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Encyclopedia > John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
September 13, 1087April 8, 1143

Mosaic of John II.
Nickname Kaloïōannēs - "The Beautiful"
Place of birth Constantinople
Place of death Cilicia
Allegiance Roman Byzantine Empire
Years of service 1118-1143
Rank Emperor
Commands The Komnenian army
Battles/wars Battle of Beroia;

Wars against the Turks John Tzelepes Komnenos was the son of Isaac Komnenus, the brother of Emperor John II Komnenos (John the Beautiful). Starting about 1130 John and his father had plotted to overthrow his uncle the emperor. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Manuel I Comnenus becomes Byzantine Emperor. ... Mosaic of John II Comnenus This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... The Komnenian army was the force established by Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos during the late eleventh/early twelfth century, and perfected by his successors John II Komnenos and Manuel I Komnenos during the twelfth century. ... Combatants Byzantines Pechenegs Commanders John II Komnenos Strength 20,000 men 30,000 men The Battle of Beroia (modern Stara Zagora) was fought between the Pechenegs and Emperor John II Komnenos of the Byzantine Empire in the year 1122 in what is now Bulgaria, and resulted in the disappearance of...

John II Komnenos or Comnenus (Greek: Ιωάννης Β΄ Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Komnēnos) (September 13, 1087April 8, 1143) was Byzantine emperor from 1118 to 1143. Also known as Kaloïōannēs ("John the Beautiful"), he was the eldest son of emperor Alexios I Komnenos and Irene Doukaina. The second emperor of the Komnenian restoration of the Byzantine Empire, John was a pious and dedicated emperor who was determined to undo the damage his empire had suffered at the battle of Manzikert, half a century earlier. is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Manuel I Comnenus becomes Byzantine Emperor. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Emperor Alexios I Komnenos depicted in a mosaic in the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ) (1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I... Irene Doukaina or Ducaena (Greek: Ειρήνη Δούκαινα, EirÄ“nÄ“ Doukaina) (c. ... The Komnenian restoration is the term used by Byzantinists to describe the military, financial and territorial recovery of the Byzantine Empire under the Komnenian dynasty, from the accession of Alexios I Komnenos in 1081, to the death of Manuel I Komnenos in 1180. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic forces...


In the course of his twenty-five year reign, John made alliances with the Holy Roman Empire in the west, decisively defeated the Pechenegs in the Balkans, and personally led numerous campaigns against the Turks in Asia Minor. John's campaigns fundamentally changed the balance of power in the east, forcing the Turks onto the defensive and restoring to the Byzantines many towns, fortresses and cities right across the peninsula. In the southeast, John extended Byzantine control from the Maeander in the west all the way to Cilicia and Tarsus in the east. In an effort to demonstrate the Byzantine emperor's role as the leader of the Christian world, John marched into the Holy Land at the head of the combined forces of Byzantium and the Crusader states; yet despite the great vigour with which he pressed the campaign, John's hopes were disappointed by the treachery of his Crusader allies, who deliberately failed to fight against the Muslim enemy at the crucial moment. This article is about the medieval empire. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: BesenyÅ‘, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... The Büyük Menderes River (historically the Maeander also spelled Meander); Turkish: Büyük Menderes Nehri, Greek: Μαίανδρος) is a river in southwestern Turkey. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... In tetrapods, the tarsi are the cluster of bones in the foot between the tibia and fibula and the metatarsus. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land (Biblical). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


The Latin historian William of Tyre described John as short and unusually ugly, with eyes, hair and complexion so dark he was known as 'the Moor'. Yet despite his physical appearance, John was known as Kaloïōannēs, "John the Handsome" or "John the Beautiful". The epithet referred not to his body but to his soul. Both his parents had been unusually pious and John surpassed them. Members of his court were expected to restrict their conversation to serious subjects only. The food served at the emperor's table was very frugal and John lectured courtiers who lived in excessive luxury. Despite his austerity, John was loved. His principles were sincerely held and his integrity great. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... William of Tyre (c. ... For other uses, see moor. ...


