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Encyclopedia > John III Sobieski of Poland
Jan III Sobieski
Reign From May 21, 1674,
until June 17, 1696
Elected On May 21, 1674 in Wola,
today suburb of
Warsaw, Poland
Coronation On February 2, 1676
in the Wawel Cathedral,
Kraków, Poland
Nobel Family Sobieski
Coat of Arms Janina
Parents Jakub Sobieski
Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz
Consorts Marie Casimire Louise
Children with Marie Casimire Louise
Jakub Ludwik Sobieski
Teresa Teofila Sobieska
Berbelune Sobieska
La Mannone Sobieska
Teresa Kunegunda Sobieska
Aleksander Benedykt Sobieski
Konstanty Władysław Sobieski
Date of Birth August 17, 1629
Place of Birth Olesko, Poland,
(now Ukraine)
Date of Death June 17, 1696
Place of Death Wilanów, Poland
Place of Burial Wawel, Saint Leonard's
Crypt, Kraków, Poland
buried in 1734

John (Jan) III Sobieski (August 17, 1629 - June 17, 1696) was the king of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1674 to 1696.

Contents

Royal titles

  • Official title was (in Latin): Joannes III, Dei Gratia rex Poloniae, magnus dux Lithuaniae, Russie, Prussiae, Masoviae, Samogitiae, Livoniae, Smolenscie, Kijoviae, Volhyniae, Podlachiae, Severiae, Czernichoviaeque, etc.

Biography

He was born in 1629 at Olesko, Poland to Jakub (James) Sobieski (1580-1646), Voivod of Ruthenian Voivodship and Castellan of Kraków, Zofia Teofillia (Daniłowicz).


In 1668 King Jan II Kazimierz appointed John Sobieski the Commander-in-Chief of the Polish army. After a distinguished military career, and following the death of King Jan II Kazimierz's successor, Michael Korybut Wisniowiecki, John Sobieski was elected by the szlachta as king of Poland on May 21, 1674 and was crowned on February 2, 1676.

Enlarge
"Jan III Sobieski at the Battle of Vienna", painted by Jerzy Eleuter Szymonowicz-Siemiginowski, abt. 1686, National Museum in Warsaw.

John Sobieski's military prowess, as exhibited in a war against the Ottoman Empire, contributed to his election as king of Poland. Later he allied with the Holy Roman Emperor. His greatest success came on September 12, 1683 as victor at the Battle of Vienna, with Polish, Austrian and German troops, once more against the Turks under Kara Mustafa. The pope and other foreign dignitaries then hailed Sobieski as the "Savior of Vienna and Western European civilization." In a letter to his wife he wrote, ...All the common people kissed my hands, my feet, my clothes; others only touched me, saying: Ach, let us kiss so valiant a hand!".


According to Oscar Halecki, noted Polish historical writer, John III planned to occupy Prussia with Swedish cooperation and French support. This undertaking was doomed to failure, because of the war with Turkey, the skillful diplomacy of the Elector of Brandenburg, and the frequent shifts of alliances amongst the western powers.


Upon reaching Vienna, he joined up with the Austrians and Germans. Sobieski planned to attack on the 13th of September, but he had noticed that the Turkish resistance was weak and ordered full attack on September 12, 1683. At 4 a.m. in the morning Sobieski’s army of about 81,000 men attacked a Turkish army that numbered about 130,000. Sobieski charged with his hussars forward and soon after the Turkish battle line was broken as the Turks scattered in confusion. At 5:30 p.m., Sobieski entered the deserted tent of Kara Mustafa and the battle of Vienna was over.

Enlarge
"Sobieski Sending Message of Victory to the Pope, after the Battle of Vienna", oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1880, 58 x 100 cm, National Musemum in Kraków.

In a strange twist of events a statue of John III Sobieski was brought to the city of Gdansk by people from his native land (from Lwów), when they were resettled there. Already John's family had been famous guests in the city.

Enlarge
Sobieski with family painted by Henri Gascar.

Now the statue overlooks the little park at the old Gdansk town hall, now a museum.


King John III Sobieski, the last great king of Poland, died in Wilanów, Poland on June 17, 1696. His wife, Marie Casimire, died in 1716 in Blois, France and her body was returned to Poland. They are interred together in Wawel Castle, Kraków, Poland.


King John III was succeeded by Augustus II, elector of Saxony who stayed in power primarily because of Russian support. On his death in 1733, a struggle for the crown of Poland ensued, referred to as the War of the Polish Succession.


Marriage and family

Enlarge
Family tree

He was married to Marie Casimire Louise de la Grange d'Arquien (1641-1716), of Nevers, Burgundy, France. Their children were:

  1. James Louis Henry, (1667-1736) - Crown Prince
  2. Teresa Kunegunde, (1676-1730) - In 1695, the Princess married Maximilian II Emanuel, elector of Bavaria
  3. Aleksander Benedykt, (1677-1713)
  4. Konstanty Wladyslaw, (1680-1720)
  5. Jan, (1682-1685)

American actress Leelee Sobieski claims to his descendant. This is certainly not where she obtained her surname: John III had no great-grandchildren that bore the name Sobieski or Sobieska.


See also



 
Grand Marshals of the Crown of Kingdom of Poland and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Pełka Kościelec | Jan Kolczek z Zakrzowa | Przedbor z Brzezia | Jan z Tarnowa | Przedbor z Brzezia | Mikołaj z Bogorii | Dymitr z Goraja | Zbigniew z Brzezia | Wawrzyniec Zaremba z Kalinowy | Jan Głowacz z Oleśnicy | Mikołaj Lackoroński z Brzezia | Jan Rytwiański | Rafał Jarosławski | Piotr Kmita z Wiśnicza | Stanisław Chodecki z Chodcza | Piotr Kmita Sobieński | Jan Mielecki | Jan Firlej | Andrzej Opaliński | Stanisław Przyjemski | Mikołaj Zebrzydowski | Zygmunt Myszkowski | Mikołaj Wolski | Lukasz Opalinski | Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski | Jan Sobieski | Stanislaw Herakliusz Lubomirski | Józef Karol Lubomirski | Kazimierz Ludwik Bielinski | Jozef Mniszek | Franciszek Bielinski | Stanislaw Lubomirski | Michal Jerzy Mniszek | Fryderyk Jozef Moszynski





  Results from FactBites:
 
WHO İS JAN SOBİESKİ? - LeeleeSobieski.com (1342 words)
Jan III Sobieski (17 August 1629 - 17 June 1696; English: John III Sobieski) was one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death.
John III, by Jan MatejkoDuring the three-day long battle of Warsaw of that year, Sobieski brilliantly commanded a 2000 men strong regiment of Tatar cavalry, for which he was promoted to the rank of standard-bearer of the Crown.
Sobieski decided to stabilise the situation of the country by forcing the Ottomans to accept a peace treaty to end the constant wars on the southern border.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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