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Encyclopedia > John Howard Kyan

KYAN, JOHN HOWARD (1774-1850), Inventor of the 'kyanising' process for preserving wood, son of John Howard Kyan of Mount Howard and Ballymurtagh, co. Wicklow, was born in Dublin, Nov 27, 1774. His father was the owner of valuable copper mines in Wicklow (now worked by the Wicklow Copper Mines Company), and for some time at the end of the last century worked them himself. The son was educated to take part in the management of the mines, but soon after he entered the concern its fortunes declined, and in 1804 his father died almost penniless. All measures that are taken to ensure a long life of wood fall under the definition wood preservation (timber treatment). ...

For a time Kyan was employed at some vinegar works at Newcastle-on-Tyne, but subsequently removed to London, to Greaves's vinegar brewery in Old Street Road. The decay of the timber supports in his father's copper mines had already directed his attention to the question of preserving wood, and as early as 1812 he began experiments with a view to discovering a method of preventing the decay. Eventually he found that bichloride of mercury, or corrosive sublimate, as it is commonly called, gave the best results, and, without revealing the nature of the process, he submitted a block of oak impregnated with that substance to the admiralty in 1828. It was placed in the 'fungus pit' at Woolwich, where it remained for three years exposed to all the conditions favourable to decay. When taken out in 1831, it was found to be perfectly sound, and after further trials it still remained unaffected. Kyan patented his discovery in 1832 (Nos. 8263 and 6309), extending the application of the invention to the preservation of paper, canvas, cloth, cordage, etc. A further patent was granted in 1836 (No. 7001). Newcastle refers primarily to the following places Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia And also: Newcastle Brown Ale, aka Newky Brown/Broon Newcastle United F.C., English Premier League Soccer club Newcastle Knights, an Australian rugby league team Newcastle United Jets, an Australian soccer team Newcastle... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of the United Kingdom and the largest city of England (strangely, England has no constitutional existence within the United Kingdom, and therefore cannot be said to have a capital). ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Look up Mercury in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

The preservative action of a solution of bichloride of mercury was previously well known, and Kyan's process merely consisted in the submersion of timber or other materials in a tank containing a solution of corrosive sublimate in water. It was maintained by the inventor that permanent chemical combination took place between the mercurial salt and the woody fibre, but this was contested. The process attracted great attention. Faraday chose it as the subject of his inaugural lecture at the Royal Institution on 22 Feb. 1833, on his appointment as Fullerian professor of chemistry. Dr. Birkbeck gave a lecture upon it at the Society of Arts on 9 Dec. 1834, and in 1835 the admiralty published the report of a committee appointed by the board to inquire into the value of the new method. In 1836 Kyan sold his rights to the Anti-Dry Rot Company, an act of parliament being passed which authorised the raising of a capital of 250,000l. Tanks were constructed at Grosvenor Basin, Pimlico, at the Grand Surrey Canal Dock, Rotherhide, and at the City Road Basin. Great things were predicted of 'kyanising,' as the process then began to be called. A witty writer in 'Bently's Miscellany' for January 1837 told how the muses had adopted Kyan's improvement to preserve their favourite trees. At a dinner given to celebrate the success which attended the experiment, a song, which became popular, was first sung. The opening verse runs:

 Have you heard, have you heard Anti-dry Rot's the word? Wood will never wear out, thanks to Kyan, to Kyan! He dips in a tank any rafter or plank, And makes it immortal as Dian, as Dian! 

Among the early applications of the process was the kyanising of the palings round the Inner Circle, Regent's Park, which was carried out in 1835 as an advertisement, small brass plates being attached to the palings at intervals stating that the wood had been submitted to the new process. The plates soon disappeared, but the original palings still remain in good condition. The timber used in building the Oxford and Cambridge Club, British Museum, Royal College of Surgeons, Westminster: Bridewell, the new roof of the Temple Church, and the Ramsgate harbour works was also prepared by Kyan's process. When wooden railway sleepers became general (in place of the stone blocks used on the early lines), a very profitable business for Kyan's company was anticipated, and for a time these hopes were realised. But it became evident that iron fastenings could not be used in wood treated with corrosive sublimate, on account of the corrosive action, and it was said that the wood became brittle. The salt was somewhat expensive and Sir William Burnett's method of preserving timber by chloride of zinc, and afterwards the application of creosote for that purpose, proved severe competitors. Doubts began to be expressed as to the real efficiency of kyanising (see Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 11 Jan. 1853, pp. 206-243), and the process gradually ceased to be employed. Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... Shown within Cambridgeshire Geography Status: City (1951) Region: East of England Admin. ... The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2000 to become the Great Court, with a tessellated glass roof by Buro Happold and Foster and Partners surrounding the original Reading Room. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and are also called chlorides. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Atomic mass 65. ...

Besides the invention with which his name is associated, Kyan took out patents in 1833 (No. 6534) for propelling ships by a jet of water ejected at the stem, and in 1837 (No. 7460) for a method of obtaining ammoniacal salts from gas liquor. He was also the author of 'The Elements of Light and their Identity with those of Matter radiant or fixed,' 1838. He died on 5 Jan. 1850 at New York, where he was engaged on a plan for filtering the water supplied to that city by the Croton aqueduct. Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ...

[Faraday's Prevention of Dry Rot in Timber, a Lecture at the Royal Institution on 22 Feb. 1833; Birkbeck's Preservation of Timber by Kyan's Patent, a Lecture at the Society of Arts on 9 Dec. 1834; Report of Admiralty Committee on Kyan's Process (Parl, Paper No.367 of 1835); An Act to enable John Howard Kyan to assign certain Letters Patent, 6 Will. IV, cap. 26, 1836; Burke's Landed Gentry, 4th edit. 1868; art. 'Kyan's Process' in Architectural Publication Society's Dict. of Architecture.] R.B.P.

see also

All measures that are taken to ensure a long life of wood fall under the definition wood preservation (timber treatment). ...



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