John was famed for his piety and his remarkably mild and just reign. He is an exceptional example of a moral ruler, at a time when cruelty was the norm. He never condemned anyone to death or mutilation. Charity was dispensed lavishly. For this reason, he has been called the Byzantine Marcus Aurelius. By the personal purity and piety of his character he effected a notable improvement in the manners of his age. Gifted with great self control and personal courage, John was an excellent strategist and an expert imperator in the field, and through his many campaigns he devoted himself to the preservation of his empire. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Rome, April 26, 121[2] – Vindobona or Sirmium, March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180 . ...

Contents

Succession

He succeeded his father in 1118, but had already been proclaimed co-emperor by Alexios I on September 1, 1092. Niketas Choniates alone tells of the actions by which John II secured his own succession. Alexios I had favoured John to succeed him over his wife Irene's favourite, the kaisar (Caesar) Nikephoros Brynennios, who was married to their daughter Anna Komnene. Alexios resorted to dissimulation in order to avert Irene's criticism of his choice and her demands that Nikephoros should succeed. As Alexios lay on his deathbed in the monastery of the Mangana on 15 August 1118, John, consorting with relatives whom he could trust, among whom was his brother, the sebastokratōr Isaac Komnenos, stole into the monastery and removed the imperial signet ring from his dying father. Then, taking up arms, he rode to the Great Palace, gathering the support of the citizenry who acclaimed him emperor. Irene was taken by surprise and was unable either to persuade her son to desist, or to induce Nikephoros to act against him. Although the palace guard at first refused to admit John without proof of his father's wishes, the mob surrounding the new emperor simply forced entry. is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - Lincoln Cathedral is consecrated. ... Nicetas Choniates (c. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... Nicephorus Bryennius (1062-1137), Byzantine soldier, statesman and historian, was born at Orestias (Adrianople). ... Anna Komnene or Comnena (Greek: Άννα Κομνηνή, Anna KomnÄ“nÄ“), (December 1, 1083 – 1153). ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Painting of Emperor Basil II, exemplifying the Imperial Crown handed down by Angels. ... Isaakios Comnenus (after 16 January 1093 – after 1152) was the third son of Alexius I Comnenus and Irene Ducaena. ...


Alexios died the following night. John refused to join the funeral procession, in spite of his mother's urging, because his hold on power was so tenuous. However, in the space of a few days, his position was secure. In 1119, John II uncovered a conspiracy to overthrow him which implicated his mother and sister, who were duly relegated to monasteries. To safeguard his own succession, John crowned his own young son Alexios co-emperor in 1122. Events February 2 - Callixtus II becomes Pope August 20 - Henry I of England routes Louis VI at the Battle of Bremule. ... Events Resolution of Investiture Controversy in the Concordat of Worms Pierre Abélard writes Sic et Non Births Ben Lancaster, Gradutate, Dynamite dancer. ...


John's government

These political intrigues probably contributed to John's style of rule, which was to appoint men from outside the imperial family to help him govern the empire. John's closest advisor was his closest friend, John Axuch, a Turk who had been given as a gift to John's father. Alexios had thought him a good companion for John, and so he had been brought up alongside John, who immediately appointed him as Grand Domestic upon his accession. The Grand Domestic was the commander in chief of the Byzantine armies. This was an extraordinary move, and a departure from the nepotism that had characterised the reign of his father Alexios. The imperial family harboured some degree of resentment at this decision, which was reinforced by the fact that they were required to make obeisance to John Axouch whenever they met him. Yet the emperor had complete confidence in his appointees, many of whom had been chosen on merit rather than their relation to him by blood. John's unwillingness to allow his family to interfere too much in his government was to remain constant for the rest of his reign. John Axuch was the Commander-in-Chief of the Byzantine armies during the early part of the reign of Empoeror John II Comnenus. ... A salute is a gesture or other action used to indicate respect. ...


