FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > John Lilburne

John Lilburne (1614?–August 29, 1657), also known as Freeborn John, was an Agitator in England before, during and after the English Civil Wars of 16421650. In his early life he was a Puritan, though towards the end of his life he became a Quaker. His works have been cited in opinions by the United States Supreme Court. Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... See Levellers (disambiguation) for alternative meanings. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Ethnicity... The term English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... // Events June 23 - Claimant King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland arrives in Scotland, the only of the three Kingdoms that has accepted him as ruler. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Seal of the Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court in the United States of America. ...

Contents


Early life

John Lilburne was born in servant's quarters at the old palace at Greenwich, a child of middle level but still prosperous members of the royal court. The exact date of his birth is not known and there is some dispute as to whether he was born in the year 1613 or 1614. His family had originated in Sunderland, in North-East England where his uncle Richard Lilburne became one of the first members of Parliament to represent the county of Durham. Greenwich (pronounced gren-itch , or by the locals) is a town, now part of the south eastern urban sprawl of London, on the south bank of the river Thames in the London Borough of Greenwich. ... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... This is about the city of Sunderland in England. ...


In the 1630s he was apprenticed to John Hewson who introduced him to the Puritan physician John Bastwick, an active pamphleteer against Episcopacy who was persecuted by Archbishop William Laud. Colonel John Hewson (Hughson) died in 1662. ... John Bastwick was born in Essex in 1593. ... Episcopacy is the regime of church government by bishops (Lat. ... William Laud (October 7, 1573–January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of Charles I of England whom he encouraged to believe in the Divine Right of Kings. ...


Unlicensed publishing

In 1638 and age 22, John Lilburne imported into England religious publications from Holland which were not licensed by The Stationers' Company (known after 1937 as the Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers). At that time all printing presses were licensed as well as the publications that were produced on those presses. Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. ...


"Freeborn John"

John Lilburne was arrested upon information by an informer acting for The Stationers' Company and brought before the Court of Star Chamber. Instead of being charged with an offense he was asked how he pleaded. John Lilburne demanded to be presented in English with the charges brought against him (much of the written legal work of the time was in Latin). The Court refused Lilburne's request. The court then threw him in prison and again brought him back to court and demanded a plea. Again John Lilburne demanded to know the charges brought against him. This article is about the historical court of law. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


The authorities then resorted to flogging him with a three-thonged whip on his bare back, as he was dragged by his hands tied to the rear of an ox cart from Fleet Prison to the pillory at Westminster. He was then forced to stoop in the pillory where he still managed to campaign against his censors, while distributing more unlicensed literature to the crowds. He was then gagged. Finally he was thrown in prison. He was taken back to the court and again imprisoned. Fleet Prison was a notorious London prison. ... View of the Pillory in the Market-place of Paris in the Sixteenth Century, after a Drawing by an unknown Artist of 1670. ... Westminster is the area located immediately to the west of the ancient City of London, in the centre of the wider conurbation of London. ... For omission and secrecy, see Censorship. ...


This began the first in a long series of trials that lasted throughout his life for what John Lilburne called his "freeborn rights". As a result of these trials a growing number of supporters began to call him "Freeborn John" and they even struck a medal in his honor to that effect. It is this trial that has been cited by constitutional jurists and scholars in the United States of America as being one of the historical foundations of the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution. It is also cited within the 1966 majority opinion of Miranda v. Arizona by the U.S. Supreme Court. Amendment V (the Fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, is related to legal procedure. ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... Miranda v. ... Seal of the Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court in the United States of America. ...


