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Encyclopedia > John Major
The Rt Hon. Sir John Major
John Major

In office
28 November 1990 – 2 May 1997
Monarch Elizabeth II
Deputy Michael Heseltine (1995-97)
Preceded by Margaret Thatcher
Succeeded by Tony Blair

In office
26 October 1989 – 28 November 1990
Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
Preceded by Nigel Lawson
Succeeded by Norman Lamont

In office
24 July 1989 – 26 October 1989
Preceded by Geoffrey Howe
Succeeded by Douglas Hurd

In office
13 June 1987 – 24 July 1989
Preceded by John MacGregor
Succeeded by Norman Lamont

Member of Parliament
for Huntingdon
Huntingdonshire (1979-1983)
In office
2 May 1979 – 7 June 2001
Preceded by David Renton
Succeeded by Jonathan Djanogly

Born 29 March 1943 (1943-03-29) (age 64)
Carshalton, Surrey, England
Political party Conservative
Spouse Norma Major
Profession Banker
Religion Anglican[citation needed]
Signature John Major's signature

Sir John Major, KG, CH, PC (born 29 March 1943) is a former British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and leader of the British Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997. During his time as Prime Minister, the world went through a period of transition after the end of the Cold War. This included the growing importance of the European Union and the debate surrounding Britain's ratification of the Maastricht Treaty. As Prime Minister, Major and his government were also responsible for the United Kingdom's exit from the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) after Black Wednesday on 16 September 1992. John Major may refer to: John Major, a Prime Minister of the United Kingdom John C. Major, a Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada John Mair, also known as John Major, a Scottish philosopher and historian John Majhor John Mayer (disambiguation) Category: ... The Right Honourable (abbreviated Rt Hon, The Rt Hon, The Right Hon, Right Hon) is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and in other Commonwealth Realms, and elsewhere. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (470 × 628 pixel, file size: 34 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC (born 21 March 1933) is a British businessman and Conservative Party politician. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... Nigel Lawson, Baron Lawson of Blaby, PC (born March 11, 1932), was a British politician, Chancellor of the Exchequer between June 1983 and October 1989. ... Norman Stewart Hughson Lamont, Baron Lamont of Lerwick, PC (born 8 May 1942) was Conservative Member of Parliament for Kingston-upon-Thames, England from 1972 until 1997. ... The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (commonly referred to as Foreign Secretary) is a member of the British Government responsible for relations with foreign countries, heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (often called simply the Foreign Office). ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Richard Edward Geoffrey Howe, Baron Howe of Aberavon, CH, PC, QC (born 20 December 1926), known until 1992 as Sir Geoffrey Howe, is a senior British Conservative politician. ... Douglas Richard Hurd, Baron Hurd of Westwell, CH, CBE, PC (born 8 March 1930), is a senior British Conservative politician and novelist, who served in the governments of Margaret Thatcher and John Major between 1979 and his retirement in 1995. ... The Chief Secretary to the Treasury is a junior position in the British Cabinet. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... John Macgregor (1802-1858) was a Scottish shipbuilder. ... Norman Stewart Hughson Lamont, Baron Lamont of Lerwick, PC (born 8 May 1942) was Conservative Member of Parliament for Kingston-upon-Thames, England from 1972 until 1997. ... Huntingdon is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Huntingdonshire is a former United Kingdom Parliamentary constituency. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... David Lockhart-Mure Renton, Baron Renton, KBE, QC, TD, DL, PC (born 12 August 1908), is a British politician. ... Jonathan Simon Djanogly (born June 3, 1965) is British politician and solicitor Conservative Member of Parliament for Huntingdon. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carshalton is a suburb of London, part of the London Borough of Sutton, located 10 miles (16. ... This article is about the English county. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... Norma, Lady Major, DBE (nee Wagstaff, previously Johnson; born 12 February 1942) is the wife of Sir John Major, the former British Prime Minister. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Image File history File links Majorautograph. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Leaders of the UK Conservative Party since 1834. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... The European exchange rate mechanism (or ERM) was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange-rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union and the introduction of a single... In British politics and economics, Black Wednesday refers to September 16, 1992 when the government was forced to withdraw the Pound from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) by currency speculators—most notably George Soros who earned over US$1 billion in doing so. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 1997 the Conservative Party, under Major's leadership, lost the general election to Tony Blair's Labour party. This was one of the worst electoral defeats in British politics since the Great Reform Act of 1832. After the defeat he was replaced as leader of the party by William Hague, continuing as an MP until he retired from the House of Commons in the 2001 general election. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... The UK general election, 1997 was held on 1 May 1997. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Politics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland takes place in the framework of a constitutional monarchy in which the Monarch is head of state and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government. ... The British Reform Act of 1832 (2 & 3 Will. ... William Jefferson Hague (born 26 March 1961) is a British politician, the Member of Parliament for Richmond, North Yorkshire, former leader of the Conservative Party, and current Conservative Shadow Foreign Secretary. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Tony Blair William Hague Charles Kennedy The UK general election, 2001 was held on 7 June 2001 and was dubbed the quiet landslide by the media. ...


Before serving as Prime Minister, Major was a Cabinet minister under Margaret Thatcher. He served as Chief Secretary to the Treasury, Foreign Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... The Chief Secretary to the Treasury is a junior position in the British Cabinet. ... The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (commonly referred to as Foreign Secretary) is a member of the British Government responsible for relations with foreign countries, heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (often called simply the Foreign Office). ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ...

Contents

Early life

John Major was born on 29 March 1943, the son of Tom Pascal Hubert Major-Ball, a former music-hall artiste. He was christened John Roy Major but only the name John is shown on his birth certificate. He used the middle name Roy until the early 1980s.[1] is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Music Hall is a form of British theatrical entertainment which reached its peak of popularity between 1850 and 1960. ... Mary Elizabeth Winblad (1895-1987) birth certificate A birth certificate is a vital record that documents the birth of a child. ...