Reign

Conflict with Venice

After his accession, John II had refused to confirm his father's 1082 treaty with the Republic of Venice, which had given the Italian republic unique and generous trading rights within the Byzantine Empire. Yet the change in policy was not motivated by financial concerns. An incident involving the abuse of a member of the imperial family by Venetians led to a dangerous conflict, especially as Byzantium had depended on Venice for its naval strength. After a Byzantine retaliatory attack on Kerkyra, John exiled the Venetian merchants from Constantinople. But this produced further retaliation, and a Venetian fleet of 72 ships plundered the Aegean Islands and captured Kefalonia in the Ionian Sea. Eventually John was forced to come to terms; the war was costing him more than it was worth, and he was not prepared to transfer funds from the imperial land forces to the navy for the construction of new ships. John re-confirmed the treaty of 1082. Nevertheless, this embarrassment was not entirely forgotten, and it seems likely that it played a part in inspiring John's successor (Manuel I Komnenos) to re-establish a powerful Byzantine fleet some years later. Events England - The Rochester Cathedral was completed Europe - The German Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor besieges Rome and gains entry, a synod is agreed upon by the Romans to rule on the dispute between Henry and Pope Gregory VII Styria - Ottokar II succeeds his brother Adalbero (died 1086 or 1087... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Pontikonisi island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kefalonia, also known as Cephallenia, Cephallonia, Kefallinia, or Kefallonia (Ancient Greek: Κεφαλληνία; Modern Greek: Κεφαλλονιά or Κεφαλονιά), is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece with an area of 350 sq. ... The Ionian Sea. ... For the eldest son of Andronikos I Komnenos and father of Alexios I of Trebizond, see Manuel Komnenos (born 1145). ...

Piroska, or St. Eirene from a mosaic in Hagia Sofia.

Download high resolution version (615x740, 237 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: John II Comnenus Categories: Author died more than 100 years ago public domain images ... Download high resolution version (615x740, 237 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: John II Comnenus Categories: Author died more than 100 years ago public domain images ... Hagia Sofia, Istanbul, Turkey, June 1994 The Church of the Holy Wisdom, variously known as Hagia Sophia (Άγια Σοφία) in Greek, Sancta Sophia in Latin or Ayasofya in Turkish, is a former Christian church, now a museum, in Istanbul, formerly Constantinople. ...

Successes against the Pechenegs and Hungarians

In 11191121 John defeated the Seljuk Turks, establishing his control over southwestern Anatolia. However, immediately afterwards, in 1122, John quickly transferred his troops to Europe to fight off a Pecheneg invasion into Moesia. These invaders had been auxiliaries of the Prince of Kiev. John surrounded the Pechenegs as they burst into Thrace, tricked them into believing that he would grant them a favourable treaty, and then launched a devastating surprise attack upon their larger camp. The ensuing Battle of Beroia was hard fought, but by the end of the day John's forces had won a crushing victory. This put an end to Pecheneg incursions into Byzantine territory, and many of the captives were settled as foederati within the Byzantine frontier. Events February 2 - Callixtus II becomes Pope August 20 - Henry I of England routes Louis VI at the Battle of Bremule. ... Events Concordat of Worms condemns Pierre Abélards writings on the Holy Trinity. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Events Resolution of Investiture Controversy in the Concordat of Worms Pierre Abélard writes Sic et Non Births Ben Lancaster, Gradutate, Dynamite dancer. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: BesenyÅ‘, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Combatants Byzantines Pechenegs Commanders John II Komnenos Strength 20,000 men 30,000 men The Battle of Beroia (modern Stara Zagora) was fought between the Pechenegs and Emperor John II Komnenos of the Byzantine Empire in the year 1122 in what is now Bulgaria, and resulted in the disappearance of... Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ...


