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Encyclopedia > John I Tzimisces
Ioannes, protected by God and the Virgin Mary.
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Ioannes, protected by God and the Virgin Mary.

John I, last name Kourkouas and surnamed Zimisces (Greek: Ioannes "Tzimisces" Kourkouas, Iωάννης «Τζιμισκής» Κουρκούας) (c. 925 – January 10, 976) was East Roman Emperor from December 11, 969 to January 10, 976. John I Tzimisces AV Histamenon Nomisma. ... John I Tzimisces AV Histamenon Nomisma. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 10 - Basil II becomes Eastern Roman Emperor, see Byzantine Emperors. ... Roman Emperor is the term historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events December 11 - John I becomes Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 10 - Basil II becomes Eastern Roman Emperor, see Byzantine Emperors. ...

Contents


Background

John's surname was derived either from the Armenian tshemshkik, meaning "red boot", or from an Armenian word for "short stature". He was born c. 925 to a father belonging to the Kourkouas family and to a mother belonging to the Phocas family. Both were distinguished Cappadocian families of Armenian origin, and among the most prominent of the emerging military aristocracy of Asia Minor. Several of their members had served as prominent army generals, including the brother of John's mother, Nicephorus Phocas. Cappadocia in 188 BC In ancient geography, Cappadocia (spelled Kapadokya in Turkish) (Greek: Καππαδοκία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was an extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Emperor Nicephoros Phocas Nicephorus II Phocas was one of the most brilliant generals in the history of Byzantium who rose to become a mediocre emperor from 963 until his assassination in 969. ...


Contemporary sources describe John as a rather short but well-built man, with reddish blonde hair and beard and blue eyes who was attractive to women. He seems to have joined the army at an early age, originally under the command of his maternal uncle Nicephorus. The latter is also considered his instructor in the art of war. Partly because of his familiar connections and partly because of his personal abilities, John quickly rose through the ranks. He was given the political and military command of the province of Armenia before he turned twenty-five years old.


Rise to the throne

At the time the Empire was at war with its eastern neighbor, the Abbasid Empire. Armenia served as the border between the two Empires. John managed to successfully defend his province. He and his troops joined the main part of the army, which was campaigning against the enemy under the command of Nicephorus. Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون Abbāsīyūn) was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs. ...

Svyatoslav I's meeting with Emperor John.
Svyatoslav I's meeting with Emperor John.

Nicephorus means "bearer of victory" and Phocas justified his name with a series of victories, moving the borders further east with the capture of about 60 border cities including Aleppo. By 962, the Abbasids had asked for a peace treaty with favorable terms for Byzantines, that secured the borders for some years. John distinguished himself during the war both at the side of his uncle and at leading parts of the army to battle under his personal command. He was rather popular with his troops and gained a reputation for taking the initiative during battles, turning their course. Image File history File links Lebedev_meeting. ... Image File history File links Lebedev_meeting. ... ... Old Town Aleppo viewed from the Citadel Aleppo is also the name of two townships in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Events February 2 - Pope John XII crowns Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor. ...


After helping his maternal uncle to obtain the throne as Nicephorus II and to restore the empire's eastern provinces, he was deprived of his command by an intrigue, upon which he retaliated by conspiring with Nicephorus' wife Theophano to assassinate him: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

The murder was protracted by insult and cruelty: and as soon as the head of Nicephorus was shown from the window, the tumult was hushed, and the Armenian was emperor of the East. On the day of his coronation, he was stopped on the threshold of St. Sophia, by the intrepid patriarch; who charged his conscience with the deed of treason and blood; and required, as a sign of repentance, that he should separate himself from his more criminal associate. This sally of apostolic zeal was not offensive to the prince, since he could neither love nor trust a woman who had repeatedly violated the most sacred obligations; and Theophano, instead of sharing his imperial fortune, was dismissed with ignominy from his bed and palace. In their last interview, she displayed a frantic and impotent rage; accused the ingratitude of her lover; assaulted, with words and blows, her son Basil, as he stood silent and submissive in the presence of a superior colleague; and avowed her own prostitution in proclaiming the illegitimacy of his birth. The public indignation was appeased by her exile, and the punishment of the meaner accomplices: the death of an unpopular prince was forgiven; and the guilt of Zimisces was forgotten in the splendour of his virtues. - Edward Gibbon. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of Eighteenth Century, was written by the British historian, Edward Gibbon. ...