He was born at the St Helier Hospital, Carshalton. He attended primary school at Cheam Common, and then attended Rutlish Grammar School, since converted to a comprehensive school and renamed Rutlish School, in Merton, from 1954 onwards, when he passed the eleven-plus. There he had an undistinguished education. In the 1950s, his father's garden ornaments business failed, and the family were forced to move to Brixton in 1955. He watched his first debate in the House of Commons in 1956, and attributes his political ambitions to that event. St. ... St. ... Carshalton is a suburb of London, part of the London Borough of Sutton, located 10 miles (16. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Rutlish School is a comprehensive school in Surrey, London, in the United Kingdom. ... A comprehensive school is a secondary school that does not select children on the basis of academic attainment or aptitude. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The London Borough of Merton is a London borough in south west London. ... The Eleven Plus is an examination which was given to students in their last year of primary education in the United Kingdom under the Tripartite System. ... Brixton is an area of South London, England, part of the London Borough of Lambeth. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...


Major left school at sixteen in 1959, with three O-levels: They were History, English Language, and English Literature. He would later gain three more by correspondence course in British Constitution, Mathematics and Economics. Major applied to become a bus conductor after leaving school but his application was rejected. Many accounts have said this was due to his height, although early media reports claimed wrongly that this was due to poor arithmetic. His first job was as a clerk in an insurance brokerage firm 'Pratt & Sons' in 1959 after leaving school. Disliking this, he quit and for a time, he helped with his father's garden ornaments business with his brother, Terry Major-Ball. He also joined the Young Conservatives in Brixton at this time. The General Certificate of Education or GCE is a secondary-level academic qualification, which is used in Britain as well as in some former British colonies. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... // Distance Education is a field of expertise exploring situations in which the learner and the teacher are separated in time, space or both. ... This article is part of the series Politics of the United Kingdom Parliament Crown House of Lords    Lord Chancellor House of Commons    Speaker Prime Minister Cabinet Government Departments Scottish Parliament    Scottish Executive National Assembly for Wales    Welsh Assembly Government Northern Ireland Assembly    Northern Ireland Executive Local government Greater London Authority... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... // The Conductor is the railway employee charged with the safe and efficient operation and management of a freight, passenger, or various other types of train, and is also the direct supervisor of the trains Train Crew (brakeman, flagman, ticket collector, assistant conductor, on board service personnel). ... Terry Major-Ball (born 1932) is the elder brother of the former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Sir John Major. ... The Young Conservatives were the youth wing of the United Kingdoms Conservative Party. ...


After a spell of unemployment, he started working at the London Electricity Board (where his successor as PM Tony Blair also worked when young) in 1963, and decided to undertake a correspondence course in banking. Major took up a post as an executive at Standard Chartered Bank in May 1965 and rose quickly through the ranks; he was sent to Nigeria by the bank in 1967, and nearly died after a car crash there. EDF Energy is an energy company that provides gas and electricity to homes throughout the United Kingdom. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Standard Chartered Bank (LSE: STAN, SEHK: 2888) is a British bank headquartered in London with operations in more than fifty countries. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... In an accident resulting from excessive speed, this concrete truck rolled over into the front garden of a house. ...


He is an Associate of the Institute of Bankers. The Chartered Institute of Bankers (CIB) was founded in 1879, as the professional body for members of the banking profession in the United Kingdom. ...


Political career

Major was interested in politics from an early age. Encouraged by fellow conservative Derek Stone, he started giving speeches on a soap-box in Brixton market. He stood as a candidate for Lambeth Borough Council at the age of 21 in 1964, and was unexpectedly elected in the Conservative landslide in 1968. While on the council he served as Chairman of the Housing Committee, being responsible for the building of several council housing estates. Despite moving to a ward which was easier for the Conservatives to win, he lost his seat in May 1971. A man soapboxing in Chinatown, San Francisco. ... Categories: Stub ... The London Borough of Lambeth is a London borough in South London, England and forms part of Inner London. ... Cheap, safe, housing owned by the British Government. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ...


Major was an active Young Conservative and, according to his biographer Anthony Seldon brought "youthful exuberance" to the Tories in Brixton, but was often in trouble with the professional agent Marion Standing. But, again according to Seldon, the formative political influence on Major was Jean Kierans, a divorcée 13 years his elder who became his political mentor and lover. Seldon writes "She... made Major smarten his appearance, groomed him politically and made him more ambitious and worldly." Their relationship lasted from 1963 to sometime after 1968. The Young Conservatives were the youth wing of the United Kingdoms Conservative Party. ... Dr Anthony F. Seldon MA, PhD, FRSA, MBA, FRHisS is a political commentator best known as Tony Blairs biographer and the Master of Wellington College. ...


He stood for election to Parliament in St Pancras North in both general elections of 1974, but did not win this traditionally Labour seat. In November 1976, he was selected by Huntingdonshire Conservatives as their candidate at the next election, winning the safe seat in the 1979 general election. Following boundary changes, Major became Member of Parliament (MP) for Huntingdon in 1983 and subsequently won the seat in the 1987, 1992 and 1997 elections (his political agent in all three elections was Peter Brown). His majority in 1992 was an extraordinary 36,230 votes, the highest ever recorded. He stood down at the 2001 general election. St. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Huntingdonshire is a former United Kingdom Parliamentary constituency. ... A safe seat is a seat in a legislature which is regarded as fully secured by a certain political party with very little chance of an election upset because of the nature of the electorate in the constituency concerned. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1979 was held on 3 May 1979 and is regarded as a pivotal point in 20th century British politics. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Huntingdon is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Margaret Thatcher David Steel Election 1987 Titles The United Kingdom general election of 1987 was held on 11 June 1987 and was the third consecutive victory for the Conservative Party under the leadership of Margaret Thatcher. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1992 was held on 9 April 1992. ... The UK general election, 1997 was held on 1 May 1997. ... Tony Blair William Hague Charles Kennedy The UK general election, 2001 was held on 7 June 2001 and was dubbed the quiet landslide by the media. ...