John then launched a punitive raid against the Serbs, many of whom were rounded up and transported to Nicomedia in Asia Minor to serve as military colonists. This was done partly to cow the Serbs into submission (Serbia was, at least nominally, a Byzantine protectorate), and partly to strengthen the Byzantine frontier in the east against the Turks. However, John's marriage to the Hungarian princess Piroska involved him in the dynastic struggles of the Kingdom of Hungary. Giving asylum to a blinded claimant to the Hungarian throne (called Álmos), John aroused the suspicion of the Hungarians, and was faced with an invasion in 1128. The Hungarians attacked Braničevo on the Danube, and penetrated south as far as the outskirts of Philippopolis. After a challenging campaign lasting two years, the emperor managed to defeat the Hungarians and their Serbian allies, and peace was restored. Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [28] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Nicomedia (modern Ä°zmit, also known as Iznik) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis) in 264 BC. The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... Piroska of Hungary (1088 - 13 August 1134) was a daughter of Ladislaus I of Hungary and Adelaide of Swabia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Braničevo District within Central Serbia The Branicevo District (Braničevski okrug, Браничевски округ) expands in the north-east of Serbia. ... Ancient Theater, Plovdiv International Fair, Plovdiv Plovdiv is a city in Bulgaria and the capital of the Plovdiv Oblast (district). ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to...


Campaigns against the Turks

John was then able to concentrate on Asia Minor, which became the focus of his attention for most of his remaining years. The Turks were pressing forward against the Byzantine frontier in western Asia Minor, and John was determined to drive them back. He undertook a campaign against the Danishmendid emirate in Malatya on the upper Euphrates from 1130 to 1135. Thanks to John's energetic campaigning, Turkish attempts at expansion in Asia Minor were halted, and John prepared to take the fight to the enemy. In order to restore the region to Byzantine control, John led a series of well planned and executed campaigns against the Turks, one of which resulted in the reconquest of the ancestral home of the Komneni at Kastamonu, then he left a garrison of 2,000 men at Gangra. John quickly earned a formidable reputation as a wall-breaker, taking stronghold after stronghold from his enemies. Regions which had been lost to the empire ever since the Battle of Manzikert were recovered and garrisoned. Yet resistance, particularly from the Danishmends of the north-east, was strong, and the difficult nature of holding down the new conquests is illustrated by the fact that Kastamonu was recaptured by the Turks even as John was in Constantinople celebrating its return to Byzantine rule. John persevered, however, and Kastamonu soon changed hands once more. John advanced into north eastern Anatolia, provoking the Turks to attack his army. Yet once again John's forces were able to maintain their cohesion, and the Turkish attempt to inflict a second Manzikert on the emperor's army backfired when the Sultan, discredited by his failure to defeat John, was murdered by his own people. The Danishmend dynasty was a Turcoman dynasty ruling in eastern Anatolia in the 11th and 12th centuries. ... Malatia can also be a misspelling of the medical term Malacia. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... Events February 13 - Innocent II is elected pope An antipope schism occurs when Roger II of Sicily supports Anacletus II as pope instead of Innocent II. Innocent flees to France and Anacletus crowns Roger King. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Kastamonu (Greek: Κασταμόνου) is the capital district of the Kastamonu Province, Turkey. ... Çankiri (correct Turkish spelling Çankırı) is a town in Turkey, in Çankırı Province, about 140 km northeast of Ankara. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic forces...


