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Encyclopedia > John II of Portugal
Portuguese royalty
House of Aviz

John I
Children
   Prince Edward
   Pedro, Duke of Coimbra
   Henry the Navigator
   Princess Isabel
   Prince John
   Fernando, the Saint Prince
   Afonso, Duke of Braganza
   Princess Beatrice
Edward
Children
   Prince Afonso
   Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu
   Princess Leonor
   Princess Catherine
   Princess Joan
Grandchildren include
   Manuel, Duke of Beja
Afonso V
Children include
   Saint Joan Princess
   Prince John
John II
   Prince Afonso
   George, Duke of Coimbra (natural son)
Manuel I
Children include
   Miguel da Paz
   Prince John
   Princess Isabella
   Princess Beatrice
   Louis, Duke of Beja
   Ferdinand, Duke of Guarda
   Cardinal-Prince Afonso
   Cardinal Henry
   Edward, Duke of Guimarães
   Princess Maria
Grandchildren include
   Philip I (II of Spain)
   Anthony, Prior of Crato
   Catherine, Duchess of Braganza
Great-Grandchildren include
   Teodosio, Duke of Braganza
Great-Great-Grandchildren include
   John, Duke of Braganza
John III
Children include
   Princess Maria
   Prince John
Grandchildren include
   Prince Sebastian
   Don Carlos
Sebastian
Cardinal Henry
Anthony
John II of Portugal
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John II of Portugal