He was a Parliamentary Private Secretary from 1981 and an assistant whip from 1983. He was made Under-Secretary of State for Social Security in 1985 and became minister of the same department in 1986. He entered the Cabinet as Chief Secretary to the Treasury in 1987, and in a surprise re-shuffle on 24 July 1989, a relatively inexperienced John Major was appointed Foreign Secretary, succeeding Geoffrey Howe. He spent only three months in that post before becoming Chancellor of the Exchequer after Nigel Lawson's resignation in October 1989. Major presented only one budget (the first one to be televised) in the spring of 1990. He publicised it as a budget for savings and announced the Tax-Exempt Special Savings Account (TESSA) arguing that measures were required to address the marked fall in the household savings ratio that had been apparent during the previous financial year. A Parliamentary Private Secretary (PPS) is a junior role given to a United Kingdom Member of Parliament (MP). ... In politics, a whip is a member of a political party in a legislature whose task is to ensure that members of the party attend and vote as the party leadership desires. ... A Parliamentary Under Secretary of State, in the United Kingdom government structure, is a minister who is junior to a Minister of State who is then junior to a Secretary of State. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who heads a government ministry or department (e. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... The Chief Secretary to the Treasury is a junior position in the British Cabinet. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (commonly referred to as Foreign Secretary) is a member of the British Government responsible for relations with foreign countries, heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (often called simply the Foreign Office). ... Richard Edward Geoffrey Howe, Baron Howe of Aberavon, CH, PC, QC (born 20 December 1926), known until 1992 as Sir Geoffrey Howe, is a senior British Conservative politician. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Nigel Lawson, Baron Lawson of Blaby, PC (born March 11, 1932), was a British politician, Chancellor of the Exchequer between June 1983 and October 1989. ... In the UK, the Tax-Exempt Special Savings Account (TESSA) was a special tax-free bank account. ... The savings ratio is an economics term that refers to the proportion of income which is saved, usually expressed for household savings as a percentage of total household disposable income. ... A fiscal year (or financial year or accounting reference date) is a 12-month period used for calculating annual (yearly) financial statements in businesses and other organizations. ...


When Michael Heseltine's challenge to Margaret Thatcher's leadership of the Conservative Party forced the contest to a second round and Thatcher withdrew, Major entered the contest alongside Douglas Hurd. Though he fell two votes short of the required winning margin of 187 in the second ballot Major's result was sufficient to secure immediate concessions from his rivals and he became Leader of the Conservative Party on 27 November 1990. The next day, Major was summoned to Buckingham Palace and appointed Prime Minister. Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC (born 21 March 1933) is a British businessman and Conservative Party politician. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... The 1990 Conservative Party leadership election in the United Kingdom took place in November 1990 following the decision of former Trade and Industry Secretary Michael Heseltine to stand against the incumbent Conservative leader and Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher. ... Douglas Richard Hurd, Baron Hurd of Westwell, CH, CBE, PC (born 8 March 1930), is a senior British Conservative politician and novelist, who served in the governments of Margaret Thatcher and John Major between 1979 and his retirement in 1995. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ...


Prime minister

Further information: Major Ministry

The Ministry Categories: British ministries ...

The Gulf War

Major served as Prime Minister during the first Gulf War of 1991, and played a key role in persuading American president George H. W. Bush to support no-fly zones over Iraq to protect the Kurds and Shiite Muslims from Saddam Hussein's regime.[citation needed] For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... No-fly zone detail The Iraqi no-fly zones (NFZs) were proclaimed by the United States, United Kingdom and France after the Gulf War of 1991 to protect Kurds in the north and Shiite Muslims in the south. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ...


Soap Box election

The economy slid into recession again during Major's first year in office, though the signs of this were appearing during Thatcher's final months as Prime Minister, and Major's Conservatives were widely expected to lose the 1992 election to Neil Kinnock's Labour Party. Major took his campaign onto the streets, famously delivering many addresses from an upturned soapbox as in his Lambeth days. This "common touch" approach stood in contrast to the Labour Party's more slick campaign and it chimed with the electorate. Major won a second period in office, albeit with the small parliamentary majority of just 21 seats. The United Kingdom general election of 1992 was held on 9 April 1992. ... Neil Gordon Kinnock, Baron Kinnock, PC (born 28 March 1942) is a British politician. ...

John Major with US President George H.W. Bush at Camp David in 1992

Image File history File links Arcbushmaj. ... Image File history File links Arcbushmaj. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... The West Wing, see NSF Thurmont (The West Wing). ...

Black Wednesday

This slim majority proved to be unmanageable however, particularly after the United Kingdom's exit from the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) on Black Wednesday (16 September 1992) - just five months into the new parliament - when billions of pounds were wasted in a futile attempt to prop up the currency's value. The European exchange rate mechanism (or ERM) was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange-rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union and the introduction of a single... In British politics and economics, Black Wednesday refers to September 16, 1992 when the government was forced to withdraw the Pound from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) by currency speculators—most notably George Soros who earned over US$1 billion in doing so. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


After the release of Black Wednesday government documents,[2] it became apparent that Major came very close to stepping down from office at this point, having even prepared an unsent letter of resignation addressed to the Queen.[3]


Major kept his economic team unchanged for seven months after Black Wednesday before requiring the resignation of Chancellor Norman Lamont, whom he replaced with Kenneth Clarke. Such a delay, on top of the crisis, was portrayed by Major's critics as proof of the indecisiveness that was to undermine his authority through the rest of his premiership. But, ironically, in appointing Clarke as Chancellor, Major made what was arguably the single most important appointment of his tenure. Norman Stewart Hughson Lamont, Baron Lamont of Lerwick, PC (born 8 May 1942) was Conservative Member of Parliament for Kingston-upon-Thames, England from 1972 until 1997. ... This article is about Kenneth Clarke, the English politician. ...


The UK's forced withdrawal from the ERM was succeeded by a partial economic recovery with a new policy of flexible exchange rates, allowing lower interest rates, along with the unintended consequence of a devalued pound - increased sales of UK goods to export markets.[4] An interest rate is the price a borrower pays for the use of money he does not own, and the return a lender receives for deferring his consumption, by lending to the borrower. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Infighting over Europe

Rather than capitalise on the economic 'good news', however, the Conservative Party soon fell into political infighting over the subject of Europe: On Europe Major took a moderate approach but he found himself undermined by the Eurosceptic wing within the party and the Cabinet. In particular, his policy towards the European Union aroused opposition as the Government attempted to ratify the Maastricht Treaty. Although the Labour opposition supported the treaty, they were prepared to tactically oppose certain provisions in order to weaken the government. This opposition included passing an amendment that required a vote on the social chapter aspects of the treaty before it could be ratified. Several Conservative MPs voted against the Major Government and the vote was lost. Major hit back by calling another vote on the following day (23 July 1993), which he declared a vote of confidence. He won by forty votes, but the damage had been done to his authority in parliament. Euroscepticism is scepticism about, or disagreement with, the purposes of the European Union, sometimes coupled with a desire to preserve national sovereignty. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... The Maastricht Rebels were British Members of Parliament (MPs) belonging to the then governing Conservative Party who refused to support the government of John Major in a series of votes in the House of Commons on the issue of the implementation of the Maastricht Treaty (Treaty on European Union) in... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament to give members of parliament a chance to register their confidence for a government by means of a parliamentary vote. ...


