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Encyclopedia > John III of Portugal
John III King of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea, & of the Conquest, Navigation, & Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, & India
John III
King of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea, & of the Conquest, Navigation, & Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, & India
Portuguese royalty
House of Aviz

John I
Children
   Infante Duarte (future Edward I)
   Infante Pedro, Duke of Coimbra
   Henry the Navigator (Infante Henrique, Duke of Viseu)
   Infanta Isabel, Duchess of Burgundy
   Infante João
   Infante Fernando, the Saint Prince
   Afonso, Duke of Braganza (illegitimate)
   Beatriz, Countess of Arundel (illegitimate)
Grandchildren include
   Infanta Isabel of Coimbra, Queen of Portugal
Edward
Children
   Infante Afonso (future Afonso V)
   Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu
   Infanta Leonor, Holy Roman Empress
   Infanta Catarina
   Infanta Joana, Queen of Castile
Grandchildren include
   Infante Manuel, Duke of Beja (future Manuel I)
   Infanta Leonor of Viseu, Queen of Portugal
Afonso V
Children include
   Blessed Joana, Crown Princess of Portugal
   Infante João (future John II)
John II
   Afonso, Crown Prince of Portugal
   Jorge, Duke of Coimbra (illegitimate)
Manuel I
Children include
   Miguel da Paz, Crown Prince of Spain and Portugal
   Infante João (future John III)
   Infanta Isabel, Holy Roman Empress
   Infanta Beatriz, Duchess of Savoy
   Infante Luís, Duke of Beja
   Infante Fernando, Duke of Guarda and Trancoso
   Infante Cardinal Afonso
   Infante Cardinal Henrique (future Henry I)
   Infante Duarte, Duke of Guimarães
   Infanta Maria
Grandchildren include
   Philip II of Spain (future Philip I of Portugal)
   António, Prior of Crato (future Anthony I) (illegitimate)
   Infanta Maria of Guimarães, Duchess of Parma and Piacenza
   Infanta Catarina of Guimarães, Duchess of Braganza
Great-Grandchildren include
   Teodósio II, Duke of Braganza
   Rannuccio Farnense of Parma
Great-Great-Grandchildren include
   John II, Duke of Braganza (future John IV of Portugal)
John III
Children include
   Infanta Maria Manuela, Princess of Asturias
   João, Crown Prince of Portugal
Grandchildren include
   Infante Sebastião (future Sebastian I)
   Carlos, Prince of Asturias
Sebastian
Henry
Anthony (disputed king)

John III, King of Portugal KGF (Portuguese: João III pron. IPA [ʒu'ɐ̃ũ]) (June 6, 1502June 11, 1557), nicknamed o Piedoso ("the Pious"), was the fifteenth King of Portugal and Algarves. Download high resolution version (651x992, 95 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (651x992, 95 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The House of Aviz is a dynasty of kings of Portugal. ... Image File history File links Ordem_Avis. ... João I (pron. ... Duarte of Portugal (Edward, in English), the Philosopher or the Eloquent, the 11th king of Portugal, was born in Viseu on October 31, 1391 and he died in Tomar on September 13, 1438. ... Pedro, Duke of Coimbra Pedro, Infante of Portugal, Duke of Coimbra KG (pron. ... Henrique, Duke of Viseu (March 4, 1394–November 13, 1460); pron. ... Isabella of Portugal, by Rogier van der Weyden. ... John of Portugal (Portuguese: João, pron. ... Fernando of Portugal, the Saint Prince (pron. ... Afonso I, Duke of Braganza (1377-1461; pron. ... Beatrice of Portugal (Portuguese: Beatriz, pron. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Duarte of Portugal (Edward, in English), the Philosopher or the Eloquent, the 11th king of Portugal, was born in Viseu on October 31, 1391 and he died in Tomar on September 13, 1438. ... Afonso V of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ... Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu Ferdinand, Prince of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (1433–, Portuguese: Fernando, pron. ... Eneias Silvio Piccolomini (the future Pope Pius II celebrating the marriage between Frederick III and Leonor. ... Catherine of Portugal may also refer to Catherine of Braganza Catherine of Portugal (1436–1463, Portuguese: Catarina, pron. ... For the Portuguese princess, daughter of Afonso V of Portugal, and commonly known as Princess Saint Joan see: Joan of Portugal (nun) Joan of Portugal (1439–1475, Portuguese: Joana, pron. ... Manuel I of Portugal (pron. ... Leonor of Viseu (1458-1525) was a Princess and later Queen of Portugal. ... Afonso V of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ... For the Portuguese infanta, daughter of Edward of Portugal, see: Joan of Portugal Blessed Joan of Portugal (1452-1490), known in Portugal as Saint Joan Princess (Portuguese: Santa Joana Princesa, pron. ... John II of Portugal João II of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ... John II of Portugal João II of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ... Prince Afonso of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ... George of Portugal (Portuguese: Jorge) was a Portuguese Prince, natural son of King John II of Portugal and Ana de Mendonça, a maid of Joan, La Beltraneja. ... Manuel I of Portugal (pron. ... Infante Miguel da Paz de Avis e de Trastamare (1498–1500, pron. ... Isabella of Portugal, Queen of Spain and Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, by Titian. ... Beatrice of Portugal (Portuguese: Beatriz, pron. ... Louis, Duke of Beja. ... Ferdinand of Portugal, Duke of Guarda (1507–1534, Portuguese: Fernando, pron. ... Afonso, Prince of Portugal, Cardinal of the Kingdom (1509–1540, Portuguese pron. ... Henry, the cardinal-king or Henrique (in Portuguese) the Chaste (Port. ... Duarte, Duke of Guimarães Edward of Portugal (Portuguese language: Duarte, pron. ... Maria of Portugal (1521–1577, pron. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anthony I of Portugal (Portuguese: António, pron. ... Maria of Portugal (August 12, 1538, Lisbon-September 7, 1577, Parma, Italy) Princess of Portugal, she was the daughter of Prince Duarte, 4th Duke of Guimarães (son of Portuguese King Manuel I), and Isabel of Braganza. ... Catarina, Duchess of Braganza (pron. ... Teodósio II of Bragança (pron. ... Ranuccio Farnese (March 28, 1569 — March 5, 1622) or Ranuccio I, was the fourth Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1592 until his death. ... John IV of Portugal (Portuguese: João IV de Portugal pron. ... Maria Manuela of Portugal Maria Manuela of Portugal (pron. ... Infante D. João of Portugal. ... Sebastian I the Desired (in Portuguese, Sebastião I o Desejado; born in Lisbon, January 20, 1554; died at Alcazarquivir, August 4, 1578) was the sixteenth king of Portugal. ... Don Carlos (1545-1568) Don Carlos (July 8, 1545 – July 24, 1568), Prince of Asturias was the son of King Philip II of Spain by his first wife Maria Manuela, daughter of John III of Portugal. ... Sebastian I the Desired (in Portuguese, Sebastião I o Desejado; born in Lisbon, January 20, 1554; died at Alcazarquivir, August 4, 1578) was the sixteenth king of Portugal. ... Henry, the cardinal-king or Henrique (in Portuguese) the Chaste (Port. ... Anthony I of Portugal (Portuguese: António) (Lisbon, 1531 – Paris, August 26, 1595), known by The Prior of Crato (and, rarely, as The Determined, The Fighter or The Independentist), was a grandson of Manuel I, claimant of the Portuguese throne during the 1580 crisis (struggle for the throne of Portugal... The Order of the Golden Fleece (Spanish: Orden del Toisón de Oro) is an order of chivalry founded in 1430 by Duke Philip III of Burgundy to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabelle of Aviz. ... Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... Events Spain is effectively bankrupt. ... This is a List of Portuguese monarchs from the independence of Portugal from Castile in 1139, to the beginning of the Republic in October 5, 1910. ...