João II of Portugal (Portuguese pron. IPA /ʒu.'ɐ̃w̃/; English: John II), the Perfect Prince (Port. o Príncipe Perfeito), fourteenth king of Portugal was born in Lisbon in March 3, 1455 and died in Alvor in October 25, 1495. He was the son of king Afonso V of Portugal by his wife, Isabel of Coimbra, princess of Portugal. João II succeeded his father in 1477 when the king retired to a monastery and became king in 1481. The House of Aviz is a dynasty of kings of Portugal. ... Image File history File links Authorized by FOTW. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... João I, tenth king of Portugal (in English, John I) (the Good or sometimes, the Great or even the One With Good Memory), was born in Lisbon on April 11, 1357 and died in the same city on August 14, 1433. ... Duarte of Portugal (Edward, in English), the Philosopher or the Eloquent, the 11th king of Portugal, was born in Viseu on October 31, 1391 and he died in Tomar on September 13, 1438. ... Pedro, Prince of Portugal, Duke of Coimbra (English: Peter) - (1392-May 20, 1449) was a Portuguese prince of the House of Aviz, son of King John I of Portugal and his wife Philippa of Lancaster. ... This is a current Biography collaboration of the week! Please help improve it to featured article standard. ... Isabella of Portugal Isabella of Portugal (or Isabel in Portuguese) (February 21, 1397 - December 17, 1471) was the only surviving daughter of king John I of Portugal and his wife Philippa of Lancaster. ... John of Portugal (Portuguese: João, pron. ... Fernando of Portugal, the Saint Prince (English: Ferdinand) - (September 29, 1402-June 5, 1443) was a Prince of Portugal of the House of Aviz. ... Afonso I, Duke of Braganza (1377-1461) was the eighth Count of Bracelos and the first Duke of Braganza. ... Beatrice of Portugal (Portuguese: Beatriz) was a natural daughter of John I of Portugal and a Galician noblewoman named Inês Pires. ... Duarte of Portugal (Edward, in English), the Philosopher or the Eloquent, the 11th king of Portugal, was born in Viseu on October 31, 1391 and he died in Tomar on September 13, 1438. ... Afonso V of Portugal (English Alphonzo), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), the African (Port. ... Ferdinand, Prince of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (Portuguese: Fernando) was the third son of Portuguese King Edward of Portugal and his wife Leonor of Aragon. ... Leonor of Portugal (English: Eleanor), was a Princess of Portugal, daughter of King Edward of Portugal and his wife Leonor of Aragon. ... Catherine of Braganza. ... Joan of Portugal (Portuguese: Joana) was a Portuguese Princess daughter of King Edward of of Portugal and his wife Leonor of Aragon. ... Manuel I of Portugal (Archaic Portuguese: Manoel I, English: Emanuel I), the Fortunate (Port. ... Afonso V of Portugal (English Alphonzo), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), the African (Port. ... Saint Joan of Portugal known in Portugal as Saint Joan Princess (Portuguese: Santa Joana Princesa) was a Portuguese princess of the House of Aviz, daughter of King Afonso V of Portugal and his first wife Isabel of Coimbra. ... Prince Afonso of Portugal was born in May 18, 1475 in Lisbon, Portugal, and died in a horse riding accident in the margins of the Tagus river on July 13, 1491, 16 years old. ... George of Portugal (Portuguese: Jorge) was a Portuguese Prince, natural son of King John II of Portugal and Ana de Mendonça, a maid of Joan, La Beltraneja. ... Manuel I of Portugal (Archaic Portuguese: Manoel I, English: Emanuel I), the Fortunate (Port. ... Miguel da Paz of Portugal (English (lit. ... John III (Portuguese: João III pron. ... Isabella of Portugal (1503 - 1539) was princess of Portugal. ... Beatrice of Portugal (1504 - 1538) was princess of Portugal. ... Louis or Lewis, Duke of Beja (Portuguese: Luís) was a Portuguese Prince son of King Manuel I of Portugal and his second wife Maria of Aragon. ... Ferdinand of Portugal, Duke of Guarda (Portuguese: Fernando) was a Portuguese Prince son of King Manuel I of Portugal and his second wife Maria of Aragon. ... Afonso, Prince of Portugal, Cardinal of the Kingdom (English: Alphonzo) was a son of Portuguese King Manuel I of Portugal and his wife Maria of Aragon. ... Henry, the cardinal-king or Henrique (in Portuguese) the Chaste (Port. ... Edward of Portugal (Portuguese language: Duarte]]) - (Lisbon, October 7, 1515-Lisbon, September 20, 1540), 4th Duke of Guimarães and Prince of Portugal, was son of King Manuel I of Portugal and his wife Maria of Aragon. ... Maria of Portugal (English: Mary) was a Portuguese Princess daughter of King Manuel I and his wife Leonor of Castile. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Anthony I of Portugal (Portuguese: António) (Lisbon, 1531 – Paris, August 26, 1595), known by The Prior of Crato (and, rarely, as The Determined, The Fighter or The Independentist), was a grandson of Manuel I, claimant of the Portuguese throne during the 1580 crisis (struggle for the throne of Portugal... Catherine, Duchess of Braganza (1540 - 1614), was a claimant to the throne of Portugal following the death of King Henry I of Portugal in 1580. ... Teodósio II of Bragança, (1568, Vila Viçosa - 1630) was the 7th Duke of Bragança. ... John IV of Portugal (Portuguese: João IV de Portugal; March 1603–November 6, 1656) was the king of Portugal from 1640 to his death. ... John III (Portuguese: João III pron. ... Maria of Portugal (English: Mary) as a Portuguese Princess daughter of King John III of Portugal and his wife Catherine of Habsburg. ... Prince João of Portugal (June 3, 1537 - January 2, 1554) (in English: John) was the eighth son of King John III of Portugal by his wife Catherine of Habsburg, (princess of Spain) daughter of Philip of Flanders and Joanna of Castile. ... Sebastian I the Desired (in Portuguese, Sebastião I o Desejado; born in Lisbon, January 20, 1554; died at Alcazarquivir, August 4, 1578) was the sixteenth king of Portugal. ... Several of the Carlist pretenders to the Spanish throne were also known as Don Carlos. ... Sebastian I the Desired (in Portuguese, Sebastião I o Desejado; born in Lisbon, January 20, 1554; died at Alcazarquivir, August 4, 1578) was the sixteenth king of Portugal. ... Henry, the cardinal-king or Henrique (in Portuguese) the Chaste (Port. ... Anthony I of Portugal (Portuguese: António) (Lisbon, 1531 – Paris, August 26, 1595), known by The Prior of Crato (and, rarely, as The Determined, The Fighter or The Independentist), was a grandson of Manuel I, claimant of the Portuguese throne during the 1580 crisis (struggle for the throne of Portugal... Painting of king João II of Portugal. ... Painting of king João II of Portugal. ... Pronunciation refers to: the way a word or a language is usually spoken; the manner in which someone utters a word. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Portuguese (Português) is a Romance language predominantly spoken in Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, East Timor, Guinea Bissau, Macao Special Administrative Region of China, Mozambique, Portugal, and São Tomé and Príncipe. ... History of Portugalseries Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian Union... District Lisbon Mayor   - Party Carmona Rodrigues PSD Area 84. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... // Events February 9 - Wars of the Roses: Richard, Duke of York dismissed as Protector February 23 - Johannes Gutenberg prints the first Bible on a printing press May 22 - Wars of the Roses: First Battle of St Albans - Richard, Duke of York and his ally, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick defeat... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ... Events February 22 - King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the citys throne. ... Afonso V of Portugal (English Alphonzo), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), the African (Port. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted...


