ruled an act of Congress unconstitutional; it firmly established the doctrine of judicial review. Oddly enough, the Justice-of-the-Peace commissions, which were the subject of the Marbury case, were to be delivered to the nominees by then-Secretary of State, John Marshall. The Court's decision was opposed by President Thomas Jefferson, who lamented that this doctrine made the Constitution "a mere thing of wax in the hands of the judiciary, which they may twist and shape into any form they please."[7] Holding Section 13 of the Judiciary Act of 1789 is unconstitutional to the extent it purports to enlarge the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court beyond that permitted by the Constitution. ... The first page of the Judiciary Act of 1789 The United States Judiciary Act of 1789 (1 Stat. ... Judicial review is the power of a court to review the actions of public sector bodies in terms of their legality or constitutionality. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ...


In 1807, he presided, with Judge Cyrus Griffin, at the great state trial of former Vice President Aaron Burr, who was charged with treason and misdemeanor. Prior to the trial, President Jefferson condemned Burr and strongly supported conviction. Marshall, however, narrowly construed the definition of treason provided in Article III of the Constitution; he noted that the prosecution had failed to prove that Burr had committed an "overt act," as the Constitution required. As a result, the jury acquitted the defendant, leading to increased animosity between the President and the Chief Justice.[8] Cyrus Griffin (1749–December 14, 1810) was the tenth and last President of the United States in Congress assembled under the Articles of Confederation, holding office from January 22, 1788 to March 4, 1789. ... This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836), the American politician. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ...


During the 1810s and 1820s, Marshall made a series of decisions involving the balance of power between the federal government and the states, where he repeatedly affirmed federal supremacy. For example, he established in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) that states could not tax federal institutions and upheld congressional authority to create the Second Bank of the United States, even though the authority to do this was not expressly stated in the Constitution. Also, in Cohens v. Virginia (1821), he established that the Federal judiciary could hear appeals from decisions of state courts in criminal cases as well as the civil cases over which the court had asserted jurisdiction in Martin v. Hunter's Lessee (1816). Justices Bushrod Washington and Joseph Story proved to be his strongest allies in these cases whereas Smith Thompson was a strong opponent to Marshall. Holding Although the Constitution does not specifically give Congress the power to establish a bank, it does delegate the ability to tax and spend, and a bank is a proper and suitable instrument to assist the operations of the government in the collection and disbursement of the revenue. ... The Second Bank of the United States was a bank chartered in 1816, five years after the expiration of the First Bank of the United States. ... Cohens v. ... Martin v. ... External link Biography from the OYEZ Project Categories: People stubs | 1762 births | 1829 deaths | U.S. Supreme Court justices ... American jurist Joseph Story Joseph Story (September 18, 1779 - September 10, 1845), American jurist, was born at Marblehead, Massachusetts. ... Smith Thompson (January 17, 1768 - December 18, 1843) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice from 1823 until his death in 1843. ...

The text of the McCulloch v. Maryland decision, handed down March 6, 1819, as recorded in the minutes of the Supreme Court of the United States, in which the Court determined the separate states could not tax the federal government.
The text of the McCulloch v. Maryland decision, handed down March 6, 1819, as recorded in the minutes of the Supreme Court of the United States, in which the Court determined the separate states could not tax the federal government.

As the young nation was endangered by regional and local interests that often threatened to fracture its hard-fought unity, Marshall repeatedly interpreted the Constitution broadly so that the Federal Government had the power to become a respected and creative force guiding and encouraging the nation's growth. Thus, for all practical purposes, the Constitution in its most important aspects today is the Constitution as John Marshall interpreted it. As Chief Justice, he embodied the majesty of the judiciary of the government as fully as the President of the United States stood for the power of the Executive Branch. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x742, 471 KB) Summary McCulloch v. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x742, 471 KB) Summary McCulloch v. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ...


Marshall wrote several important Supreme Court opinions, including: Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the...

Marshall served as Chief Justice through all or part of six Presidential administrations (John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson), and remained a stalwart advocate of Federalism and a nemesis of the Jeffersonian school of government throughout its heyday. He participated in over 1000 decisions, writing 519 of the opinions himself.[2] Holding Section 13 of the Judiciary Act of 1789 is unconstitutional to the extent it purports to enlarge the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court beyond that permitted by the Constitution. ... Holding The Contracts Clause of the U.S. Constitution prohibited Georgia from voiding contracts for the transfer of land, even though they were secured through illegal bribery. ... Holding Although the Constitution does not specifically give Congress the power to establish a bank, it does delegate the ability to tax and spend, and a bank is a proper and suitable instrument to assist the operations of the government in the collection and disbursement of the revenue. ... Trustees of Dartmouth College vs. ... Cohens v. ... Holding Judgment of the New York courts was reversed. ... Holding States were not permitted to redraw the boundaries of Indian lands or forbid residence in those territories, because the Constitution granted sole authority to Congress to regulate relations with sovereign Indian tribes. ... Barron v. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Madison redirects here. ... For other persons named James Monroe, see James Monroe (disambiguation). ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jeffersonians, so named after Thomas Jefferson, support a federal government with greatly constrained powers, as would follow the strict interpretation of the U.S. Constitution that Jefferson followed. ...