English Civil War

In the First English Civil War he enlisted as a captain in the Parliamentary army commanded by the Earl of Essex and fought at the Battle of Edgehill. He commanded Parliament's garrison at Brentford against Prince Rupert during the Royalist advance on London in November 1642 and although he managed to save the artillery, he was taken as a prisoner to Oxford. As the first prominent Roundhead captured in the war, the Royalists intended to try Lilburne for high treason. But when Parliament threatened to execute Royalist prisoners in reprisal, Lilburne was exchanged for a Royalist officer. The term English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. ... Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, (January 11 1591 – 14 September 1646), was the son and heir of the unfortunate Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and succeeded to his fathers title in 1604, three years after the previous earl had been executed for treason. ... The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was the first major engagement of the First English Civil War. ... Brentford is a place in in the London Borough of Hounslow on the River Thames in west London. ... for the city in British Columbia, see Prince Rupert, British Columbia Prince Rupert of the Rhine (1619-1682), soldier and inventor, was a younger son of Frederick V, Elector Palatine and Elizabeth Stuart, and the nephew of King Charles I of England. ... November is the eleventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four Gregorian months with the length of 30 days. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... The Roundheads was the nickname given to big supporters of the Parliamentarian cause in the English Civil War. ...


He then joined the Eastern Association under the command of Earl of Manchester and was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel. He became friends with Oliver Cromwell, who was second in command, supporting him in his disputes with Manchester. He fought with distinction at the Battle of Marston Moor in 1644. Shortly afterwards he asked permission to attack the Royalist stronghold at Tickhill Castle, because he had heard it was willing to surrender. Manchester refused dismissing him as a madman. Taking that as a yes, he went and took the Castle without a shot being fired. Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester (1602 - May 5, 1671), eldest son of the 1st earl by his first wife, Catherine Spencer, granddaughter of Sir John Spencer of Althorpe, was born in 1602, and was educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. ... Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. ... The Battle of Marston Moor, one of the decisive battles of the English Civil War, took place on July 2, 1644. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ...


In April 1645, Lilburne resigned from the Army, because he refused to sign the Presbyterian Solemn League and Covenant. This was practically a treaty between England and Scotland for the preservation of the reformed religion in Scotland, the reformation of religion in England and Ireland "according to the word of God and the example of the best reformed churches," and the extirpation of popery and prelacy. The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Ethnicity... Scotland (Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a country in northwest Europe and a constituent nation of the United Kingdom. ... Historically, the word Popery has been used as a derogatory term of Catholicism. ... A prelate is a member of the clergy having a special canonical jurisdiction over a territory or a group of people; usually, a prelate is a bishop. ...


Agitation

John Lilburne then began in earnest his campaign of agitation for freeborn rights, the rights that all Englishmen are born with, which are different from privileges bestowed by a monarch or a government. His enemies branded him as a Leveller but Lilburne responded that he was a "Leveller so-called." To him it was a pejorative label which he did not like. He called his supporters "Agitators." It was feared that "Levellers" wanted to level property rights, but Lilburne wanted to level human basic rights which he called "freeborn rights." See Levellers (disambiguation) for alternative meanings. ...


At the same time that John Lilburne began his campaign, another group led by Gerrard Winstanley became known as The Diggers but preferred the term True Levellers. They were the people who demanded equality in property as well as political rights. Gerrard Winstanley (1609 - September 10, 1676) was an English Protestant religious reformer and political activist during the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell. ... For other meanings see Diggers (disambiguation) and Levellers (disambiguation) The Diggers were a group begun by Gerrard Winstanley in 1649 which called for a total destruction of the existing social order and replacement with a communistic and agrarian lifestyle based around the precepts of Christian Nationalism, wishing to rid England... For other meanings see Diggers (disambiguation) and Levellers (disambiguation) The Diggers were a group begun by Gerrard Winstanley in 1649 which called for a total destruction of the existing social order and replacement with a communistic and agrarian lifestyle based around the precepts of Christian Nationalism, wishing to rid England...


Putney debates

Lilburne was imprisoned from July to October 1645 for denouncing Members of Parliament who lived in comfort while the common soldiers fought and died for the Parliamentary cause. It was while he was incarcerated that he wrote his tract, England's Birthright Justified. // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... The debating chamber or hemicycle of the European Parliament in Brussels. ... A tract is a short written work, usually of a political or religious nature. ...