Born in Lisbon, he was the son of King Manuel I and his queen consort, Maria of Aragon (the third daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain). John succeeded his father in 1521, at the age of nineteen. He ascended to the throne while the Portuguese Empire was at the height of its mercantile and colonial power, and its capital, Lisbon, occupied a position of global commercial importance. During his rule, Portuguese possessions were extended in Asia and in the New World through the Portuguese colonization of Brazil. John III's policy of reinforcing Portugal's bases in India (such as Goa) secured Portugal's monopoly over the spice trade of cloves from the Moluccas and nutmeg from the Banda Islands, as a result of which John III has been called the "Grocer King". Location  - Region  - Subregion  - District or A.R.   Lisbon Grande Lisboa Lisbon Mayor  - Party Carmona Rodrigues PSD Area 84. ... Manuel I of Portugal (pron. ... King George V of the United Kingdom and his consort, Queen Mary A queen consort is the wife and consort of a reigning king. ... Mary of Aragon or Mary of Spain or even Mary of Castile (June 29, 1482-March 7, 1517) was an Aragonese princess, second wife of Portuguese King Manuel I and because of that queen consort of Portugal from 1500 until her death. ... Ferdinand II of Aragon Ferdinand II the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: Ferran dAragó el Catòlic) (March 10, 1452 – June 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479-1516), Castile, Sicily (1468-1516), Naples (1504-1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Isabella of Castile Isabella (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Maximum extent of Portuguese colonial possessions in the 16th century. ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of dookie mercantilism. ... Location  - Region  - Subregion  - District or A.R.   Lisbon Grande Lisboa Lisbon Mayor  - Party Carmona Rodrigues PSD Area 84. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... In economics, a monopoly (from the Latin word monopolium - Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service. ... Spices at the central market of Agadir, Morocco in May 2005 The spice trade has been of major economic importance throughout human history and it particularly helped spur the Age of Exploration. ... This article is about spices, the word clove is also used to describe a segment of a head of garlic and a clove hitch is a useful kind of knot. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ... Species About 100 species, including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica malabarica The nutmegs Myristica (Hindi Jaiphal) are a genus of evergreen trees indigenous to tropical southeast Asia and Australasia. ... Banda Besar island seen from Fort Belgica The Banda Islands (Kepulauan Banda in Bahasa Indonesia) are a group of ten small volcanic islands in the Banda Sea, about 140km south of Seram island and about 2000km east of Java, and are part of the Indonesian province of Maluku. ...


During his reign, the Portuguese became the first Europeans to make contact with both China, under the Ming Dynasty, and Japan, during the Muromachi period of Nanban. He abandoned Muslim territories in North Africa in favor of trade with India and investment in Brazil. In Europe, he improved relations with the Baltic region and the Rhineland, hoping that this would bolster Portuguese trade. Ming redirects here. ... The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ... The period of Nanban (Southern Barbarian) contacts in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1650, under the promulgation of the Seclusion Laws. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... The Baltic Sea The Baltic region (sometimes briefly The Baltics) is an ambiguous term used to denominate an arbitrary region connected to the Baltic Sea (also called The Baltics). ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany, although some consider the lands to the east of the river culturally distinct, jovially referring to them as Schäl Sick; the bad or wrong side... A fruit stand at a market. ...


John was responsible for the evangelization of the Far East and Brazil, in part through the introduction of Jesuit missions there. Both the Jesuits and the Portuguese Inquisition, introduced in 1536, were to become key institutions in Portugal and its Empire. The Jesuits were particularly important for mediating Portuguese relations with native peoples and the Inquisition served to spare Portugal the civil upheavals of religious warfare of the sort that occurred in France and elsewhere in Europe during the 16th century. In the final years of John's reign, Portugal's colony of Brazil was just beginning its rapid development as a producer of sugar that compensated for the gradual decline of revenues from Asia, a development that would continue during the reign of his grandson and successor, Sebastian, who became king upon the death of John of apoplexy in 1557. Evangelism is the proclaiming of the Christian Gospel. ... Far East is an inexact term often used for East Asia and Southeast Asia combined, sometimes including also the easternmost territories of Russia, i. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe. ... Events February 2 - Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... Sebastian I the Desired (in Portuguese, Sebastião I o Desejado; born in Lisbon, January 20, 1554; died at Alcazarquivir, August 4, 1578) was the sixteenth king of Portugal. ... Apoplexy is an old-fashioned medical term, generally used interchangeably with cerebrovascular accident (CVA or stroke) but having other meanings as well. ...

Contents

Early life

Prince John, the eldest son of King Manuel, was born on June 6, 1502. The event was marked by a masterpiece of Portuguese theater, Gil Vicente's Visitation Play, or: the Monologue of the Cowherd (Auto da Visitação ou Monólgo do Vaqueiro) presented in the Queen's chamber. June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle &#8212... Gil Vicente (c. ...


The young prince was sworn heir to the throne in 1503 and was educated by notables of the time, including the astrologer Tomás de Torres and Diogo de Ortiz, Bishop of Viseu. One of his teachers was Luís Teixeira, a humanist educated in Italy. John's chronicler said that "Dom João III faced problems easily, complementing his lack of culture with a practice formation that he always showed during his reign" (António de Castilho, Elogio d'el-rei D. João de Portugal, terceiro, do nome). In 1514, he was given his own house, and a few years later began to help his father in administrative duties. An astrologer, in modern times, is a person who practices a form or forms of astrology; in earlier times, they were observer of the stars. ... Tomás de Torres was a Portuguese teacher of King John III of Portugal, an astrologer and an eminent doctor during the early 16th century in Portugal. ... D. Diogo Ortiz de Villegas, called sometimes Diogo Ortiz was one of the teachers of Portugal King John III of Portugal. ... Luís Teixeira was one of the teachers of Portuguese King John III of Portugal. ... Humanism is a broad category of active ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationalism. ... Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica) is historical account of facts and events in chronological order. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ...

Lisbon in the 16th century. Then the richest city in Europe.
Lisbon in the 16th century. Then the richest city in Europe.