Later that day, Major gave an interview to ITN's Michael Brunson. During an unguarded moment when he thought that the microphones had been switched off, Brunson asked why he did not sack the Ministers who were conspiring against him. He replied: "Just think it through from my perspective. You are the prime minister, with a majority of eighteen... where do you think most of the poison is coming from? From the dispossessed and the never-possessed. Do we want three more of the bastards out there? What's Lyndon B. Johnson's maxim?" Major later claimed that he had picked the number three from the air and that he was referring to "former ministers who had left the government and begun to create havoc with their anti-European activities",[5] but many journalists immediately named the three as Peter Lilley, Michael Portillo and Michael Howard, who were three of the more prominent "Eurosceptics" within his Cabinet at the time (throughout the rest of Major's premiership the exact identity of the three would be blurred, with John Redwood's name frequently appearing in a list along with two of the others). The tape of this conversation was leaked to the Daily Mirror and widely reported, embarrassing Major. (The maxim referred to is Johnson's famous comment about J. Edgar Hoover: Johnson had once sought a way to remove Hoover from his post as head of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), but upon realizing that the problems involved in such a plan were insurmountable, he accepted Hoover's presence philosophically, reasoning that it would be "better to have him inside the tent pissing out, than outside pissing in"). ITN may refer to: Independent Television News In the news, a section on the Main Page of English Wikipedia This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Michael Brunson is a well-known British political journalist. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Peter Bruce Lilley (born August 23, 1943, Hayes, Kent, England, educated at Dulwich College and Clare College, Cambridge) is a British Conservative Party politician who has been a Member of Parliament MP since 1983. ... Michael Denzil Xavier Portillo (born 26 May 1953) is an English journalist, broadcaster, and former Conservative party politician and Cabinet Minister. ... The Rt Hon. ... Euroscepticism is scepticism about, or disagreement with, the purposes of the European Union, sometimes coupled with a desire to preserve national sovereignty. ... John Alan Redwood (born 15 June 1951 in Dover, Kent) is a British Conservative Party politician and Member of Parliament for Wokingham. ... Alternate newspaper: The Daily Mirror (Australia) The Daily Mirror is a popular British tabloid daily newspaper. ... John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ...


"Sleaze"

At the 1993 Conservative Party Conference, Major began the "Back to Basics" campaign, which he intended to be about the economy, education, policing, and other such issues. However, it was interpreted by many (including Conservative cabinet ministers) as an attempt to revert to the moral and family values that the Conservative Party were often associated with. However, Back to basics became synonymous with scandal- often exposed by Tabloid newspapers such as The Sun. David Mellor, a cabinet minister was exposed as having an extra-marital affair. The wife of the Earl of Caithness committed suicide amongst rumours of the Earl committing adultery. David Ashby was 'outed' by his wife after sleeping with men. A string of other conservative MPs including Alan Amos, Tim Yeo and Michael Brown all were involved in sexual scandals. There was also the spectacularly bizarre autoerotic death of Stephen Milligan. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... Back to Basics was a failed attempt to relaunch the government of British Prime Minister John Major in 1993. ... This article is about family values as a political concept. ... A scandal is a widely publicized incident involving allegations of wrong-doing, disgrace, or moral outrage. ... Newspaper sizes in August 2005. ... This article is about a British tabloid. ... The Right Honourable David Mellor (born 12 March 1949) is a British Conservative politician and barrister. ... The title Earl of Caithness has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland, and has a very complex history. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... David Glynn Ashby (born 14 May 1940) was the British Conservative Member of Parliament for Leicestershire North West from 1983 until he stood down in 1997. ... Alan Thomas Amos (born 10 November 1952) is a British Labour politician, and former Conservative Party Member of Parliament for Hexham in Northumberland between 1987 and 1992. ... Timothy Stephen Kenneth Yeo (born March 20, 1945) is a British Conservative politician, Member of Parliament for South Suffolk. ... What may be Americas most common name crossing all races. ... Autoeroticism is the practice of fulfilling ones own sexual needs without a partner. ... Stephen David Wyatt Milligan (May 12, 1948 – February 7, 1994) was a British politician and journalist. ...


Other debilitating scandals included Cash for Questions, in which it was revealed that several Conservative MPs had been given money by Mohamed Al Fayed to ask questions in the House of Commons. Graham Riddick, David Tredinnick, Tim Smith and Neil Hamilton were all exposed in the scandal. Later, David Willetts resigned as Paymaster General after he was accused of rigging evidence to do with Cash for Questions. The cash-for-questions affair was a controversial political scandal in 1990s Britain. ... Mohamed Al-Fayed (b. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Graham Riddick was the Conservative Party member of Parliament for Colne Valley in West Yorkshire, England from 1987 to 1997. ... David Arthur Stephen Tredinnick (born 19 January 1950) is a Conservative politician in the United Kingdom. ... Tim Smith is a common name. ... This page is about Neil Hamilton, former MP and media personality. ... For the West End actor, see Dave Willetts. ... Paymaster-General is a ministerial position in the UK. The portfolio consists of the workings of HM Revenue and Customs, formerly HM Inland Revenue and HM Customs and Excise, and reports to the Chancellor of the Exchequer. ...


Defence Minister Jonathan Aitken (whose Parliamentary Aide was Stephen Milligan) was accused of secretly doing deals with leading Saudi princes. Whilst he denied all accusations and promised to wield the "sword of truth" he was later exposed as a liar. This article is about the former British politician. ...