In July 1646, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London for denouncing his former commander the Earl of Manchester as a traitor and Royalist sympathiser. It was the campaign to free him from prison which spawned the political party called the Levellers. Lilburne called them "Levellers so-called" because he viewed himself as an agitator for freeborn rights. // Events Ongoing events English Civil War (1642-1649) Births April 15 - King Christian V of Denmark (d. ... The Tower of London, seen from the river, with a view of the water gate called Traitors Gate. ... In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation. ... The noun or adjective, Royalist, can have several shades of meaning. ... The Levellers were a mid 17th century English political party, who came to prominence during the English Civil Wars. ...


The Levellers had a strong following in the New Model Army with whom his work was influential. When the Army held the Putney Debates1 between October 28, and November 11, 1647, the debate centered around a pamphlet based upon the writings of John Lilburne called the An Agreement of the People for a firm and present peace upon grounds of common right2. The New Model Army became the best known of the various Parliamentarian armies in the English Civil War. ... The Putney Debates1, at the Church of St Mary the Virgin, Putney, in the county of Surrey, started on October 28, 1647 and lasted until November 11. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... // Events March 14 - Thirty Years War: Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Truce of Ulm. ...


Written Constitution

There were two more editions of this famous document. The second was An Agreement of the People of England, and the places therewith incorporated, for a secure and present peace, upon grounds of common right, freedom and safety2, was presented to Parliament on September 11, 1648 after amassing signatories including about a third of all Londoners. The debating chamber or hemicycle of the European Parliament in Brussels. ... September 11 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... // Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. ...


Following the defeat of the Royalists and the abolition of the monarchy and House of Lords, England became a republic in 1649 with the regicide of Charles I. It was while he was in the Tower of London that John Lilburne, William Walwyn, Thomas Prince and Richard Overton wrote the third edition of An Agreement of the Free People of England. Tendered as a Peace-Offering to this distressed Nation4. They hoped that this document would be signed like a referendum so that it would become a written constitution for the English Republic. The late United States Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black, who often cited the works of John Lilburne in his opinions, wrote in an article for Encyclopædia Britannica that he believed John Lilburne's constitutional work of 1649 was the basis for the basic rights contained in the U.S. Constitution. This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Broadly defined, a republic is a state or country that is led by principles established by the state for the benifit of its own populace, independent of the political power of outside influences. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... The broad definition of Regicide is the deliberate killing of a king, or the person responsible for it. ... Charles I (19 November 1600–30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625, until his death. ... Hugo LaFayette Black (February 27, 1886 – September 25, 1971) was a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1937 - 1971). ... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt - look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelt with æ, the ae-ligature) is the oldest English-language general encyclopedia. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme...


After his acquittal by Parliament on the charge of treason in 1649, Lilburne turned to other legal matters involving his extended family. This action resulted in him being arrested yet again. Following the abolition of the monarchy, Cromwell had moved the republic through various stages until it became more of a dictatorship than a free society. John Lilburne was held in prison because Cromwell viewed Lilburne as a political threat. In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ...


Quaker

During this period of solitude John Lilburne became a Quaker and he turned to a form of personal and quiet religion. Due to years of abuse and imprisonment, his health began to fail and he was released by the prison warden so that he could visit his wife. Upon hearing of his release Oliver Cromwell gave orders for his immediate return to prison, but in the meantime John Lilburne had died on August 29, 1657. The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ...


References

  • Free Born John - Biography of John Lilburne, by Gregg, Pauline. Greenwood Press, London. 1960.

Pauline Gregg is a British historian whose published works are concentrated upon the period of the English Civil Wars of the Seventeenth Century and the history of social life in Britain. ...

Footnotes

  1. The Putney Debates
  2. The Agreement of the People as presented to the Council of the Army October 1647
  3. Agreement of the People of England, as presented to Parliament in January 1649
  4. An Agreement of the Free People of England, extended version from the imprisonment of the Leveller leaders, May 1649

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Lilburne - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1526 words)
John Lilburne was born in servant's quarters at the old palace at Greenwich, a child of middle level but still prosperous members of the royal court.
John Lilburne demanded to be presented in English with the charges brought against him (much of the written legal work of the time was in Latin).
John Lilburne then began in earnest his campaign of agitation for freeborn rights, the rights that all Englishmen are born with, which are different from privileges bestowed by a monarch or a government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m