At sixteen he was chosen to marry his first cousin, the 20-year-old Eleanor of Austria, eldest daughter of Philip the Handsome of Austria-Burgundy and queen Joanna of Castile, but instead she married his widowed father King Manuel I. John took deep offence at this: his chroniclers say he became melancholy and was never quite the same. Some historians also claim this was one of the main reasons that John later became fervently religious. ImageMetadata File history File links Lisboa_sec_16. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Lisboa_sec_16. ... Eleanor of Austria, sometimes known also as Leonor of Castile (November 15, 1498 - February 25, 1558) was born Archduchess of Austria and Infanta of Spain, became subsequently in turn queen consort of Portugal (1518-1521) and of France, also duchess of Touraine (1547-1558) as dower. ... Philip I (July 22, 1478 — September 25, 1506), sometimes called Philip the Handsome (Felipe el Hermoso) was king of Castile, son of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and husband of Joanna the Mad, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, was the founder of the Habsburg dynasty in Spain. ... Joanna of Castile Joanna (Spanish: Juana) (November 6, 1479 – April 11, 1555), called the Mad (la Loca), queen of Castile and mother of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, was the second daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, king and queen of Spain, and was born at Toledo on November...


Early Reign

On December 19, 1521, at the age of 19, he was crowned king in the Church of Saint Dominique in Lisbon, beginning a thirty-six-year reign characterized by intense activity in internal and overseas politics, especially in relations with other major European states. December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Location  - Region  - Subregion  - District or A.R.   Lisbon Grande Lisboa Lisbon Mayor  - Party Carmona Rodrigues PSD Area 84. ...


The marriage of John's sister, Princess Isabella of Portugal, to Charles V enabled the Portuguese king to forge a stronger alliance with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. To strengthen his ties with Austria, he married his maternal first cousin Catarina of Spain, younger sister of Charles V and his erstwhile fiancée Eleanor, in the town of Crato. John had nine children from that marriage, but most of them died young. By the time of John's death, only his grandson, Sebastian, was alive to inherit the crown. Isabella of Portugal (1503 - 1539) was princess of Portugal. ... Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Aragon and Castile. ... The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... Catherine of Habsburg or Catherine of Austria (14 January 1507– 12 February 1578) was Queen consort of Portugal. ... Crato is a city of 110,000 inhabitants on the banks of the river Granjeiro in the south of the state of Ceará, in the northeast of Brazil. ... Sebastian I the Desired (in Portuguese, Sebastião I o Desejado; born in Lisbon, January 20, 1554; died at Alcazarquivir, August 4, 1578) was the sixteenth king of Portugal. ...


John III continued to centralize the absolutist politics of his ancestors. He called for the Cortes only three times and at great intervals: 1525 in Torres Novas, 1535 in Évora and 1544 in Almeirim. He also tried to restructure administrative and judicial life in his realm. Absolutism is a political theory which argues that one person, who is often generally a monarch, should hold all power. ... People Hernán Cortés, 16th century Spanish conquistador Institutions Corte (disambiguation), for the judicial bodies of the Spanish-speaking Americas, and the communes in France and Italy Cortes Generales (General Courts), usually just las Cortes, national legislative assembly of Spain The term Cortes is also used for the historic... Coat of Arms Torres Novas (pron. ... District or region Évora Mayor   - Party Ernesto Oliveira PS Area 1,307. ... Coat of Arms Almeirim is a municipality in Portugal with a total area of 222. ...


Decline

Toward the end of John III's reign, Portugal entered a period of serious economic, social, and political problems, resulting in the wane of Portuguese power.


Economic pressure

The large and far-flung Portuguese Empire was difficult and expensive to administer, and was burdened with huge external debt and trade deficits. Portugal's Indian and Far Eastern interests grew increasingly chaotic under the poor administration of ambitious governors. John III responded with new appointments which proved troubled and short-lived: in some cases, the new governors even had to fight their predecessors to take up their appointment. The resulting failures in administration brought on a gradual decline of the Portuguese trade monopoly. Maximum extent of Portuguese colonial possessions in the 16th century. ... Balance of trade figures are the sum of the money gained by a given economy by selling exports, minus the cost of buying imports. ...


Among John III's many governors of this region, were Vasco da Gama, Henrique de Meneses, Pedro Mascaranhas, Lopo Vaz de Sampaio, Nuno da Cunha, Estêvão da Gama, Martim Afonso de Sousa and João de Castro. Vasco da Gama Vasco da Gama (IPA: (Sines or Vidigueira, Alentejo, Portugal, c. ... Categories: Historical stubs ... Estevão da Gama (flourished 16th century) was a Portuguese admiral. ... Martim Afonso de Sousa (1500-1571) was a Portuguese explorer. ... João de Castro João de Castro (February 7, 1500 - June 6, 1548) was a Portugese naval officer and fourth viceroy of the Portuguese Indies. ...


Rise of the Jesuits brings social and economic conflict

The establishment of the Society of Jesus in 1534, (approved by Pope Paul III in 1540), and the introduction of the Portuguese Inquisition in 1536, (a result of John's religious fanaticism), were also causes of the country's economic woes. John was so determined to introduce the Inquisition, that he spent vast quantities of gold in embassies to the Pope. While the Society of Jesus had a valuable role to play overseas in evangelizing native populations, within Portugal it had a devastating impact, draining the gold of the Empire - offered by John himself - to erect a great number of religious buildings. The Jesuits also propitiated an environment of instability within some parts of the nobility, the majority of the existent religious orders, and with the Universities that saw it as a rival motivated by religious fanaticism. Finally, the Inquisition's persecution of many important Jewish merchants, who were killed or had to flee the country, had a damaging effect on the economy. Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Paul III, né Alessandro Farnese (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549) was pope from 1534 to 1549. ... An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe. ... Fundamentalism is a movement to maintain strict adherence to founding principles. ... Evangelism is the proclaiming of the Christian Gospel. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the door of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... Catholic religious orders are organizations of laity and/orclergy in the Roman Catholic Church who live under a common rule. ... The University of Coimbra (Portuguese: Universidade de Coimbra) is a Portuguese public university in Coimbra, Portugal. ... This article describes some ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity; for a consideration of the Jewish religion, refer to the article Judaism. ... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ...


Military pressures

Overseas, the Empire was threatened by Turkey in both the Indian Ocean and North Africa, causing Portugal to increase spending on defense and fortifications. Meanwhile, in the Atlantic, where Portuguese ships already had to withstand constant attacks of corsairs, an initial settlement of French colonists in Brazil created yet another "front". The French made alliances with native South Americans against the Portuguese and military and political interventions were used. Eventually they were forced out, but not until 1565.  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of the Earths surface. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


In the first years of John III's reign, explorations in the Far East continued and the Portuguese reached China and Japan; however, these accomplishments were offset by pressure from a strengthening Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent, especially in India where attacks became more frequent. The expense of defending Indian interests was huge. To pay for it, John III abandoned a number of strongholds in North Africa (Safim, Azamor, Alcacer Ceguer and Arzila). Far East is an inexact term often used for East Asia and Southeast Asia combined, sometimes including also the easternmost territories of Russia, i. ... now. ... Suleiman I (Modern Turkish: Süleyman; Arabic: ‎ Sulaymān) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth Osmanli Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and its longest-serving, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... Asfi (french Safi) is a city located in western Morocco, by the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Alcácer Ceguer (also know as El Qsar es Seghir) was a Moroccan stronghold in the Strait of Gibraltrar, between Tanger and Ceuta. ... Asilah or Arzila is a city situated on the northwest tip of Morocco with a history back to 1500 B.C. The Phoenicians used the city as a trading site. ...