Reign

Upon his coronation, John dispatched his brother-in-law Bardas Sklerus to subdue a rebellion by Bardas Phocas, who aspired to play the part of his uncle Nicephorus. John proceeded to justify his usurpation by the energy with which he repelled the foreign invaders of the empire. Bardas Skleros or Sklerus - (Vardas Skleros) was a Byzantine general of Armenian origin who led a wide-scale Asian rebellion against Emperor of Armenian origin Basil II in 976-979. ... Bardas Phocas - Vardas Phokas was an eminent Byzantine general of Armenian origine who took a conspicuous part in three revolts pro and contra the ruling Macedonian dynasty. ...


In a series of campaigns against the newly established Russian power (970-973) he drove the enemy out of Thrace, crossed Mt. Haemus and besieged the fortress of Dorystolon on the Danube. In several hard-fought battles he broke the strength of Svyatoslav I so completely that he left Tzimisces master of eastern Bulgaria and Dobruja. Events Major volcano eruption in Mashu Japan Devastating decade long famine begins in France Byzantine Emperor John I successfully defends the Eastern Roman Empire from massive barbarian invasion Construction completed on Al-Azhar mosque in Cairo, worlds oldest Islamic university Births Leif Ericson, Norse explorer Seyyed Razi, important Muslim... Events Edgar of England is crowned king by Saint Dunstan Births September 15 - Al_Biruni, mathematician († 1048) Abu al-Ala al-Maarri, poet Deaths May 7 - Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor Categories: 973 ... Thrace (Greek Θρᾴκη, ThrákÄ“, Bulgarian Тракия, Trakija, Turkish Trakya; Latin: Thracia or Threcia) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, northeastern Greece (Western Thrace), and European Turkey. ... In earlier times the Balkan mountains were known as the Haemus Mons. ... The Danube bend at Visegrád is a popular destination of tourists The Danube (German: Donau, Slovak: Dunaj, Hungarian: Duna, Slovenian: Donava, Croatian: Dunav, Serbian: Дунав/Dunav, Bulgarian: Дунав (Dunav), Romanian: Dunăre, Ukrainian: , Latin: Danuvius, Turkish: Tuna) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... ... Dobruja, or sometimes Dobrudja (Dobrogea in Romanian, Добруджа—transliterated Dobrudzha—in Bulgarian, Dobruca in Turkish), is the territory between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, including the Danube Delta, Romanian coast and the northernmost part of the Bulgarian coast. ...


He further secured his northern frontier by transplanting to Thrace some colonies of Paulicians whom he suspected of sympathising with their Saracen neighbours in the east. Bogomils was the name of a defunct Gnostic social-religious movement and doctrine which originated in Macedonia in X century at the time of Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969) as a reaction of the state and clerical oppression. ... The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ...


In 974 he turned against the Abbasid empire and easily recovered the inland parts of Syria and the middle reaches of the Euphrates. He died suddenly in 976 on his return from his second campaign against the Saracens. Events Antipope Boniface VII succeeds Pope Benedict VI. The Byzantine Empire retakes Syria including Aleppo from the Abbasids. ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, Kurdish: Fırat, Arabic: الفرات; Al-Furat, Old Persian: Ufrat, Syriac: ܦܪܘܬ/ܦܪܬ; Prâth/Frot, Turkish: Fırat, Assyrian Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu, Hebrew: פְּרָת) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (Beth Nahrain in Syriac), the other being the...


This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Preceded by:
Nicephorus II
Byzantine Emperor
969–976
Succeeded by:
Basil II

Emperor Nicephoros Phocas Nicephorus II Phocas was one of the most brilliant generals in the history of Byzantium who rose to become a mediocre emperor from 963 until his assassination in 969. ... This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ...

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John I Tzimisces

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John I Tzimisces - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (853 words)
John distinguished himself during the war both at the side of his uncle and at leading parts of the army to battle under his personal command.
After helping his maternal uncle to obtain the throne as Nicephorus II and to restore the empire's eastern provinces, he was deprived of his command by an intrigue, upon which he retaliated by conspiring with Nicephorus' wife Theophania to assassinate him.
Elected ruler in his stead, John proceeded to justify his usurpation by the energy with which he repelled the foreign invaders of the empire.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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