As a prince, João II accompanied his father in the campaigns in northern Africa and was made a knight by him after the victory in Arzila in 1471. In 1473 he married Leonor of Viseu, Princess of Portugal and his first cousin. // Etymology World map showing Africa (geographically) The name Africa came into Western use through the Romans, who used the name Africa terra — land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) — for the northern part of the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital Carthage, corresponding to modern-day... Asilah or Arzila is a city situated on the northwest tip of Morocco with a history back to 1500 B.C. The Phoenicians used the city as a trading site. ... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ... Leonor of Viseu (1458-1525) was a Princess and later Queen of Portugal. ...


Even at a young age, he was not popular among the peers of the kingdom since he was immune to external influence and appeared to despise intrigue. The nobles (including particularly Fernando II, the Duke of Braganza) were afraid of his future policies as king. Events proved them right. The Arms of Braganzas The Duchy of Bragança,or Braganza, is one of the most important titles of the Portuguese Royal Family. ...


After the official accession to the throne in 1481, João II took a series of measures to curtail the overgrown power of his aristocracy and to concentrate power on himself. Immediately, the nobles start to conspire; João II did nothing but observe. Letters of complaint and pleas to intervene were exchanged between the Duke of Braganza and Queen Isabella I of Castile. In 1483, this correspondence was intercepted by royal spies. The House of Braganza was outlawed, their lands confiscated and the duke executed in Évora. Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... Isabella of Castile (Spanish: Ysabel, Isabel or Isabela) (22 April 1451 - 26 November 1504) was queen of Castile. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Coat of Arms Évora is a municipality in the Alentejo, Portugal with a total area of 1307. ...


In the following year, the Duke of Viseu, his cousin and brother-in-law was summoned to the palace and stabbed to death by the king himself for suspicion of a new conspiracy. Many other people were executed, murdered or exiled to Castile including the bishop of Evora who was poisoned in prison.


The king is reported to have said, concerning the rebellious nobles: I'm the lord of lords, not the server of servants. After these events, no one in the country dared to defy the king. João II was free to govern as he pleased without any other conspiracies during his reign.


João II then restored the policies of Atlantic exploration, reviving the work of his great uncle, Prince Henry the Navigator. The Portuguese explorations were his main priority in government, pushing south the known coastal Africa with the purpose of discovering the maritime route to India. During his reign, the following was achieved: The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... This is a current Biography collaboration of the week! Please help improve it to featured article standard. ... For additional context, see History of Portugal. ...