Dynastic crisis

King John III of Portugal.
King John III of Portugal.

All of John III's children predeceased him, although one son, also named John, had sired a child by Joanna of Austria before he died. This posthumous son became King Sebastian I. Sebastian had no children. After his early death the crown passed to his great-uncle Cardinal Henry I (John's brother). He, too, had no chidren and reigned for only two years (1578-1580). The ensuing dynastic crisis opened the way for Philip II of Spain to take over Portugal for the Habsburg dynasty. Image File history File links Reijoaoiii. ... Image File history File links Reijoaoiii. ... Infante D. João of Portugal. ... Joan, Infanta of Spain (Spanish: Juana), of the Habsburg family, was the daughter of Emperor Charles V who was the first king of united Spain (officially King of Aragon and king of Castile), and his consort Infanta Isabel of Portugal, daughter of King Manuel I of Portugal. ... Sebastian I the Desired (in Portuguese, Sebastião I o Desejado; born in Lisbon, January 20, 1554; died at Alcazarquivir, August 4, 1578) was the sixteenth king of Portugal. ... Henry, the cardinal or Henrique (in Portuguese) (January 31, 1512 - January 31, 1580), was the seventeenth King of Portugal between 1578 and 1580. ...

International relations

Portuguese flag during the reign of John III.
Portuguese flag during the reign of John III.

The reign of John III was marked by diplomacy. With Spain, he made alliances through marriage (himself with Catarina of Spain; Isabella, princess of Portugal with Charles V; Maria, princess of Portugal – his daughter – with Philip II of Spain, and others) which ensured peace in the Iberian Peninsula for a number of years. However, the intermarriage of these closely related royal families may have been one of the factors contributing to the poor health of John's children and the future King Sebastian's reported madness. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Flag of Portugal ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Flag of Portugal ... Flag Ratio: 2:3 The flag of Portugal is a 2:3 green and red rectangle divided vertically into green at the hoist (2/5 of the flag’s length) and red at the fly (3/5). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ...


John III remained neutral during the war between France and Spain, but stood firm in fighting French corsair attacks. He strengthened relations with Rome by introducing the Inquisition in Portugal and the adhesion of the Portuguese clergy to the Counter-Reformation. This relationship with the Catholic Church made it possible for John to name whomever he wanted, to important religious positions in Portugal: his brothers Henry and Afonso were made Cardinals, and his natural son Duarte was made Archbishop of Braga. A privateer was a private ship (or its captain) authorized by a countrys government to attack and seize cargo from another countrys ships. ... The Papal States (Gli Stati della Chiesa or Stati Pontificii, States of the Church) was one of the major historical states of Italy before the boot-shaped peninsula was unified under the Piedmontese crown of Savoy (later a republic). ... The term Inquisition (Latin: Inquisitio Haereticae Pravitatis Sanctum Officium) refers broadly to a number of historical movements orchestrated by the Roman Catholic Church aimed at securing religious and doctrinal unity by converting through coercion, and sometimes persecution, of alleged heretics. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Henry, the cardinal-king or Henrique (in Portuguese) the Chaste (Port. ... Afonso, Prince of Portugal, Cardinal of the Kingdom (Portuguese pron. ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official in the Roman Catholic Church, ranking just below the Pope and appointed by him as a member of the College of Cardinals during a consistory. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... District or region Braga Mayor   - Party Mesquita Machado PS Area 183. ...


Commercial relations were intensified with England, the countries of the Baltic and Flanders during John's reign. Meanwhile, at the other end of the world, Portugal was the first European nation to make contact with Japan. In China, Macau was offered to the Portuguese, and soon Portugal controlled major trading routes in the area. In the South, the Portuguese continued its hostile stance against their Muslim rivals and insurgent Indian leaders. In the Moluccas John achieved an important political victory, securing the control of the area in spite of Spanish claims. Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The terms Baltic countries, Baltic Sea countries, Baltic states, and Balticum refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea. ... Flanders (Dutch: Vlaanderen) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ...


Culture

John III's support for the humanist cause was significant. In literature, his active support of Gil Vicente, Garcia de Resende, Sá de Miranda, Bernardim Ribeiro, Fernão Mendes Pinto, João de Barros and Luís de Camões was notable. In the sciences, John III supported Pedro Nunes and Garcia de Orta. Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Gil Vicente (c. ... Garcia de Resende (1470-1536) was a Portuguese poet and editor. ... Francisco de Sá de Miranda (1485-1558), pron. ... Bernardim Ribeiro (1482 - 1552) was a Portuguese poet and writer. ... Fernão Mendes Pinto Fernão Mendes Pinto (pron. ... João de Barros (1496 - October 20, 1570), called the Portuguese Livy, may be said to have been the first great historian of his country. ... Luís de Camões Monument to Luís de Camões, Lisbon Luís Vaz de Camões (pron. ... Pedro Nunes (latin, Petrus Nonius), (1502, Alcácer do Sal – August 11, 1578, Coimbra) was a Portuguese mathematician, maybe born from a New Christian (of Jewish origin) family. ... Garcia de Orta was a Renaissance Portuguese medical doctor and naturalist. ...


The monarch awarded many scholarships in Universities abroad (mainly in Paris) and definitively transferred the Lisbon to Coimbra in 1537. He quickly recalled the many prominent Portuguese-born figures of European education and provided the University with excellent conditions. However, the importance of the University of Coimbra was reduced by the advent of the Society of Jesus. The Society founded colleges and made education more widely available, but it also created great instability in Portuguese education, setting itself up as a rival of the University of Coimbra, often taking a conservative position against any innovation. The Inquisition also arrested and killed many prominent teachers and censured new ideals like the Erasmism. A scholarship is an award of access to an institution or a financial aid award for an individual (a scholar) for the purposes of furthering their education. ... Part of the Paris skyline with from left to right: Montparnasse Tower, Eiffel Tower, and in the background, towers of neighboring La Défense. ... The University of Lisbon (Universidade de Lisboa) is a leading public university in Lisbon, Portugal, and is composed by eight faculties. ... The University of Coimbra (Portuguese: Universidade de Coimbra) is a Portuguese public university in Coimbra, Portugal. ... This article deals with the Erasmus, the theologian. ...


Another noteworthy aspect, was the support that John gave to missionaries in the New World, Asia and Africa. A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ...