Northern Ireland

John Major opened talks with the Provisional IRA upon taking office. Yet when he declared to the House of Commons in November 1993 that "to sit down and talk with Mr. Adams and the Provisional IRA... would turn my stomach",[6] Sinn Féin gave the media an outline of the secret talks indeed held regularly since that February. The Downing Street Declaration was issued on 15 December 1993 by Major and Albert Reynolds, the Irish prime minister; an IRA ceasefire followed in 1994. In the House of Commons Major refused to sign-up to the first draft of the "Mitchell Principles" which resulted in the ending of the ceasefire. The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all... Gerard Adams MP (Irish: [1]; born 6 October 1948) is an Irish Republican politician and abstentionist Westminster Member of Parliament for Belfast West. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The Downing Street Declaration was a joint declaration issued on December 15, 1993 by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, John Major and Albert Reynolds, the Taoiseach (prime minister) of the Republic of Ireland. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Albert Reynolds (born November 3, 1932), was the eighth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, serving one term in office from 1992 until 1994. ... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ... For other persons with a similar name, see George Mitchell George John Mitchell, GBE (born August 20, 1933) is a former Democratic Party politician and United States Senator from the state of Maine, and currently serves as Chairman of the global law firm DLA Piper US LLP and also as...


In March 1995, Major refused to answer the phone calls of United States President Bill Clinton, for several days, because of anger at Clinton's decision to invite Gerry Adams to the White House for Saint Patrick's Day.[7] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Gerard Adams MP (Irish: [1]; born 6 October 1948) is an Irish Republican politician and abstentionist Westminster Member of Parliament for Belfast West. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... St. ...


However, Major paved the way for the Good Friday Agreement, although it was signed after he left office. The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ...


Leadership challenge

On 22 June 1995, tired of continual threats of leadership challenges that never arose, Major resigned as Leader of the Conservative Party and announced he would be contesting the resulting leadership election. John Redwood, the Secretary of State for Wales stood against him. Major won by 218 votes to Redwood's 89 (with 12 spoiled ballots, eight abstentions and two MPs not voting at all) – easily enough to win in the first round, but only three more than the target he had privately set himself.[8] (The Conservative Party has since changed its rules to allow a simple vote of no confidence in the leader, rather than requiring a challenger to stand (this mechanism was used to remove Iain Duncan Smith from the leadership in later years)). is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... The 1995 Conservative leadership election was initiated when incumbent leader and Prime Minister John Major resigned as leader on June 22, 1995, in order to face down critics within his party. ... John Alan Redwood (born 15 June 1951 in Dover, Kent) is a British Conservative Party politician and Member of Parliament for Wokingham. ... The Secretary of State for Wales is the head of the Wales Office within the United Kingdom cabinet. ... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... Rt. ...


1997 general election defeat

His re-election as leader of the party however failed to restore his authority. Despite efforts to restore (or at least improve) the popularity of the Conservative party, Labour remained far ahead in the opinion polls as the 1997 election loomed. By December 1996, the Conservatives had actually lost their majority in the House of Commons. Major managed to survive to the end of the Parliament, but called an election on 17 March 1997 as the five-year limit for its timing approached. Major delayed the election in the hope that a still improving economy would help the Conservatives win a greater number of seats, but it did not. An opinion poll is a survey of opinion from a particular sample. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


Few then were surprised when Major's Conservatives lost the 1997 general election to Tony Blair's "New Labour", though the immense scale of the defeat was not widely predicted: the Conservative party suffered one of the worst electoral defeats since the Great Reform Act of 1832. In the new parliament, Labour held 418 seats, the Conservatives 165, and the Liberal Democrats 46, giving the Labour party a majority of 179. The UK general election, 1997 was held on 1 May 1997. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... New Labour is an alternative name of the British political Labour Party. ... The British Reform Act of 1832 (2 & 3 Will. ...


John Major himself was re-elected in his constituency of Huntingdon with a majority of 18,140. However, 179 other Conservative MPs were defeated in 1997, including present and former Cabinet ministers such as Norman Lamont, Sir Malcolm Rifkind and, most importantly, Michael Portillo. Huntingdon is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Norman Stewart Hughson Lamont, Baron Lamont of Lerwick, PC (born 8 May 1942) was Conservative Member of Parliament for Kingston-upon-Thames, England from 1972 until 1997. ... The Rt Hon. ... Michael Denzil Xavier Portillo (born 26 May 1953) is an English journalist, broadcaster, and former Conservative party politician and Cabinet Minister. ...


At about noon on 2 May 1997, Major officially returned his seals of office as Prime Minister to Queen Elizabeth II. Shortly before his resignation, he gave his final statement from Number Ten, in which he said "when the curtain falls, it is time to get off the stage". Major then famously told the press that he intended to go with his family to The Oval to watch cricket. May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Prime Minister Tony Blair and U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney stand in front of the famous main door to Number 10. ... The famous gasometers, which are now listed buildings. ... This article is about the sport. ...


Following his resignation as Prime Minister, Major briefly became Leader of the Opposition and remained in this post until the election of William Hague as leader of the Conservative Party in June 1997. Major continued as an MP until he retired from the House of Commons in the 2001 general election, a fact he announced on the Breakfast show with David Frost.[9] The Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... William Jefferson Hague (born 26 March 1961) is a British politician, the Member of Parliament for Richmond, North Yorkshire, former leader of the Conservative Party, and current Conservative Shadow Foreign Secretary. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Tony Blair William Hague Charles Kennedy The UK general election, 2001 was held on 7 June 2001 and was dubbed the quiet landslide by the media. ... David Frost during an interview with Donald Rumsfeld. ...


Summary of Major's premiership

John Major's mild-mannered style and moderate political stance made him potentially well-placed to act as a conciliatory leader of his party. Conflict raged within the Conservative Party during his leadership, however, especially over the question of how far Britain should become integrated with the European Union. Major never succeeded in reconciling the relatively small group of "Euro-rebels" among his MPs to his European policy, and episodes such as the Maastricht Rebellion inflicted serious political damage on him and his government. During the 1990s, there was also bitterness on the right wing of the Conservative Party at the manner in which Lady Thatcher had been removed from office; this did not make Major's task any easier. The Maastricht Rebels were British Members of Parliament (MPs) belonging to the then governing Conservative Party who refused to support the government of John Major in a series of votes in the House of Commons on the issue of the implementation of the Maastricht Treaty (Treaty on European Union) in... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ...