Campaigns in the Holy Land

The emperor then directed his attention to the Levant, where he sought to re-inforce Byzantium's suzerainty over the Crusader States. In 1137 he conquered Tarsus, Adana, and Mopsuestia from the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, and in 1138 the country's ruler and most of his family were brought as captives to Constantinople. This opened the route to the Principality of Antioch, where Prince Raymond of Poitiers recognized himself the emperor's vassal in 1137, and John arrived there in triumph in 1138. There followed a joint campaign as John led the armies of Byzantium, Antioch and Edessa against Muslim Syria. Although John fought hard for the Christian cause in the campaign in Syria, his allies Prince Raymond of Antioch and Count Joscelin II of Edessa sat around playing dice instead of helping John to press the siege of Shaizar. These Crusader Princes were suspicious of each other and of John, and neither wanted the other to gain from participating in the campaign, while Raymond also wanted to hold on to Antioch, which he had agreed to hand over to John if the campaign was successful in capturing Aleppo, Shaizar, Homs, and Hama. While the emperor was distracted by his attempts to secure a German alliance against the Normans of Sicily, Joscelin and Raymond conspired to delay the promised handover of Antioch's citadel to the emperor. The Crusader states, c. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... In tetrapods, the tarsi are the cluster of bones in the foot between the tibia and fibula and the metatarsus. ... Adana (Turkish: , Greek: ) (the ancient Antioch in Cilicia or Antioch on the Sarus) is the capital of Adana Province in Turkey. ... Mopsuestia is an ancient city of Cilicia. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Events Robert Warelwast becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Leo I of Armenia (died February 14, 1140) was Lord of the Mountains 1129–1140. ... The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... Raymond of Poitiers (c. ... The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). ... Joscelin II of Edessa (died 1159) was the fourth and last ruling count of Edessa. ... Shaizar or Shayzar was a medieval town and fortress in Syria, ruled by the Banu Munqidh dynasty, which played an important part in the Christian and Muslim politics of the crusades. ... Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: , ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... Shaizar or Shayzar was a medieval town and fortress in Syria, ruled by the Banu Munqidh dynasty, which played an important part in the Christian and Muslim politics of the crusades. ... Homs (Arabic: , transliteration: ) is a western city in Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate. ... The Orontes River and norias in Hama Location of the governorate of Hama Hama (Arabic: حماه, meaning fortress) is a city on the banks of the Orontes river in central Syria. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


Premature death

John planned a new expedition to the East, including a pilgrimage to Jerusalem on which he planned to take his army with him. However, on Mount Taurus in Cilicia, on April 8, 1143, he was accidentally infected by a poisoned arrow while out hunting. The poison set in, and shortly afterwards he died. John's final action as emperor was to choose his youngest son Manuel Komnenos to be his successor. John cited two main reasons for choosing Manuel over his older surviving son Isaac Komnenos: these were Isaac's irascibility, and the courage that Manuel had shown on campaign at Neocaesareia. Another theory alleges that the reason for this choice was the AIMA prophecy which foretold that John's successor should be one whose name began with an "M". John's eldest son, the co-emperor Alexios, had died in the summer of 1142. The Taurus Mountains or simply the Taurus, (Turkish Toros, also known as Ala-Dagh or Bulghar-Dagh) are a mountain range, forming the rugged southeastern rim of the Anatolian plateau, from which the Euphrates River descends into Syria. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Manuel I Comnenus becomes Byzantine Emperor. ... Manuel I Comnenus (Greek: Μανουήλ Α ο Κομνηνός; November 28, 1118 – September 24, 1180), was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean. ... Niksar, formerly Cabeira or Cabira, Diospolis, Adrianopolis or Hadrianopolis, Neocaesarea or Neocaesareia, and Sebaste, is one of the major suburbs of Tokat Province, in central-eastern Turkey. ... The AIMA prophecy was a prophecy current during the reign of the Byzantine emperor, Manuel I Comnenus. ...


John's achievement

The Byzantine empire under John II Komnenos, c. 1143.
The Byzantine empire under John II Komnenos, c. 1143.