Inquisition

An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe
An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe

The Inquisition was introduced into Portugal by John III in 1536. Manuel I had originally asked for permission to institute the Inquisition in 1515, but the request was granted only after John III had bribed the Papacy sufficiently. As in Spain, the Inquisition was placed under the authority of the King. The Grand Inquisitor, or General Inquisitor, was named by the Pope after being nominated by the king and he always came from within the royal family. The Grand Inquisitor would later nominate other inquisitors. In Portugal, the first Grand Inquisitor was Cardinal Henry, the king's brother (who would later himself become King). There were Courts of the Inquisition in Lisbon, Coimbra and Évora and, from 1560 onwards, in Goa. The Goa Inquisition changed the demographics of Goa considerably. Download high resolution version (447x762, 127 KB)Pedro Berruguete. ... Download high resolution version (447x762, 127 KB)Pedro Berruguete. ... The term Inquisition (Latin: Inquisitio Haereticae Pravitatis Sanctum Officium) refers broadly to a number of historical movements orchestrated by the Roman Catholic Church aimed at securing religious and doctrinal unity by converting through coercion, and sometimes persecution, of alleged heretics. ... Manuel I can refer to: Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine emperor (1143-1180) Manuel I of Portugal, King of Portugal (1495-1521) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... John III was the name of a number of rulers: Pope John III John III of Constantinople John III Ducas Vatatzes John III of Poland John III of Portugal John III of Sweden John III, Duke of Brabant John III, Duke of Brittany This is a disambiguation page — a navigational... Grand Inquisitor (Latin: Inquisitor Generalis) is the lead official of an Inquisition. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... Members of the British royal family A royal family is the extended family of a monarch. ... Henry, the cardinal-king or Henrique (in Portuguese) the Chaste (Port. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... The Goa Inquisition was the office of the Inquisition acting in the Indian city of Goa and the rest of the Portuguese empire in Asia. ...


The activities of the Inquisition extended to book censure, repression and trial for divination, witchcraft and bigamy as well as the prosecution of sexual crimes, especially sodomy. Book censure proved to have a strong influence in Portuguese cultural evolution, serving to keep the country in ignorance and cultural backwardness. Originally created to punish religious deviance, the Inquisition came to have influence in almost every aspect of Portuguese society: politically, culturally and socially. Censure is a process by which a formal reprimand is issued to an individual by an authoritative body. ... This article is about the religious practice of divination. ... Witchcraft, in various historical, religious and mythical contexts, is the use of certain kinds of alleged supernatural or magical powers. ... Polygamy, literally many marriages in ancient Greek, is a marital practice in which a person has more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has a maximum of one spouse at any one time). ... Cultural evolution is the structural change of a society and its values over time. ...


The Portuguese Empire under John III

Africa

Luso-African Relations

In John III's time, trade between the Portuguese and Africans was extremely intense in the feitorias like Arguim, Mina, Mombasa, Sofala or Moçambique. "Common products were salt, wheat, horses, carpets, fabric, Irish and English clothing, blades, tin for African natives' coins, copper or tin vases, shells from the Canary Islands that Ethiopians carry on their necks as an amulet against lightning, yellow and green beads from Nuremberg, and brass armlets" (Basílio Vasconcelos, «Itinerário» de Jerónimo Münzer, 1932), in exchange for gold, slaves, ivory and bush redpepper brought by the Portuguese. Arguin is an island off the west coast of Mauritania in the Bay of Arguin, at 20° 36 N., 16° 27 W. It is 6 km long by 2 broad. ... Mina can refer to: Places Mina, Gabon Mina, Greece Mina, Iloilo, in the Philippines. ... Mombasa is the second largest city in Kenya, lying on the Indian Ocean. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Mozambique ... Mozambique is a country in Southern Africa, bordering South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. ... A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) In chemistry, a salt is any ionic compound composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... Species T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat (Triticum spp. ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... Carpet is a general term given to any loom-woven or felted textile and to grass floor coverings. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that folding clothes be merged into this article or section. ... A blade is the flat part of a bladed tool or weapon that (usually) has a cutting edge and/or pointed end typically made of a metal, such as steel used to cut, stab, slice, throw, thrust, or strike. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Atomic mass 118. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ... Various seashells The hard, rigid outer covering of certain animals is called a shell. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Map of the Portuguese Empire during John III's reign.
Map of the Portuguese Empire during John III's reign.

"Now, I [John III] say, like you said that there was no capture of slaves in your Kingdom [of Congo], I just want to provide you [King of the Congo] with flour and wine for your Eucharistic rites, and for that it would only be needed a caravelão [a kind of caravel] each year; if it seems right to you, in exchange for 10,000 slaves and 10,000 armlets and 10,000 ivory tooth, that, it is said, in the Congo there is not much, not even a ship per year; so, this and more shall be as you want." (Letter of John III to the King of the Congo). ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 140 KB) Map of the Portuguese Empire File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 140 KB) Map of the Portuguese Empire File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Manikongo was the title of the ruler of the 14th century - 17th century Kingdom of Kongo, a large area consisting of land in present-day Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola, who ruled from the kingdoms capital Mbanza-Kongo, present day capital city of the Angolan province of...


Under John III, several expeditions started in coastal Africa and advanced to the interior of the continent. These expeditions were formed by groups of navigators, merchants, adventurers and missionaries. Missions in Africa were established by the College of Arts of Coimbra. The objective was to increase the king's dominion, develop peace relations and to christianize the native population. A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... A navigator is the person onboard a ship responsible for the navigation of the vessel. ... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... An adventurer or adventuress is one who takes part in a risky or speculative course of action for profit or position, or one who lives by his or her wits. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition. ...


Defense and abandonment of North African strongholds

John III refused to abandon all of the Portuguese North African strongholds, but he had to make choices:


"To want to have such a costly thing, and from which there came no profits wasn’t wise, mainly for who had so great expenditures and so huge and necessary, that cannot be stopped." (Unknown, Relações de Pero Alcáçova Carneiro, etc., 1937)


John III decided to abandon Safim and Azamor in 1541, followed by Arzila and Alcácer Ceguer in 1549. The fortresses of Ceuta, Tangiers and Mazagan were strengthened "to face the new military techniques, imposed by the generalization of heavy artillery, combined with light fire weapons and blades" (José Mattoso dir., História de Portugal, 1993). Asfi (french Safi) is a city located in western Morocco, by the Atlantic Ocean. ... Azemmour or Azamor is a moroccan city, on the left margin of Morbea river, 75km southwest of Casablanca. ... Asilah or Arzila is a city situated on the northwest tip of Morocco with a history back to 1500 B.C. The Phoenicians used the city as a trading site. ... Alcácer Ceguer (also know as El Qsar es Seghir) was a Moroccan stronghold in the Strait of Gibraltrar, between Tanger and Ceuta. ... Area  â€“ Total   28 km² Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ Density  75,276  2688. ... Tangier (in Berber and Arabic Tanja, in Spanish Tánger and in French Tanger) is a city of northern Morocco with a population of 350,000, or 550,000 including suburbs. ... El Jadida is a port city on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, in the province of El Jadida. ...


"There were years when the King had thought with his great judgement (…) to abandon the cities of Safim and Azamor (…). It was certain that Safim had no port and the river of Azamor was not navigable (…). The cost was too much that resulted in fruits of no consideration (…)" (Frei Luís de Sousa, Anais de D. João III, 1983). Luís de Sousa (Manoel de Sousa Coutinho) (1555 - 1632), Portuguese monk and prose-writer, was born at Santarem, a member of the noble family of Sousa Coutinho. ...


John III declared every male subject between 20 and 65 years old recruitable on 7 August 1549. August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ...