On the other hand, it was during Major's premiership that the British economy recovered from the recession of 1990-1992. Conservatives subsequently spoke of Tony Blair's government inheriting a "golden legacy" in 1997, and both parties from 1992 onwards presided over the longest period of economic growth in British history. World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ...


Paddy Ashdown, the leader of the Liberal Democrats during Major's term of office, once described him in the House of Commons as a "decent and honourable man". Few observers doubted that he was an honest man, or that he made sincere and sometimes successful attempts to improve life in Britain and to unite his deeply divided party. He was also, however, perceived as a weak and ineffectual figure, and his approval ratings for most of his time in office were low, particularly after "Black Wednesday" in September 1992. Jeremy John Durham Ashdown, Baron Ashdown of Norton-sub-Hamdon, GCMG, KBE, PC, (born 27 February 1941), commonly known as Paddy Ashdown, is a British politician. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In British politics and economics, Black Wednesday refers to September 16, 1992 when the government was forced to withdraw the Pound from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) by currency speculators—most notably George Soros who earned over US$1 billion in doing so. ...


The late former Labour MP Tony Banks said of Major in 1994 that "He was a fairly competent chairman of Housing [on Lambeth Council]. Every time he gets up now I keep thinking, 'What on earth is Councillor Major doing?' I can't believe he's here and sometimes I think he can't either."[10] Anthony Louis Banks, Baron Stratford (8 April 1943 – 8 January 2006), usually known as Tony Banks, was a British politician and Labour Party MP and member of the House of Lords. ...


After retirement

Major at Newlands Cricket Ground January 2000
Major at Newlands Cricket Ground January 2000

Since leaving office Major has tended to take a low profile retirement, indulging his love of cricket as president of Surrey County Cricket Club. He held the position until 2002. He has been a member of Carlyle Group's European Advisory Board since 1998 and was appointed Chairman of Carlyle Europe in May 2001.[11] He stood down in August 2004. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (762x907, 674 KB) Photo by Paddy Briggs This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (762x907, 674 KB) Photo by Paddy Briggs This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Newlands Cricket Ground in Cape Town is the home of Western Province Cricket Club and is also one of the venues at which Test matches are played in South Africa. ... This article is about the sport. ... Surrey County Cricket Club (SCCC) is an English first-class cricket team, based at The Oval cricket ground in south London. ... The Carlyle Group is a Washington, D.C. based global private equity investment firm with more than $71. ...


In March 2001, he gave the tribute to (Lord) Colin Cowdrey at his memorial service in Westminster Abbey.[12] In 2005, he was elected to the Committee of the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC), historically the governing body of the sport, and still guardian of the laws of the game.[13] Michael Colin Cowdrey, Baron Cowdrey of Tonbridge CBE (December 24, 1932 - December 4, 2000) was an English cricketer, born in Ootacamund (India). ... For other uses, see Funeral (disambiguation). ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Lords 2005 The Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC), founded in 1787, is a private members club and was the original governing body of cricket in England and across the world. ... A governing body is a corporate form of management. ...


Following the death of Diana, Princess of Wales in 1997, Major was appointed a special guardian to Princes William and Harry, with responsibility for legal and administrative matters. Princess Diana redirects here. ... “Prince William” redirects here. ... Prince Henry of Wales (Henry Charles Albert David; born 15 September 1984), commonly known as Prince Harry, is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales and his first wife, the late Diana, Princess of Wales. ...


Major/Currie affair

Major's recent low-profile political career was disrupted by the revelation in September 2002 that, prior to his promotion to the Cabinet, Major had had a four-year extramarital affair with a fellow MP, Edwina Currie.[14][15] Commentators were quick to refer to Major's previous "Back to Basics" platform to throw charges of hypocrisy. Max Hastings in his 2002 book Editor, also commented on Sarah Hogg, a colleague at The Daily Telegraph; "Sarah knew Major intimately, in a way none of the rest of us did".[citation needed] A sex scandal is a scandal involving allegations or information about embarrassing sexual activities, such as adultery, being made public. ... Edwina Currie Edwina Currie Jones née Cohen, (born 13 October 1946) is a former British Member of Parliament. ... Hypocrisy is the act of condemning or calling for the condemnation of another person when the critic is guilty of the act for which he demands that the accused be condemned. ... Sir Max Hastings (born December 28, 1945) is a British journalist, editor, historian and author. ... Sarah Hogg is an English economist and a journalist. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ...


Since 2005

In February 2005, it was reported that Major and Norman Lamont delayed the release of papers on Black Wednesday under the Freedom of Information Act.[16] Major denied doing so, saying that he had not heard of the request until the scheduled release date and had merely asked to look at the papers himself. The former prime minister told BBC News he and former chancellor Norman Lamont had been the victims of "whispering voices" to the press.[17] He later publicly approved the release of the papers.[18] February 2005 : ← - January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December - → Pope John Paul II is taken to a hospital suffering from a serious case of influenza. ... Norman Stewart Hughson Lamont, Baron Lamont of Lerwick, PC (born 8 May 1942) was Conservative Member of Parliament for Kingston-upon-Thames, England from 1972 until 1997. ... In British politics and economics, Black Wednesday refers to September 16, 1992 when the government was forced to withdraw the Pound from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) by currency speculators—most notably George Soros who earned over US$1 billion in doing so. ... Over seventy countries around the world have implemented some form of freedom of information legislation. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ...


According to the Evening Standard, Major has become a prolific after-dinner speaker. The Independent alleges that he earns over £25,000 per engagement, and is described by his agency as providing "insights and his own opinions on the expanding European Union, the future of the world in the 21st century, and also about Britain".[19] He has been less successful, however, in his business career. Headlines of the Evening Standard on the day of London bombing on July 7, 2005, in Waterloo Station The Evening Standard is a British tabloid newspaper published and sold in London and surrounding areas of southeast England. ... An after dinner speaker is a person who makes a public speech after a formal dinner. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ...


In December 2006, Major led calls for an independent inquiry into Tony Blair's decision to invade Iraq, following revelations made by Carne Ross, a former British senior diplomat, that contradict Blair's case for the invasion.[20] This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Carne Ross is founder and director of Independent Diplomat, a diplomatic advisory group. ...