Other work, later life, legacy

Marshall loved his home in Richmond, Virginia, and spent as much time there as possible in quiet contentment. For approximately three months each year, however, he would be away in Washington for the Court's annual term; he would also be away for several weeks to serve on the circuit court in Raleigh, North Carolina. For other uses of this name, see Raleigh. ...


Between 1805 and 1807, he published a five-volume biography of George Washington; his Life of Washington was based on records and papers provided him by the president's family. The first volume was reissued in 1824 separately as A History of the American Colonies. The work reflected Marshall's Federalist principles. George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ...


In 1823, he became first president of the Richmond branch of the American Colonization Society, which was dedicated to resettling freed American slaves in Liberia, on the West coast of Africa. The American Colonization Society (in full, The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America) was an organization that founded Liberia, a colony on the coast of West Africa, in 1821 and transported free blacks there from the United States. ... Slave sale in Easton, Maryland The history of slavery in the United States (1619-1865) began soon after the English colonists first settled in Virginia and lasted until the passage of the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


In 1828, he presided over a convention to promote internal improvements in Virginia.


In 1829, he was a delegate to the state constitutional convention, where he was again joined by fellow American statesman and loyal Virginians, James Madison and James Monroe, although all were quite old by that time. Marshall mainly spoke at this convention to promote the necessity of an independent judiciary. Madison redirects here. ... For other persons named James Monroe, see James Monroe (disambiguation). ...


On December 25, 1831, Mary, his beloved wife of some 49 years, died. Most who knew Marshall agreed that after Mary's death, he was never quite the same. is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1832, Marshall's revised and condensed two-volume Life of Washington was published.


On returning from Washington, D.C. in the spring of 1835, he suffered severe contusions resulting from an accident to the stage coach in which he was riding. His health, which had not been good for several years, now rapidly declined, and in June he journeyed to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania for medical attendance. There he died on July 6, at the age of 79, having served as Chief Justice for over 34 years. He also was the last surviving member of John Adams's Cabinet. For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Two days before his death, he enjoined his friends to place only a plain slab over his and his wife's graves, and he wrote the simple inscription himself. His body, which was taken to Richmond, lies in Shockoe Hill Cemetery.

JOHN MARSHALL
Son of Thomas and Mary Marshall
was born the 24th of September 1755
Intermarried with Mary Willis Ambler
the 3rd of January 1783
Departed this life
the 6th day of July 1835.


Legend has it that Marshall was the last person for whom the Liberty Bell tolled, but it has been proved that William Henry Harrison (1841) was the last. This article is about the bell. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ...


Monuments and memorials

Marshall Memorial by WW Story
Marshall Memorial by WW Story

Marshall's home in Richmond, Virginia, has been preserved by APVA Preservation Virginia. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (660x970, 225 KB) photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran aka 17:01, 7 August 2006 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (660x970, 225 KB) photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran aka 17:01, 7 August 2006 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Founded in 1889, the Richmond, Virginia-based Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities was the United States first statewide historic preservation group. ...


The United States Bar Association commissioned sculptor William Wetmore Story to execute the statue of Marshall that now stands [sits] inside the Supreme Court on the ground floor. A copy of the statue also stands at Constitution Ave. and 4th Street in Washington D.C. Story's father Joseph Story had served as an Associate Justice on the United States Supreme Court with Marshall. The statue was originally dedicated in 1884. William Wetmore Story (1819 - 1895) was a U.S. sculptor. ... American jurist Joseph Story Joseph Story (September 18, 1779 - September 10, 1845), American jurist, was born at Marblehead, Massachusetts. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States...


An engraved portrait of Marshall appears on U.S. paper money on the series 1890 and 1891 treasury notes. These rare notes are in great demand by collectors today. Also, in 1914, an engraved portrait of Marshall was used as the central vignette on series 1914 $500 federal reserve notes. These notes are also quite scarce. Example of both notes are available for viewing on the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco website.