"Every nobleman, like all my servants and those who are not, and every knight, squire, servants of mine, my brothers, and any other person that might have them [horses], I order them to have the horses ready." (idem)


Asia

Luso-Asian relations

Before the reign of John III, the Portuguese had already reached Siam (1511), the Moluccas (1512), the Chinese littoral (1513), Canton (1517) and Timor (1515). During John's, rule the Portuguese reached Japan, and at the end of John's reign, Macao was offered to Portugal by China. Anthem: Phleng Chat Royal anthem: Phleng Sansoen Phra Barami Capital Bangkok Largest city Bangkok Official language(s) Thai Government Military junta under Constitutional monarchy  - King HM The King Bhumibol Adulyadej  - Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont  - President of the Council of National Security Gen. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ... (Simplified Chinese: 广州; Traditional Chinese: 廣州; pinyin: GuÇŽngzhōu; Wade-Giles: Kuang-chou; Postal System Pinyin: Canton) is the capital of Guangdong Province in southern China. ... Map of Timor Timor Island from space, November 1989. ...


"From India, he [John III] receives all kinds of spice, drug & stone & many cotton clothes, taficiras and alaquecas [kinds of Indian fabrics]. From Malacca, clovetrees, marzipan, sandalwood, camphor, porcelains, beijoim & calaim [kinds of spices]. From Bengala, sinafabos, flannel, chautares , castor beans, & rebotins that are kinds of thin fabric made of cotton (…). From Alexandria & Cairo, red dyewood, cinnabars, saffron, copper, rosed waters, borcados [a kind of silk], velvets, taffeta, grains of wood, camlets, gold & silver in bars, & in coins, & carpets. From China, musk, rhubarb, & silk in exchange of gromwells, pearls, horses from Arabia & Persia, non worked silk, silk embroidery threads, fruits of the date palm, raisins, salt, sulphur & many other goods." (Fernão Lopes de Castanheda, História do Descobrimento e Conquista da Índia pelos Portugueses, 1979)


Defence

Portuguese helmet
Portuguese helmet

As Muslims and other peoples constantly attacked Portuguese fleets in the area, and because India was so far from mainland Portugal, it was extremely difficult for John III to assure Portuguese dominion in this area. A Viceroy, a Governor-General with extensive powers, was nominated, but it was not enough. The Portuguese started by creating feitorias – commercial strongholds (Cochin, Cannanore, Coulão, Cranganore and Tanor) – with the initial objective of establishing just a commercial dominion in the region. Image File history File links A Portuguese elm of the 16th century. ... Image File history File links A Portuguese elm of the 16th century. ... A rare occurance of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Kochi (Malayalam: കൊച്ചി []), formerly known as Cochin, is the largest city in the state of Kerala, India, and one of the principal seaports in the country. ... Kannur district in Kerala Kannur or Cannanore is a district (and also the name of the town which is its headquarters) in northern Kerala, a state in India. ... Cranganore (modern day Kodungallur) was a famous and prosperous sea-port in the southern Indian state of Kerala, about 38 km from the present day Cochin. ...


The hostility of many Indian kingdoms, and the alliances between sultans and zamorins to expel the Portuguese, made it necessary for the Europeans to establish a sovereign state. So, Portugal militarily occupied some key cities on the Indian coast, and Goa (1512) became the headquarters of the Portuguese Empire in the East. Goa became a starting point for the introduction of European cultural and religious values in India, and churches, schools and hospitals were built. Goa remained an overseas possession of Portugal until it India recovered it in 1975. The Sultan in Disneys Aladdin A Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Zamorin, a title of the kings of Kozhikode (Calicut) The Samoothiri Raja (anglicized as Zamorin) were the erstwhile rulers of Kozhikode (Calicut). ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ...


Portuguese arrival in Japan

The Portuguese arrived in Japan in 1543. Japan was known to Portugal since the time of Marco Polo, who called it Cipango. Whether Portuguese nationals were the first Europeans to arrive in Japan is debatable. Some say it was the writer Fernão Mendes Pinto, and others say the navigators António Peixoto, António da Mota and Francisco Zeimoto. Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who, together with his father Niccolò and his uncle Maffeo, was one of the first Westerners to travel the Silk Road to China (which he called Cathay) and visited the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire... Fernão Mendes Pinto Fernão Mendes Pinto (pron. ...


Portuguese traders started negotiating with Japan earlier than 1550, and established a base there at Nagasaki. By then, trade with Japan was a Portuguese monopoly, under the rule of a Captain. Because the Portuguese established themselves in Macau, Chinese commercial relations, mainly the silver trade with Japan, were improved under John III's rule. Nagasaki City Hall Mayor {{{Mayor}}} Address 〒850-8685 Nagasaki-shi, Sakura-machi 2-22 Phone number 095-825-5151 Official website: www1. ... In economics, a monopoly (from the Latin word monopolium - Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service. ... This article concerns the rank and title of Captain. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ...


Moluccas

After the voyage of Ferdinand Magellan, the Castilians claimed the recently discovered Moluccas Islands. In 1524, a conference of experts (cartographers, cosmographers, pilots, etc.) was held to solve the dispute caused by the difficulty of determining the meridian agreed to in the Treaty of Tordesillas. The Portuguese delegation sent by John III included names such as António de Azevedo Coutinho, Diogo Lopes de Sequeira, Lopo Homem and Simão Fernandes. Ferdinand Magellan (Portuguese: Fernão de Magalhães, IPA pronunciation: //; Spanish: Fernando or Hernando de Magallanes; Spring 1480–April 27, 1521) was a Portuguese maritime explorer who, at the service of Spain, led the first successful attempt to sail around the entire Earth. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ... Cartography is the study of map making and cartographers are map makers. ... Cosmography is the science that maps the general features of the universe; describes both heaven and earth (but without encroaching on geography or astronomy) A representation of the earth or the heavens. ... On the earth, a meridian is a north-south line between the North Pole and the South Pole. ... There are English source documents for or relating to this article that could be added to Wikipedias sister project, Wikisource. ...


The dispute was settled in 1529 by the Treaty of Zaragoza, signed by John III and Charles I of Spain. The Portuguese paid 350,000 golden ducados to Spain and secured their presence in the islands. The Treaty of Tordesillas (signed at Tordesillas (Castile), June 7, 1494) divided the world outside of Europe in an exclusive duopoly between the Spanish and the Portuguese along a north-south meridian 370 leagues (1770 km; 1100 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands (off the west coast of Africa... The word Ducados has several different meanings. ...


This payment should not have been a necessity, as Portugal was actually entitled to the islands, according to the Treaty of Tordesillas. There are English source documents for or relating to this article that could be added to Wikipedias sister project, Wikisource. ...


Macau

In 1553, Leonel de Sousa obtained authorization for the Portuguese to establish, in Canton and Macau. Macau was later offered to John III as a reward for the Portuguese assistance against maritime piracy in the period between 1557 and 1564. (Simplified Chinese: 广州; Traditional Chinese: 廣州; pinyin: Guǎngzhōu; Wade-Giles: Kuang-chou; Postal System Pinyin: Canton) is the capital of Guangdong Province in southern China. ... The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack Piracy is robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. ...


"In the morning of the other day, we set sail from this island of Sanchão and when the sun set, we arrived at another island, that lies six more leagues to the north, called Lampacau, where at that time the Portuguese made trade with the Chinese, and they made it until the year of 1557, when the mandarins of Canton, when asked by Portuguese land merchants, gave this port of Macau to us (…)." (Fernão Mendes Pinto, Pilgrimage, 1974 ed.) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Motto: none Anthem: March of the Volunteers Macau uses the national anthem of the PRC Capital none Historically, the capital was Cidade do Nome de Deus de Macau (or Macau Peninsula, name abolished upon Reunification); government headquarters located in the St. ... A Mandarin was a bureaucrat in imperial China. ...