Representation in the media

During his leadership of the Conservative Party, Major was portrayed as honest ("Honest John") but unable to rein in the philandering and bickering within his party. Major's appearance was noted in its greyness, his prodigious philtrum, and large glasses, all of which were exaggerated in caricatures. For example, in Spitting Image, Major's puppet was changed from a circus performer to that of a grey man who ate dinner with his wife in silence, occasionally saying "nice peas, dear". The media (particularly The Guardian cartoonist Steve Bell) used the allegation by Alastair Campbell that he had observed Major tucking his shirt into his underpants to caricature him wearing his pants outside his trousers,[21] as a pale grey echo of both Superman and Supermac, a parody of Harold Macmillan. The philtrum (Greek philtron, from philein, to love; to kiss) is the vertical groove in the upper lip, formed where the nasomedial and maxillary processes meet during embryonic development. ... Spitting Image was a satirical puppet show that ran on the United Kingdoms ITV television network from 1984 to 1996. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Steve Bell at Dundee University Steve Bell (born February 26, 1951) is an English political cartoonist, whose work appears in The Guardian and other places. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A pair of mens briefs Undergarments, also called underwear or sometimes intimate clothing, are clothes worn next to the skin, usually under other clothes. ... For the book of comics by Daniel Clowes see Caricature (Daniel Clowes collection) A caricature of film comedian Charlie Chaplin. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... Super-Mac was the subject of a cartoon - Introducing Super-Mac - in the Evening Standard in London, England, on 6 November 1958 [1] by Vicky (Victor Weisz, 1913-1966). ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ...


Private Eye parodied Sue Townsend's The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole, age 13¾ to write The Secret Diary of John Major, age 47¾, featuring "my wife Norman" and "Mr. Dr. Mawhinney" as recurring characters. The magazine still runs one-off specials of this diary (with the age updated) on occasions when Sir John is in the news, such as on the breaking of the Edwina Currie story or the publication of his autobiography. The magazine also ran a series of cartoons called 101 Uses for a John Major, in which Major was illustrated serving a number of bizarre purposes, such as a train-spotter's anorak. Private eye may mean: Look up Private eye on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Private Eye a fortnightly British satirical magazine-newspaper, edited by Ian Hislop (as of 2005) A private investigator, a private detective for hire (see also crime fiction and detective fiction) Private Eye, a song by Alkaline Trio... Susan Lillian Sue Townsend (born April 2, 1946) is the author of the Adrian Mole series of books. ... Adrian Albert Mole (born April 2, 1967) is the fictional protagonist in a series of books by Sue Townsend. ... Norma, Lady Major, DBE (nee Wagstaff, previously Johnson; born 12 February 1942) is the wife of Sir John Major, the former British Prime Minister. ... Brian Stanley Mawhinney, Baron Mawhinney PC (born 26 July 1940) was a member of the Cabinet until 1997 and a Member of Parliament until 2005. ... A recurring character is a fictional character, usually in a prime time TV series, who is not a main character, but appears from time to time during the series run. ...


Because he grew up in Brixton, the so-called "capital of the Jamaican community in London", he was regularly joked about as being Rankin' John Major by Curtis Walker and Ishmael Thomas, the hosts of an early 1990s BBC comedy programme called Paramount City [1]. Later, he was also be depicted as "Johnny Reggae" by the cast of The Real McCoy. His Brixton roots were also used in a campaign poster during the Conservative Party's 1992 election campaign: "What does the Conservative Party offer a working class kid from Brixton? They made him Prime Minister."[22] Brixton is an area of South London, England, part of the London Borough of Lambeth. ... Curtis Walker is a British actor and writer. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Real McCoy was a very successful BBC Television Comedy show which ran from (1991 - 1996) featuring an array of talented black comedy stars performing material aimed at an across-the-board black audience. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ...


Major was often mocked for his nostalgic evocation of what sounded like the lost England of the 1950s.[23] He is known to have once said:

"Fifty years on from now, Britain will still be the country of long shadows on cricket grounds, warm beer, invincible green suburbs, dog lovers and pools fillers"[24]

Titles and honours

Styles from birth

John Major in the robes of a Knight Companion of the Order of the Garter
John Major in the robes of a Knight Companion of the Order of the Garter
  • John Major, (1943 – 1979)
  • John Major, Esq, MP (1979 – 1987)
  • The Rt Hon John Major, MP, PC (1987 – 1999)
  • The Rt Hon John Major, CH, MP, PC (1999 – 2001)
  • The Rt Hon John Major, CH, PC (2001 – 2005)
  • The Rt Hon Sir John Major, KG, CH, PC (2005 – )

Image File history File links John_Major. ... Image File history File links John_Major. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... The Right Honourable (abbreviated Rt Hon, The Rt Hon, The Right Hon, Right Hon) is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and in other Commonwealth Realms, and elsewhere. ...

Honours

In the New Year's Honours List of 1999, John Major was made a Companion of Honour for his work on the Northern Ireland Peace Process.[25] In a 2003 interview he spoke about his hopes for peace in the region.[26] Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The peace process describes efforts by interested parties to effect a lasting solution to long-running conflicts, such as the Northern Ireland peace process see Belfast Agreement, Arab-Israeli conflict and Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ...


On 23 April 2005, Major was made a Knight Companion of the Order of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth II. He was installed at St. George's Chapel, Windsor on 13 June. Membership of the Order of the Garter is limited in number to 24, and is an honour traditionally bestowed on former British Prime Ministers and a personal gift of Her Majesty the Queen.[27] is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Members of the public outside St Georges Chapel at Windsor Castle, waiting to watch the Garter Procession St Georges Chapel is the place of worship at Windsor Castle in England. ... This article is about the English town. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor state the Kingdom of Great Britain, from when the first Prime Minister (in the modern sense), Robert Walpole, took office in 1721, until the present day. ...


Major has so far declined the customary life peerage awarded to former Prime Ministers on standing down from Parliament.[28] In the United Kingdom, Life Peers are appointed members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as hereditary peers). ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...