The complete record of the Portuguese exploration voyages is unknown. Much was kept in secret due to competition with the neighbours of Castile. The archives of this period were destroyed in the fire after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. Modern historians are still debating their true extent, suspecting that Portuguese sailors reached the continent of North America earlier then Christopher Columbus. Events January 25 - Peter Arbues, chief of the Spanish Inquisition, is assassinated when he is praying in the cathedral at Saragossa, Spain July 6 - Portuguese sea captain Diogo Cão finds the mouth of Congo River December 5 - Pope Innocent VIII gives the inquisition a mission to hunt heretics and... The pillar bearing the arms of Portugal erected by Cão at Cape St. ... The Congo is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ... // Events February 3 - Bartolomeu Dias of Portugal lands in Mossel Bay after rounding the Cape of Good Hope, at the tip of Africa becoming the first known European to travel this far south. ... Bartolomeu Dias turning the Cape of Good Hope Bartolomeu Dias (Anglicized: Bartholomew Diaz) (c. ... 1888 Map of the Cape of Good Hope The expression Cape of Good Hope is used in two senses (1) sensu stricto it is a wild and rocky headland in South Africa, on the southern fringe of the Cape Peninsula, some thirty kilometres south of Cape Town (2) sensu lato... Events January 4 - Christopher Columbus leaves the New World. ... Alvaro Caminha (late 15th century), Portuguese explorer that started the colonization of São Tomé and Príncipe. ... Prester John The legend of Prester John (also Presbyter John), popular in Europe from the 12th through the 17th centuries, told of a mythical Christian patriarch and king said to rule over a Christian nation lost amidst the Muslims and pagans in the Orient. ... This 1755 copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbor. ... Christopher Columbus (conjectural image by Sebastiano del Piombo). ...

John II of Portugal
John II of Portugal

Arguments for this are the much more precise calculations on the diameter of the Earth that Portugal held. There was a 80 year old school of navigation and mathematics with the most pre-eminent scientists working in the country. While Columbus thought it would be possible to reach India through the West, Portuguese intelligence knew already the way to be much longer and possibly that there was a continent in the middle. The travels of the mysterious captain Duarte Pacheco Pereira in the central Atlantic west of Cape Verde probably are more important than traditional history states. Image File history File links DjoaoIIruipina. ... Image File history File links DjoaoIIruipina. ... Duarte Pacheco Pereira, (15th century) mysterious Portuguese captain and explorer of the Atlantic, his travels in the central Atlantic west of Cape Verde probably are more important than traditional history states. ...


When Columbus applied for Portuguese help, João II refused him. According to the historical theory of Portuguese preeminence, Columbus was an inexperienced Atlantic captain, chasing an idea the king knew was wrong, wanting to go to a place João II already knew how to get to: there was no reason to hire him. In 1492, in the service of the Castile and Aragon kingdoms, Columbus discovers the Americas, convinced until his death that he had reached India. Events January 2 - Boabdil, the last Moorish King of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of Ferdinand and Isabella after a lengthy siege. ... The Americas (sometimes referred to as America) is the area including the land mass located between the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean, generally divided into North America and South America. ...


With this event, a series of disputes between Portugal and Castile about the ruling of the seas started. Maritime rivalry among them led to the famous Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in June 7, 1494. This treaty, which defined the meridian of Tordesillas, stated that Portugal kept the eastern part of the world, and Castile and Aragon were responsible for the exploration of the western half. The Treaty of Tordesillas or the Treaty of Tordesilhas (Spanish and Portuguese spelling respectively) signed at Tordesillas (now in Valladolid province, Spain), June 7, 1494), divided the world outside of Europe in an exclusive duopoly between the Spanish and the Portuguese along a north-south meridian 370 leagues (1770 km... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Events January 25 - Alfonso II becomes King of Naples. ... Meridian is: Meridian (astronomy): an imaginary circle perpendicular to the horizon. ...


But the dividing of the world was not the main issue between the Iberian kingdoms. Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon had several daughters, but only one feeble male heir - Juan. The oldest daughter, Isabella of Aragon, was married to prince Afonso of Portugal since childhood. Afonso was João II's only son and beloved by the king. If Juan died without male heir, as was probable, Afonso would be heir not only of Portugal but also of Castile and Aragon. This threat to Castilian and Aragonese independence was very real and the catholic kings tried every diplomatic trick to dissolve the wedding. Finally, in 1491, Afonso died in mysterious circumstances - a fall from a horse during a ride in the margin of the Tagus river. The influence of the catholic kings in this accident was never proved but: a) the prince was an excellent rider; b) his Castilian valet fled never to be seen again and c) after this, Isabella, the heiress, was no longer married to the enemy. João tried without success until the end of his life to legitimise George, his bastard son. Isabella of Castile (Spanish: Ysabel, Isabel or Isabela) (22 April 1451 - 26 November 1504) was queen of Castile. ... Ferdinand and his wife Isabel of Castile Ferdinand II (Fernando de Aragón in Spanish and Ferran dAragó in Catalan), nicknamed the Catholic (March 10, 1452 – June 23, 1516) was king of Aragon, Castile, Sicily, Naples, Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Prince Afonso of Portugal was born in May 18, 1475 in Lisbon, Portugal, and died in a horse riding accident in the margins of the Tagus river on July 13, 1491, 16 years old. ... The Catholic monarchs (Spanish: Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... // Events December 6 - King Charles VIII marries Anne de Bretagne, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France. ... View over Tejo River from Almourol Castle in Portugal (May 2005). ...