Portugal had managed to retain Macau for over 400 years. It became a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China in 1999, two years after Hong Kong was similarly returned to Chinese jurisdiction by the UK. Special administrative region may be: Peoples Republic of China Special administrative regions, present-day administrative divisions (as of 2006) set up by the Peoples Republic of China to administer Hong Kong (since 1997) and Macau (since 1999) Republic of China Special administrative regions, also translated as special administrative...


Malacca

Malacca, which controlled the eponymous Strait of Malacca, was vital to Portuguese interests in the Far East. After an unsuccessful expedition in 1509, Malacca was finally conquered by Afonso de Albuquerque, the Portuguese viceroy of India, on 24 August 1511. Malacca was later taken by the Dutch in 1641. State motto: Bersatu Teguh (Malay, United We Stand) Capital Malacca Town Governor Tun Datuk Seri Utama Mohd Khalil Yaakob Chief Minister Datuk Seri Haji Mohd Ali Mohd Rustam Area 1,650 km² Population  - Estimated 648,500 State anthem Melaka Maju Jaya This article is about a state in Malaysia. ... This wide-angle map of south-east Asia shows that the Strait is the most direct route from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Afonso de Albuquerque Afonso de Albuquerque, Afonso dAlbuquerque or Alfonso de Albuquerque (pron. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 1511 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ...


Colombo

In order to follow its trade routes to the Far East, Portugal depended on the seasonal monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean. In winter, the prevailing northeasterly monsoon impeded travel to India; in summer, the southwest monsoon made departure from India difficult. As a result, Portugal determined that it needed permanent bases in India, in addition to its ports of call in Africa, to pass the time while the wind changed. In addition to Goa, they founded a base at Colombo (in what is now Sri Lanka) in the sixteenth century. This port remained in Portuguese hands until 1656, when it was seized by the Dutch after an epic siege. Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India A monsoon is a wind pattern that reverses direction with the seasons. ... For other senses of this word, see winter (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see Summer (disambiguation). ... Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates: District Colombo Division, Colombo District Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Independent Group) Area    - City 248 mi²/ 642 km²  - Land / km²  - Water / km² Population    - City (2001) 377,396 (Colombo metropolitan area 2001 census)  - Density 3,305/km²  - Metro 2,234,289 (Colombo District) Time... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... A siege is a military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ...


Brazil

Trade in Brazil

Immediately following the discovery of Brazil, the Portuguese imported brazilwood, Indian slaves and exotic birds from there. Brazilwood was a much appreciated product in Europe, because its could be used to produce a red dye. During John III's rule, after the initial colonization, Portuguese explorers intensified the search for brazilwood and began the cultivation of sugarcane which was well suited to the climate of Brazil, especially around Recife and Bahía. Brazilwood is a common name for several trees of the family Leguminosae (Pulse family) whose wood yields a red dye called brazilein. ... Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical regions...


Since Brazil lacked a large native population, and the Indians did not make good plantation workers, the Portuguese colonists began to import African slaves to work their plantations. The first slaves, from the region of Guinea, arrived in Brazil in 1539. Most of them worked in the sugarcane fields or were house servants. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ...


Colonization

Map attributed to Luís Teixeira with Brazil divided into captaincies
Map attributed to Luís Teixeira with Brazil divided into captaincies

John III was the first Portuguese monarch to recognize the potential of the New World, and the colonization of Brazil began during his reign. The territory was divided into 12 captaincies in 15 lots (some captaincies had more than one lot) that were given to donatary captains with obligations to defend them, populate them, and to develop their resources. ImageMetadata File history File links Capitanias. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Capitanias. ... Luís Teixeira was one of the teachers of Portuguese King John III of Portugal. ... Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ...


"Martim Afonso, my friend, I, the King (…) knew of your arrival at this land of Brazil, and because of your patrol of the coast (…) against the French corsairs, (…) I thank you (…). After you left, a question was raised if it would be my service to populate all that coast of Brazil, and some people asked me for captaincies (…), so I ordered to mark from Pernambuco to the Rio da Prata [ Rio de la Plata ] fifty leagues of coast to each captaincy, and before giving them to anyone, I ordered a hundred of the best leagues of the coast to be marked to you and fifty leagues to your brother, Pêro Lopes (…). I also gave captaincies of fifty leagues to some people (…) and everyone is willing to take people and ships with them (…)" (Letter of John III to Martim Afonso de Sousa) Flag of Pernambuco See other Brazilian States Capital Recife Largest City Recife Area 98,281 km² Population   - Total   - Density 7,918,344 80. ... The term Rio de la Plata may refer to the following: Rio de la Plata, a river in the U.S. Territory of Puerto Rico River Plate, an Estuary in South America This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Martim Afonso de Sousa (1500-1571) was a Portuguese explorer. ...


The first Governor-General appointed by John III was Tomé de Sousa, who in 1549 founded the city of Bahia (known at the time as São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos - Holy Saviour of the Bay of All Saints). Thomé de Souza (1515-1573) or Thomé De Souza was the first governor-general of Brazil, when it was a Portuguese colony. ... Flag of Bahia See other Brazilian States Capital Salvador Largest City Salvador Area 564 273 km² Population   - Total   - Density 13 070 250 23. ...


Ancestors

John's ancestors in three generations

 
 
 
 
8. Edward of Portugal
 
 
4. Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Leonor of Aragon
 
 
2. Manuel I of Portugal
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Infante João of Portugal
 
 
5. Beatriz of Portugal
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Isabel of Braganza
 
1. John III of Portugal
 
 
 
 
 
12. John II of Aragon
 
 
6. Ferdinand II of Aragon
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Juana Enríquez
 
 
3. Maria of Aragon
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. John II of Castile
 
 
7. Isabella of Castile
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Isabel of Portugal
 

Duarte of Portugal (Edward, in English), the Philosopher or the Eloquent, the 11th king of Portugal, was born in Viseu on October 31, 1391 and he died in Tomar on September 13, 1438. ... Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu Ferdinand, Prince of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (1433–, Portuguese: Fernando, pron. ... Eleanor of Aragon was the daughter of Ferdinand I of Aragon and Eleanor of Alburquerque. ... Manuel I of Portugal (pron. ... John of Portugal (Portuguese: João, pron. ... Juan II (June 29, 1397 – January 20, 1479) was a King of Aragon (1458–1479) and a King of Navarre (1425–1479). ... Ferdinand II of Aragon Ferdinand II the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: Ferran dAragó el Catòlic) (March 10, 1452 – June 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479-1516), Castile, Sicily (1468-1516), Naples (1504-1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Juana Enriquez (1425-1468), was John II of Aragons second wife. ... Maria of Aragon, Queen of Portugal Maria of Aragon (Mary of Aragon or Mary of Spain or even Mary of Castile) (June 29, 1482 - March 7, 1517) was an Aragonese princess, second wife of Portuguese King Manuel I and because of that queen consort of Portugal from 1500 until her... Juan II (March 6, 1405 – July 20, 1454) was King of Castile from 1406 to 1454. ... Isabella of Castile Isabella (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Death and succession