Historian J. Birkenmeier has recently argued that John's reign was the most successful of the Komnenian period. In The development of the Komnenian army 1081-1180, he stresses the wisdom of John's approach to warfare, which focused on siege warfare rather than risky pitched battles. Birkenmeier argues that John's strategy of launching annual campaigns with limited, realistic objectives was a more sensible one than that followed by his son Manuel I. According to this view, John's campaigns benefited the Byzantine Empire because they protected the empire's heartland from attack while gradually extending its territory in Asia Minor. The Turks were forced onto the defensive, while John kept his diplomatic situation relatively simple by allying with the Western Emperor against the Normans of Sicily. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (801x370, 22 KB) This image is based on Image:Byzantium@1180. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (801x370, 22 KB) This image is based on Image:Byzantium@1180. ... For the eldest son of Andronikos I Komnenos and father of Alexios I of Trebizond, see Manuel Komnenos (born 1145). ...


Overall, what is clear is that John II Komnenos left the empire a great deal better off than he had found it. Substantial territories had been recovered, and his successes against the invading Pechenegs, Serbians and Seljuk Turks, along with his attempts to establish Byzantine suzerainty over the Crusader States in Antioch and Edessa, did much to restore the reputation of his empire. His careful, methodical approach to warfare had protected the empire from the risk of sudden defeats, while his determination and skill had allowed him to rack up a long list of successful sieges and assaults against enemy strongholds. By the time of his death he had earned near universal respect, even from the Crusaders, for his courage, dedication and piety. His early death meant his work went unfinished — his last campaign might well have resulted in real gains for Byzantium and the Christian cause. The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). ...


Family

John II Komnenos married Piroska of Hungary (renamed Eirene), a daughter of King Ladislaus I of Hungary in 1104; the marriage was intended as compensation for the loss of some territories to King Coloman of Hungary. She played little part in government, devoting herself to piety and their large brood of children. Eirene died on August 13, 1134 and was later venerated as Saint Eirene. John II and Eirene had 8 children: Piroska of Hungary (1088 - 13 August 1134) was a daughter of Ladislaus I of Hungary and Adelaide of Swabia. ... For other monarchs with similar names, please see Ladislaus I (disambiguation). ... Events September 3 - St. ... Coloman (Hungarian: Könyves Kálmán, Slovak and Croatian: Koloman) (1070 – February 3, 1116) was King of Hungary from 1095 to 1116. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Baalbeck taken by Genghis Khan House of Brandenburg begins when Albrecht the Bear is made head of the Nordmark St. ...

  1. Alexios Komnenos, co-emperor from 1122 to 1142
  2. Maria Komnene (twin to Alexios), who married John Roger Dalassenos
  3. Andronikos Komnenos (died 1142)
  4. Anna Komnene, married Stephanos Kontostephanos
  5. Isaac Komnenos (died 1154)
  6. Theodora Komnene, who married Manuel Anemas
  7. Eudokia Komnene, who married Theodoros Vatazes
  8. Manuel I Komnenos (died 1180)

Isaac Komnenos or Comnenus (Greek: Ισαάκιος Κομνηνός, Isaakios Komnēnos), (c. ... For the eldest son of Andronikos I Komnenos and father of Alexios I of Trebizond, see Manuel Komnenos (born 1145). ...

Sources

  • John Julius Norwich, A short history of Byzantium, Penguin, 1998.
  • Michael Angold, The Byzantine Empire 1025-1204, a political history, Longman, 1997 (Second Edition)
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991.
  • Paul Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos 1143–1180, Cambridge University Press, 1993.
  • K. Varzos, Ē genealogia tōn Komnēnōn, Thessalonikē, 1984.

Michael Angold is Professor Emeritus of Byzantine History and Honorary Fellow in the University of Edinburgh. ... Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (often abbreviated to ODB) is a three volume book by the Oxford University Press. ...

See also

  • The Komnenian army
  • John II Comnenus' Hungarian campaigns
  • An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors
John II Komnenos
Komnenid dynasty
Born: 13 September 1087 Died: 8 April 1143
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Alexios I Komnenos
Byzantine Emperor
1118–1143
Succeeded by
Manuel I Komnenos


 
 

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