Personal life

Major married Norma Johnson (now Dame Norma Major, DBE) on 3 October 1970. She was a teacher and a member of the Young Conservatives. They met on polling day for the Greater London Council elections in London. They became engaged after only ten days.[29] They had two children; a son, James, and a daughter, Elizabeth. They have a holiday home on the coast of North Norfolk, near Weybourne, that requires round-the-clock police surveillance.[30] Norma, Lady Major, DBE (nee Wagstaff, previously Johnson; born 12 February 1942) is the wife of Sir John Major, the former British Prime Minister. ... Norma, Lady Major, DBE (nee Wagstaff, previously Johnson; born 12 February 1942) is the wife of Sir John Major, the former British Prime Minister. ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Election Day in the United Kingdom is by tradition a Thursday, but the date for general elections is not fixed by law. ... Arms of the Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... North Norfolk is a local government district in Norfolk, England. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Major's elder brother, Terry, became a minor media personality during Major's period in Downing Street, writing an autobiography and newspaper columns, and appearing on TV shows such as Have I Got News For You. He faced brickbats about his brother but always remained loyal. Terry Major-Ball (born 1932) is the elder brother of the former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Sir John Major. ... Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ... Have I Got News for You is a British television panel show; produced by Hat Trick Productions for the BBC. It is based loosely on the BBC Radio 4 show The News Quiz, and has been running since 1990. ...


References

  1. ^ Biography at pm.gov.uk.
  2. ^ "Treasury papers reveal cost of Black Wednesday", The Guardian, 9 February 2005. Retrieved on 2006-10-02. 
  3. ^ "Major was ready to quit over Black Wednesday", Daily Telegraph, 10 February 2005. Retrieved on 2006-09-17. 
  4. ^ "Hoorah for Black Wednesday! It kept Britain out of the euro", Daily Telegraph, 13 September 2002. Retrieved on 2006-09-17. 
  5. ^ Major, John (1999). Autobiography, pp343-4.
  6. ^ Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, November 1, 1993, column 34
  7. ^ 'Mandela helped me survive Monicagate, Arafat could not make the leap to peace - and for days John Major wouldn't take my calls'. The Guardian (21 June 2004). Retrieved on 2006-09-17.
  8. ^ Major, John (1999). Autobiography
  9. ^ BBC news - Interview on Breakfast With Frost
  10. ^ The Right Hon wag. The Guardian (10 January 2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-17.
  11. ^ John Major appointed European Chairman of the Carlyle Group
  12. ^ Cowdrey remembered
  13. ^ MCC Committee 2006-07
  14. ^ Major and Currie had four-year affair
  15. ^ The Major-Currie affair - what the papers say
  16. ^ Treasury releases 1992 ERM papers
  17. ^ Major denies blocking ERM papers
  18. ^ Major permits release of Black Wednesday papers
  19. ^ Forty million dollar Bill: Earning power of an ex-leader. The Independent (24 February 2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-28.
  20. ^ John Major leads calls for inquiry into conflict. The Independent (16 December 2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
  21. ^ Steve Bell (1 October 2002). 'If only we had known back then'. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2006-09-17.
  22. ^ Bennett, Gillian (1996). ""Camera, Lights Action!": The British General Election 1992 as Narrative Event". Folklore 107: pp. 94 – 97. Retrieved on 2007-06-28. 
  23. ^ Page 29, John Major by Robert Taylor, Haus 2006
  24. ^ Page 370, Major: A political life by Anthony Seldon, Weidenfield 1997
  25. ^ Major leads honours list for peace
  26. ^ John Major speaks out for NI peace
  27. ^ Former PM Major becomes Sir John
  28. ^ Major to turn down peerage - accessed August 15, 2006
  29. ^ Profile at pm.gov.uk
  30. ^ Brogan, Benedict (21 March 2002). Protection bill for John Major rises to £1.5m. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved on 2007-07-03.

For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Daily If. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Major, John (1999) – Autobiography (London: Harper Collins, ISBN 0-00-257004-1)
  • Major, John (2007) – More Than A Game: The Story of Cricket's Early Years (London: Harper Collins, ISBN 978-0-00-718364-7)

External links

Wikisource
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John Major
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Political offices
Preceded by
Tony Newton
Minister of State for Social Security
1986 – 1987
Succeeded by
Nicholas Scott
Preceded by
John MacGregor
Chief Secretary to the Treasury
1987 – 1989
Succeeded by
Norman Lamont
Preceded by
Sir Geoffrey Howe
Foreign Secretary
1989
Succeeded by
Douglas Hurd
Preceded by
Nigel Lawson
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1989 – 1990
Succeeded by
Norman Lamont
Preceded by
Margaret Thatcher
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
28 November 1990 – 2 May 1997
Succeeded by
Tony Blair
Preceded by
Tony Blair
Leader of the Opposition
1997
Succeeded by
William Hague
Preceded by
George H. W. Bush
United States
Chair of the G8
1991
Succeeded by
Helmut Kohl
Germany
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
David Renton
Member of Parliament for Huntingdonshire
19791983
Constituency abolished
New constituency Member of Parliament for Huntingdon
19832001
Succeeded by
Jonathan Djanogly
Party political offices
Preceded by
Margaret Thatcher
Leader of the Conservative Party
1990 – 1997
Succeeded by
William Hague

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Major (1050 words)
In the summer of 1989 John Major became Foreign Secretary after Geoffrey Howe was moved from the Foreign Office to become Leader of the House of Commons and Deputy Prime Minister.
Thatcher's leadership at this time was under increasing pressure, and when she was challenged, John Major supported her in the leadership election of November 1990.
However, the Conservatives were defeated by Labour in the 1997 General Election, and John Major resigned as leader, having been PM for seven of the Conservatives eighteen consecutive years in power.
§12. John Major. VII. Reformation and Renascence in Scotland. Vol. 3. Renascence and Reformation. The Cambridge ... (792 words)
Born in Haddingtonshire in 1479, and dying in 1549 or 1550, Major lived to see the beginnings of the reformation in Scotland, but, though in many respects a liberal thinker both in religion and politics, he continued to the end a steady adherent of the communion in which he was reared.
After a year’s study (1493) at the university of Cambridge, Major passed to the university of Paris, where, till 1518, with the exception of a brief visit to Scotland, he was successively student, regent in arts, and doctor in theology.
In all these works, Major is the schoolman pure and simple; the subjects he treats, his manner of handling them, are those of the medieval logician when scholasticism had become an exhausted movement.
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