From 1539, the heir to the throne was John, prince of Portugal, who married Juana Habsburg, daughter of Charles V. But Prince John was a sickly child (and the sole son of John III to survive childhood) and died young (of tuberculosis), when the princess was giving birth to Prince Sebastian in January 1554. When John III died of apoplexy in 1557, only heir was his grandson, Sebastian, who was just three years old. Joan, Infanta of Spain (Spanish: Juana), of the Habsburg family, was the daughter of Emperor Charles V who was the first king of united Spain (officially King of Aragon and king of Castile), and his consort Infanta Isabel of Portugal, daughter of King Manuel I of Portugal. ... Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Aragon and Castile. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Sebastião I (January 20, 1554 - August 4, 1578) was a King of Portugal. ... Apoplexy is an old-fashioned medical term, generally used interchangeably with cerebrovascular accident (CVA or stroke) but having other meanings as well. ...


To this day, John's body rests in the Monastery of Jerónimos in Lisbon. Jerónimos Monastery exterior The Jerónimos Monastery (Mosteiro dos Jerónimos) is located in the Belém district of Lisbon, Portugal. ...


Issue

Name Birth Death Notes
By Catarina of Spain (married February 10, 1525)
Prince Afonso February 24, 1526 March 1526 Crown Prince of Portugal (1526).
Princess Maria October 15, 1527 August 12, 1545 Crown Princess of Portugal (1527-1531; 1537). First wife of King Philip II of Spain. She had one
deformed child, Don Carlos, and she died a few
days after his birth.
Infanta Isabel April 28, 1529 April 28, 1529  
Infanta Beatriz February 15, 1530 February 15, 1530  
Prince Manuel November 1, 1531 April 14, 1537 Crown Prince of Portugal (1531-1537). Declared heir in 1535.
Prince Philip March 25, 1533 April 29, 1539 Crown Prince of Portugal (1537-1539). Declared heir in 1537.
Infante Dinis April 6, 1535 January 1, 1537  
Prince John June 3, 1537 January 2, 1554 Crown Prince of Portugal (1537-1554). Declared heir in 1539. Married Joan of Habsburg.
Their son became King Sebastian I.
Infante António March 9, 1539 January 20, 1540  
By Isabel Moniz
Duarte, Archbishop of Braga 1521 November 11, 1543 Natural son.

Catherine of Habsburg or Catherine of Austria (14 January 1507– 12 February 1578) was Queen consort of Portugal. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Maria of Portugal (English: Mary) as a Portuguese Princess daughter of King John III of Portugal and his wife Catherine of Habsburg. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... Events January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat River in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Don Carlos (July 8, 1545 – July 24, 1568), Prince of Asturias was the son of King Philip II of Spain by his first wife Maria Manuela, daughter of John III of Portugal. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Events January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake-- thousands die October 1 - Battle of Kappel - The forces of Zürich are defeated by the Catholic cantons. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ... Infante D. João of Portugal. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... Joan, Infanta of Spain (Spanish: Juana), of the Habsburg family, was the daughter of Emperor Charles V who was the first king of united Spain (officially King of Aragon and king of Castile), and his consort Infanta Isabel of Portugal, daughter of King Manuel I of Portugal. ... Sebastian I the Desired (in Portuguese, Sebastião I o Desejado; born in Lisbon, January 20, 1554; died at Alcazarquivir, August 4, 1578) was the sixteenth king of Portugal. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (69th in Leap years). ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 6 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne of Cleves, his fourth Queen consort. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ...

Style

El-rei D. João III
El-rei D. João III

Like his predecessors John used the style "El-rei" (the king) followed by "Dom" (abbreviated to D.), a mark of high esteem for a distinguished Christian nobleman. Image File history File links Joao_III_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Joao_III_of_Portugal. ... Don (usually preceded in English by the), derived from Latin Dominus, is a Spanish (pron. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus of Nazareth, referred to as Christ. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ...


The official style was the same used by his father Manuel I: "Dom João, by the grace of God, King of Portugal, of the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea, & of the Conquest, Navigation, & Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, & India" (Dom João, por graça de Deus, Rei de Portugal, e dos Algarves, d'aquém e d'além mar em África, Senhor da Guiné, e da Conquista, Navegação, & Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, & Índia). This style would only change in the 19th century when Brazil became a Vice-Kingdom. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Algarve NUTS II region, and the district of Faro in Portugal Vilamouras marina Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Algarve The Algarve (pron. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... Conquest may refer to: An invasion Conquest, New York, a town located in Cayuga County, New York Conquest (film) (also called Marie Walewska), a 1937 film starring Greta Garbo and Charles Boyer Conquest (documentary), a documentary series on The History Channel starring Peter Woodward. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Commerce is the trading of something of economic value such as goods, services, information or money between two or more entities. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans) and beyond. ...


References

  • Serrão, Joel (dir.) (1971). Dicionário da História de Portugal, Vol. II. Lisboa: Iniciativas Editoriais
  • Domingues, Mário (1962). D. João III O Homem e a Sua Época. Lisboa: Edição Romano Torres
  • Serrão, Joaquim Veríssimo (1978). História de Portugal, Vol. III. Lisboa: Verbo
  • Mattoso, José (dir.) (1993). História de Portugal, Vol. III.Círculo de Leitores
  • Paulo Drummond Braga, D. João III (Lisbon: Hugin, 2002) is the most recent and best biography.
  • Cambridge History of Latin America, ed. Leslie Bethell (Cambridge, 1984): chapter by Harold Johnson for the early history of Brasil.
  • Alexandre Herculano, História da Origem e Estabelecimento da Inquisição em Portugal, 3 vols. (Lisbon, 1879-80) for the negotiations leading to the creation of the Inquisition.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

See also

The History of Portugal is that of an ancient European nation, whose present origins go back to the Early Middle Ages, that ascended to a great world power in the Age of Discoveries with its vast Empire. ... This is a List of Portuguese monarchs from the independence of Portugal from Castile in 1139, to the beginning of the Republic in October 5, 1910. ... This is a historical timeline of Portugal. ... For additional context, see History of Portugal. ... Maximum extent of Portuguese colonial possessions in the 16th century. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony. ...

External links

House of Aviz
Cadet Branch of the Houses of Capet and Burgundy
Born: 6 June 1502; Died: 11 June 1557
Preceded by:
Manuel I
Kings of Portugal
15211557
Succeeded by:
Sebastian

  Results from FactBites:
 
John III of Portugal at AllExperts (3425 words)
John III (Portuguese: João III) (June 6, 1502–June 11, 1557), nicknamed o Piedoso ("the Pious") was the fifteenth king of Portugal.
John succeeded his father in 1521 at the age of nineteen, becoming King while the Portuguese Empire was at the height of its mercantile and colonial power, with the capital city of Lisbon occupying a position of global commercial importance.
John had nine children from that marriage, but most of them died early in their lives, and by the time of John's death, only his grandson, Sebastian, was in a condition to inherit the crown.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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