Four law schools today bear his name: The Marshall-Wythe School of Law at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia; The Cleveland-Marshall College of Law in Cleveland, Ohio; John Marshall Law School in Atlanta, Georgia; and, The John Marshall Law School in Chicago, Illinois. The Marshall-Wythe School of Law, more commonly known as William & Mary Law School (W&M Law), located in Williamsburg, Virginia, is a top-tier law school in the United States. ... The College of William and Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M or The College) is a small, selective, coeducational public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... The Cleveland-Marshall College of Law at Cleveland State University is located in Cleveland, Ohio and traces its origins to the founding of Cleveland Law School in 1897 as the first evening law school in the state of Ohio and one of the first in the U.S. to admit... Not to be confused with the unrelated John Marshall Law School in Chicago, Illinois The John Marshall Law School is a law school in Atlanta, Georgia, that was founded in 1933 and accredited by the American Bar Association in 2005. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated John Marshall Law School in Atlanta, Georgia The John Marshall Law School is a law school in Chicago, Illinois, that was founded in 1899 and accredited by the American Bar Association in 1951. ...


Having grown from a Reformed Church academy, Marshall College, named upon the death of Chief Justice John Marshall, officially opened in 1836 with a well-established reputation. After a merger with Franklin College in 1853, the school was renamed Franklin and Marshall College. The college went on to become one of the nations foremost liberal arts colleges. Franklin and Marshall College is a four-year private co-educational liberal arts college in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. ...


John Marshall's birthplace in Fauquier County is a park, the John Marshall Birthplace Park, and a marker can be seen on Route 28 noting this event. Fauquier County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ... State Route 28 is a primary state highway that traverses the counties of Loudoun, Fairfax, Prince William, and Fauquier in the U.S. state of Virginia. ...


Fauquier County is also part of the John Marshall Soil and Water Conservation District, which was named in his honor. Fauquier County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ...


Marshall University in Huntington, WV, is named for John Marshall. It was founded in 1837 as the private Marshall Academy, a secondary school or high school, under the control of the Southern Methodist Church. It was renamed Marshall College in 1857; however, the majority of its offerings remained below the college level. The church lost control of the college and it became a state institution in 1867. It was renamed Marshall University in 1961, although it had been accredited as a university-level institution since 1938. The university is currently trying to bring a law school to the Huntington campus. Marshall University is a public university based in Huntington, West Virginia. ... Motto: Nickname: Founded Incorporated 1785 1871  County Cabell County Borough Parrish Mayor David Felinton Area  - Total  - Water 38. ...


Family

For the Confederate general, see Humphrey Marshall (general). ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Thomas Francis Marshall (June 7, 1801 – September 22, 1864) was a nineteenth century politician and lawyer from Kentucky. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... This article is about the United States Army rank General of the Army. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...

Bibliography

  • Beveridge, Albert J., The Life of John Marshall, Four Volumes (1916–1919). Long, laudatory, biography. online edition
  • Corwin, Edward W., John Marshall and the Constitution: A Chronicle of the Supreme Court, Yale University Press, 1919. Online Edition: Project Gutenberg
  • Charles Hobson. The Great Chief Justice: John Marshall and the Rule of Law (University Press of Kansas, 1996).
  • Herbert Alan Johnson, "John Marshall" in Leon Friedman and Fred L. Israel, eds. The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions — Vol. 1 (1997) pp 180–200 online edition
  • Johnson, Herbert A. The Chief Justiceship of John Marshall from 1801 to 1835. U. of South Carolina Pr., 1998. 352 pp.
  • Newmyer, R. Kent. John Marshall and the Heroic Age of the Supreme Court Louisiana State U. Pr., 2001. 511 pp. online review
  • Robarge, David. A Chief Justice's Progress: John Marshall from Revolutionary Virginia to the Supreme Court. Greenwood 2000. 366 pp. online edition
  • Thomas C. Shevory; John Marshall's Law: Interpretation, Ideology, and Interest Greenwood Press, 1994 online edition
  • Simon, James F. What Kind of Nation: Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, and the Epic Struggle to Create a United States. Simon & Schuster, 2002. 348 pp.
  • Jean Edward Smith, John Marshall: Definer Of A Nation, Henry, Holt & Company, 1996; 736pp

Jean Edward Smith is an accomplished educator and biographer having authored such works as Grant, John Marshall: Definer of a Nation, and Presently he is the John Marshall Professor of Political Science at Marshall University. ...

Primary sources

  • Collon, Joseph P., Jr., ed., Constitutional Decisions of John Marshall, (New York and London, 1905)
  • Hobson, Charles F.; Perdue, Susan Holbrook; and Lovelace, Joan S., eds. The Papers of John Marshall published by the U. of North Carolina Press for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture; the standard scholarly edition; most recent volume: Vol. 11: Correspondence, Papers, and Selected Judicial Opinions, April 1827–December 1830. (2002)
  • Joseph Story, ed., The Writings of John Marshall, late Chief Justice of the United States, upon the Federal Constitution, Boston, 1839.