John II died without leaving male issue on October 25, 1495. Due to the hatred the Portuguese nobility had for him, the hypothesis of poisoning was never ruled out. He was succeeded by his first cousin Manuel I. October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ... Events February 22 - King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the citys throne. ... Manuel I of Portugal (Archaic Portuguese: Manoel I, English: Emanuel I), the Fortunate (Port. ...


The nickname the Perfect Prince is a late description and refers to Niccolò Machiavelli's work The Prince. João II is considered to have lived his life exactly according to the writer's idea of a perfect prince. To his contemporaries, João II was known as the Tyrant. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... One of the covers of the book The fame of Niccolò Machiavelli rests mainly on his political treatise Il Principe (The Prince), written around 1513, but not published until 1532, five years after his death. ...


João's descendants

Of his wife, Leonor of Viseu, Princess of Portugal João had two sons, but only one of them survived childhood. Leonor of Viseu (1458-1525) was a Princess and later Queen of Portugal. ...

Name Birth Death Notes
By Leonor of Viseu (May 2, 1458-November 17, 1525; married on January 1471)
Prince Afonso May 18, 1475 July 13, 1491 Died in a horse riding accident. Because of the premature death of the prince the throne was inherited by Manuel of Viseu, Duke of Beja, son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, who reigned as Manuel I, 14th King of Portugal.
Prince John 1483 1483 &nbsp
By Ana de Mendonça (c. 1460-?)
George August 21, 1481 July 22, 1550 Natural son known as Jorge de Lencastre. Duke of Coimbra.
By Brites Anes (c. 1460-?)
Brites Anes de Santarém c. 1485 ? Natural daughter.


See also: Kings of Portugal family tree Leonor of Viseu (1458-1525) was a Princess and later Queen of Portugal. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Events January 24 - Matthias I Corvinus becomes king of Hungary Foundation of Magdalen College, University of Oxford George of Podebrady becomes king of Bohemia Pope Pius II becomes pope Turks sack the Acropolis Births February 15 - Ivan the Young, Ruler of Tver (d. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... Prince Afonso of Portugal was born in May 18, 1475 in Lisbon, Portugal, and died in a horse riding accident in the margins of the Tagus river on July 13, 1491, 16 years old. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... Events August 29 - Treaty of Picquigny ends a brief war between France and England. ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... // Events December 6 - King Charles VIII marries Anne de Bretagne, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France. ... Manuel I of Portugal (Archaic Portuguese: Manoel I, English: Emanuel I), the Fortunate (Port. ... Ferdinand, Prince of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (Portuguese: Fernando) was the third son of Portuguese King Edward of Portugal and his wife Leonor of Aragon. ... This is a List of Portuguese monarchs from the independence of Portugal from Castile in 1139, to the beginning of the Republic in October 5, 1910. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... George of Portugal (Portuguese: Jorge) was a Portuguese Prince, natural son of King John II of Portugal and Ana de Mendonça, a maid of Joan, La Beltraneja. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... 22 July is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... // Events August 5-7 - First outbreak of sweating sickness in England begins August 22 - Battle of Bosworth Field is fought between the armies of King Richard III of England and rival claimant to the throne of England Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond. ... This is a collection of family trees concerning the Portuguese Royal family. ...

Preceded by:
Afonso V
King of Portugal
14811495
Succeeded by:
Manuel I

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