American jurist Joseph Story Joseph Story (September 18, 1779 - September 10, 1845), American jurist, was born at Marblehead, Massachusetts. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Marshall, John." (1911) Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. London: Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ a b c "John Marshall" Encyclopædia Britannica, from Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite 2004 DVD. Copyright © 1994–2003 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. May 30, 2003
  3. ^ a b c "Marshall, John." (1888). Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton and Company.
  4. ^ "Marshall, John." Federal Judicial Center.
  5. ^ a b Ariens, Michael. "John Marshall."
  6. ^ Goldman, Jerry. "John Jay." OYEZ Project.
  7. ^ Jefferson, Thomas. Letter to Spencer Roane.
  8. ^ Linder, Doug. "The Treason Trial of Aaron Burr."

DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ...

References

Benson John Lossing (1813-1891) was an American historian and wood engraver, known best for his illustrated books on the American Revolution and American Civil War. ... Ann Arbor redirects here. ... Jean Edward Smith is an accomplished educator and biographer having authored such works as Grant, John Marshall: Definer of a Nation, and Presently he is the John Marshall Professor of Political Science at Marshall University. ... New York, New York redirects here. ... The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a biographical dictionary of all members of both houses of the United States Congress, past and present. ...

See also

This is a chronological list of notable cases decided by the United States Supreme Court during the tenure of Chief Justice John Marshall (February 4, 1801 through 6 July 1835). ... This is name of places and things named for Chief Justice John Marshall: Marshall County, Illinois Marshall County, Indiana Marshall County, Iowa Marshall County, Kentucky Marshall County, Mississippi Marshall County, Tennessee Marshall County, West Virginia The Marshall-Wythe School of Law at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Preceded by
John Clopton
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Virginia's 13th congressional district

March 4, 1799June 7, 1800
Succeeded by
Littleton W. Tazewell
Preceded by
Timothy Pickering
United States Secretary of State
June 13, 1800February 4, 1801
Succeeded by
James Madison
Preceded by
Oliver Ellsworth
Chief Justice of the United States
February 4, 1801July 6, 1835
Succeeded by
Roger B. Taney
The Marshall Court Seal of the U.S. Supreme Court
John Marshall (1801–1835)
1801–1804: Wm. Cushing | Wm. Paterson | S. Chase | B. Washington | A. Moore
1804–1806: Wm. Cushing | Wm. Paterson | S. Chase | B. Washington | Wm. Johnson
1807–1810: Wm. Cushing | S. Chase | B. Washington | Wm. Johnson | H.B. Livingston | Th. Todd
1810–1811: S. Chase | B. Washington | Wm. Johnson | H.B. Livingston | Th. Todd
1811–1812: B. Washington | Wm. Johnson | H.B. Livingston | Th. Todd | G. Duvall
1812–1823: B. Washington | Wm. Johnson | H.B. Livingston | Th. Todd | G. Duvall | J. Story
1823–1826: B. Washington | Wm. Johnson | Th. Todd | G. Duvall | J. Story | S. Thompson
1826–1828: B. Washington | Wm. Johnson | G. Duvall | J. Story | S. Thompson | R. Trimble
1828–1829: B. Washington | Wm. Johnson | G. Duvall | J. Story | S. Thompson
1830–1834: Wm. Johnson | G. Duvall | J. Story | S. Thompson | J. McLean | H. Baldwin
1835: G. Duvall | J. Story | S. Thompson | J. McLean | H. Baldwin | J.M. Wayne

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Marshall (archaeologist) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (237 words)
Sir John Hubert Marshall (19 March 1876–17 August 1958) was the Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India from 1902 to 1931.
Marshall was born in Chester and educated at Cambridge.
Marshall also failed to incorporate the basic technique of stratification, taking vertical slices at strategic locations around the dig to reveal the layers that accumulated with the succession of destruction and rebuilding of the site by generations of inhabitants.
John Marshall - definition of John Marshall in Encyclopedia (458 words)
John Marshall (September 24, 1755 - July 6, 1835), Chief Justice of the United States and principal founder of American constitutional law and the Supreme Court of the United States' power of judicial review.
Later, Marshall was asked by John Adams to be an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, but instead Marshall opted to run for a position in Congress.
Marshall served as Chief Justice through five presidential administrations, a stalwart proponent of Federalism and nemesis of the Jeffersonian school of government throughout its heyday.
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